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The Info List - Martin Luther King Jr





Campaigns

Montgomery bus boycott Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom Youth March for Integrated Schools Albany Movement Birmingham campaign Walk to Freedom March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom St. Augustine movement Selma to Montgomery marches Chicago
Chicago
Open Housing Movement March Against Fear Memphis sanitation strike Poor People's Campaign

Death and memorial

Assassination American federal holiday National memorial National Historical Park

v t e

Martin Luther King
King
Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968. He is best known for advancing civil rights through nonviolence and civil disobedience, tactics his Christian
Christian
beliefs and the nonviolent activism of Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
helped inspire. King
King
led the 1955 Montgomery bus boycott
Montgomery bus boycott
and in 1957 became the first president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC). With the SCLC, he led an unsuccessful 1962 struggle against segregation in Albany, Georgia, and helped organize the nonviolent 1963 protests in Birmingham, Alabama. He also helped organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech. On October 14, 1964, King
King
won the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
for combating racial inequality through nonviolent resistance.[1] In 1965, he helped organize the Selma to Montgomery marches. The following year, he and the SCLC took the movement north to Chicago
Chicago
to work on segregated housing. In his final years, he expanded his focus to include opposition towards poverty and the Vietnam War. He alienated many of his liberal allies with a 1967 speech titled "Beyond Vietnam". J. Edgar Hoover considered him a radical and made him an object of the FBI's COINTELPRO
COINTELPRO
from 1963 on. FBI agents investigated him for possible communist ties, recorded his extramarital liaisons and reported on them to government officials, and on one occasion mailed King
King
a threatening anonymous letter, which he interpreted as an attempt to make him commit suicide. In 1968, King
King
was planning a national occupation of Washington, D.C., to be called the Poor People's Campaign, when he was assassinated by James Earl Ray
James Earl Ray
on April 4 in Memphis, Tennessee; riots followed in many U.S. cities. He was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal. Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Day was established as a holiday in numerous cities and states beginning in 1971, and as a U.S. federal holiday in 1986. Hundreds of streets in the U.S. have been renamed in his honor, and a county in Washington State was also rededicated for him. The Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial on the National Mall
National Mall
in Washington, D.C., was dedicated in 2011.

Contents

1 Early life and education

1.1 Doctoral studies

2 Montgomery bus boycott, 1955 3 Southern Christian
Christian
Leadership Conference

3.1 Albany Movement 3.2 Birmingham campaign 3.3 St. Augustine, Florida 3.4 Selma, Alabama 3.5 New York City

4 March on Washington, 1963 5 Selma voting rights movement and "Bloody Sunday", 1965 6 Chicago
Chicago
open housing movement, 1966 7 Opposition to the Vietnam War 8 Poor People's Campaign, 1968

8.1 After King's death

9 Assassination
Assassination
and aftermath

9.1 Aftermath 9.2 Allegations of conspiracy

10 Legacy

10.1 Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Day 10.2 Liturgical commemorations 10.3 UK legacy and The Martin Luther King
King
Peace Committee

11 Ideas, influences, and political stances

11.1 Religion 11.2 Nonviolence 11.3 Politics 11.4 Compensation 11.5 Family planning

12 FBI and King's personal life

12.1 FBI surveillance and wiretapping 12.2 NSA monitoring of King's communications 12.3 Allegations of communism 12.4 CIA surveillance 12.5 Adultery 12.6 Police observation during the assassination

13 Awards and recognition

13.1 Five-dollar bill

14 Works 15 See also 16 References

16.1 Notes 16.2 Citations 16.3 Sources 16.4 Further reading

17 External links

Early life and education

The high school that King
King
attended was named after African-American educator Booker T. Washington.

King
King
was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia, to the Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr.
Martin Luther King, Sr.
and Alberta Williams King.[2] King's legal name at birth was Michael King, and his father was also born Michael King, but the elder King
King
changed both his and his son's names around 1934.[3][4] The elder King
King
would later state that "Michael" was a mistake by the attending physician to his son's birth,[5] and the younger King's birth certificate was altered to read "Martin Luther King
King
Jr." in 1957.[6] King's parents were both African-American, and he also had Irish ancestry through his paternal great-grandfather.[7][8][9] King
King
was a middle child, between older sister Christine King
King
Farris and younger brother A.D. King.[10] King
King
sang with his church choir at the 1939 Atlanta
Atlanta
premiere of the movie Gone with the Wind,[11] and he enjoyed singing and music. His mother was an accomplished organist and choir leader who took him to various churches to sing, and he received attention for singing "I Want to Be More and More Like Jesus". King later became a member of the junior choir in his church.[12] King
King
said that his father regularly whipped him until he was fifteen; a neighbor reported hearing the elder King
King
telling his son "he would make something of him even if he had to beat him to death." King
King
saw his father's proud and fearless protests against segregation, such as King
King
Sr. refusing to listen to a traffic policeman after being referred to as "boy," or stalking out of a store with his son when being told by a shoe clerk that they would have to "move to the rear" of the store to be served.[13] When King
King
was a child, he befriended a white boy whose father owned a business near his family's home. When the boys were six, they started school: King
King
had to attend a school for African Americans and the other boy went to one for whites (public schools were among the facilities segregated by state law). King
King
lost his friend because the child's father no longer wanted the boys to play together.[14] King
King
suffered from depression throughout much of his life. In his adolescent years, he initially felt resentment against whites due to the "racial humiliation" that he, his family, and his neighbors often had to endure in the segregated South.[15] At the age of 12, shortly after his maternal grandmother died, King
King
blamed himself and jumped out of a second-story window, but survived.[16] King
King
was skeptical of many of Christianity's claims. At the age of 13, he denied the bodily resurrection of Jesus during Sunday school.[17] From this point, he stated, "doubts began to spring forth unrelentingly."[18][17] However, he later concluded that the Bible has "many profound truths which one cannot escape" and decided to enter the seminary.[17] Growing up in Atlanta, King
King
attended Booker T. Washington
Booker T. Washington
High School. He became known for his public speaking ability and was part of the school's debate team.[19] When King
King
was thirteen in 1942, he became the youngest assistant manager of a newspaper delivery station for the Atlanta
Atlanta
Journal.[20] During his junior year, he won first prize in an oratorical contest sponsored by the Negro Elks Club in Dublin, Georgia. On the ride home to Atlanta
Atlanta
by bus, he and his teacher were ordered by the driver to stand so that white passengers could sit down. King
King
initially refused but complied after his teacher told him that he would be breaking the law if he did not submit. During this incident, King
King
said that he was "the angriest I have ever been in my life."[19] An outstanding student, he skipped both the ninth and the twelfth grades of high school.[21] During King's junior year in high school, Morehouse College—a respected historically black college—announced that it would accept any high school juniors who could pass its entrance exam. At that time, many students had abandoned further studies to enlist in World War II. Due to this, Morehouse was eager to fill its classrooms. At the age of 15, King
King
passed the exam and entered Morehouse.[19] The summer before his last year at Morehouse, in 1947, the 18-year-old King
King
chose to enter the ministry. He had concluded that the church offered the most assuring way to answer "an inner urge to serve humanity." King's "inner urge" had begun developing, and he made peace with the Baptist Church, as he believed he would be a "rational" minister with sermons that were "a respectful force for ideas, even social protest."[22] In 1948, King
King
graduated at age 19 from Morehouse with a B.A. in sociology. He then enrolled in Crozer Theological Seminary
Crozer Theological Seminary
in Chester, Pennsylvania, from which he graduated with a B.Div. degree in 1951.[23][24] King's father fully supported his decision to continue his education. While attending Crozer, King
King
was joined by Walter McCall, a former classmate at Morehouse.[25] At Crozer, King
King
was elected president of the student body.[26] The African-American students of Crozer for the most part conducted their social activity on Edwards Street. King became fond of the street because a classmate had an aunt who prepared collard greens for them, which they both relished.[27] King
King
once reproved another student for keeping beer in his room, saying they had shared responsibility as African Americans to bear "the burdens of the Negro race." For a time, he was interested in Walter Rauschenbusch's "social gospel."[26] In his third year at Morehouse, King
King
became romantically involved with the white daughter of an immigrant German woman who worked as a cook in the cafeteria. The daughter had been involved with a professor prior to her relationship with King. King
King
planned to marry her, but friends advised against it, saying that an interracial marriage would provoke animosity from both blacks and whites, potentially damaging his chances of ever pastoring a church in the South. King
King
tearfully told a friend that he could not endure his mother's pain over the marriage and broke the relationship off six months later. He continued to have lingering feelings toward the women he left; one friend was quoted as saying, "He never recovered."[26] King
King
married Coretta Scott on June 18, 1953, on the lawn of her parents' house in her hometown of Heiberger, Alabama.[28] They became the parents of four children: Yolanda King
Yolanda King
(1955–2007), Martin Luther King
King
III (b. 1957), Dexter Scott King
Dexter Scott King
(b. 1961), and Bernice King
King
(b. 1963).[29] During their marriage, King
King
limited Coretta's role in the civil rights movement, expecting her to be a housewife and mother.[30] At age 25 in 1954, King
King
was called as pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama.[31] Doctoral studies See also: Martin Luther King
King
Jr. authorship issues King
King
began doctoral studies in systematic theology at Boston University and received his Ph.D. degree on June 5, 1955, with a dissertation (initially supervised by Edgar S. Brightman
Edgar S. Brightman
and, upon the latter's death, by Lotan Harold DeWolf) titled A Comparison of the Conceptions of God in the Thinking of Paul Tillich
Paul Tillich
and Henry Nelson Wieman.[32] While pursuing doctoral studies, King
King
worked as an assistant minister at Boston's historic Twelfth Baptist Church with Rev. William Hunter Hester. Hester was an old friend of King's father, and was an important influence on King.[33] Decades later, an academic inquiry in October 1991 concluded that portions of his dissertation had been plagiarized and he had acted improperly. However, "[d]espite its finding, the committee said that 'no thought should be given to the revocation of Dr. King's doctoral degree,' an action that the panel said would serve no purpose."[32][5][34] The committee also found that the dissertation still "makes an intelligent contribution to scholarship." A letter is now attached to the copy of King's dissertation held in the university library, noting that numerous passages were included without the appropriate quotations and citations of sources.[35] Significant debate exists on how to interpret King's plagiarism.[36] Montgomery bus boycott, 1955 Main articles: Montgomery bus boycott
Montgomery bus boycott
and Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws
§ Public arena

Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
with King, 1955

In March 1955, Claudette Colvin—a fifteen-year-old black schoolgirl in Montgomery—refused to give up her bus seat to a white man in violation of Jim Crow laws, local laws in the Southern United States that enforced racial segregation. King
King
was on the committee from the Birmingham African-American community that looked into the case; E. D. Nixon and Clifford Durr
Clifford Durr
decided to wait for a better case to pursue because the incident involved a minor.[37] Nine months later on December 1, 1955, a similar incident occurred when Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus.[38] The two incidents led to the Montgomery bus boycott, which was urged and planned by Nixon and led by King.[39] The boycott lasted for 385 days,[40] and the situation became so tense that King's house was bombed.[41] King
King
was arrested during this campaign, which concluded with a United States
United States
District Court ruling in Browder v. Gayle that ended racial segregation on all Montgomery public buses.[42][43] King's role in the bus boycott transformed him into a national figure and the best-known spokesman of the civil rights movement.[44] Southern Christian
Christian
Leadership Conference In 1957, King, Ralph Abernathy, Fred Shuttlesworth, Joseph Lowery, and other civil rights activists founded the Southern Christian
Christian
Leadership Conference (SCLC). The group was created to harness the moral authority and organizing power of black churches to conduct nonviolent protests in the service of civil rights reform. The group was inspired by the crusades of evangelist Billy Graham, who befriended King
King
after he attended a 1957 Graham crusade in New York City.[45] King
King
led the SCLC until his death.[46] The SCLC's 1957 Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom was the first time King
King
addressed a national audience.[47] Other civil rights leaders involved in the SCLC with King
King
included: James Bevel, Allen Johnson, Curtis W. Harris, Walter E. Fauntroy, C. T. Vivian, Andrew Young, The Freedom Singers, Charles Evers, Cleveland Robinson, Randolph Blackwell, Annie Bell Robinson Devine, Charles Kenzie Steele, Alfred Daniel Williams King, Benjamin Hooks, Aaron Henry and Bayard Rustin.[48] On September 20, 1958, King
King
was signing copies of his book Stride Toward Freedom in Blumstein's department store in Harlem[49] when he narrowly escaped death. Izola Curry—a mentally ill black woman who thought that King
King
was conspiring against her with communists—stabbed him in the chest with a letter opener. King
King
underwent emergency surgery with three doctors: Aubre de Lambert Maynard, Emil Naclerio and John W. V. Cordice; he remained hospitalized for several weeks. Curry was later found mentally incompetent to stand trial.[50][51] In 1959, he published a short book called The Measure of A Man, which contained his sermons "What is Man?" and "The Dimensions of a Complete Life." The sermons argued for man's need for God's love and criticized the racial injustices of Western civilization.[52] Harry Wachtel joined King's legal advisor Clarence B. Jones in defending four ministers of the SCLC in the libel case New York Times Co. v. Sullivan; the case was litigated in reference to the newspaper advertisement "Heed Their Rising Voices". Wachtel founded a tax-exempt fund to cover the expenses of the suit and to assist the nonviolent civil rights movement through a more effective means of fundraising. This organization was named the "Gandhi Society for Human Rights." King
King
served as honorary president for the group. He was displeased with the pace that President Kennedy was using to address the issue of segregation. In 1962, King
King
and the Gandhi Society produced a document that called on the President to follow in the footsteps of Abraham Lincoln and issue an executive order to deliver a blow for civil rights as a kind of Second Emancipation Proclamation. Kennedy did not execute the order.[53]

Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
and Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
with civil rights leaders, June 22, 1963

The FBI was under written directive from Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy when it began tapping King's telephone line in the fall of 1963.[54] Kennedy was concerned that public allegations of communists in the SCLC would derail the administration's civil rights initiatives. He warned King
King
to discontinue these associations and later felt compelled to issue the written directive that authorized the FBI to wiretap King
King
and other SCLC leaders.[55] FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover feared the civil rights movement and investigated the allegations of communist infiltration. When no evidence emerged to support this, the FBI used the incidental details caught on tape over the next five years in attempts to force King
King
out of his leadership position, in the COINTELPRO
COINTELPRO
program.[56] King
King
believed that organized, nonviolent protest against the system of southern segregation known as Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws
would lead to extensive media coverage of the struggle for black equality and voting rights. Journalistic accounts and televised footage of the daily deprivation and indignities suffered by Southern blacks, and of segregationist violence and harassment of civil rights workers and marchers, produced a wave of sympathetic public opinion that convinced the majority of Americans that the civil rights movement was the most important issue in American politics in the early 1960s.[57][58] King
King
organized and led marches for blacks' right to vote, desegregation, labor rights, and other basic civil rights.[43] Most of these rights were successfully enacted into the law of the United States with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
and the 1965 Voting
Voting
Rights Act.[59][60] King
King
and the SCLC put into practice many of the principles of the Christian Left
Christian Left
and applied the tactics of nonviolent protest with great success by strategically choosing the method of protest and the places in which protests were carried out. There were often dramatic stand-offs with segregationist authorities, who sometimes turned violent.[61] King
King
was criticized by many groups during the course of his participation in the civil rights movement. This included opposition by more militant blacks such as Nation of Islam member Malcolm X.[62] Stokely Carmichael
Stokely Carmichael
was a separatist and disagreed with King's plea for racial integration because he considered it an insult to a uniquely African-American culture.[63] Omali Yeshitela
Omali Yeshitela
urged Africans to remember the history of violent European colonization and how power was not secured by Europeans through integration, but by violence and force.[64] Albany Movement Main article: Albany Movement The Albany Movement was a desegregation coalition formed in Albany, Georgia, in November 1961. In December, King
King
and the SCLC became involved. The movement mobilized thousands of citizens for a broad-front nonviolent attack on every aspect of segregation within the city and attracted nationwide attention. When King
King
first visited on December 15, 1961, he "had planned to stay a day or so and return home after giving counsel."[65] The following day he was swept up in a mass arrest of peaceful demonstrators, and he declined bail until the city made concessions. According to King, "that agreement was dishonored and violated by the city" after he left town.[65] King
King
returned in July 1962 and was given the option of forty-five days in jail or a $178 fine (equivalent to $1,400 in 2017); he chose jail. Three days into his sentence, Police Chief Laurie Pritchett discreetly arranged for King's fine to be paid and ordered his release. "We had witnessed persons being kicked off lunch counter stools ... ejected from churches ... and thrown into jail ... But for the first time, we witnessed being kicked out of jail."[66] It was later acknowledged by the King
King
Center that Billy Graham
Billy Graham
was the one who bailed King
King
out of jail during this time.[67] After nearly a year of intense activism with few tangible results, the movement began to deteriorate. King
King
requested a halt to all demonstrations and a "Day of Penance" to promote nonviolence and maintain the moral high ground. Divisions within the black community and the canny, low-key response by local government defeated efforts.[68] Though the Albany effort proved a key lesson in tactics for King
King
and the national civil rights movement,[69] the national media was highly critical of King's role in the defeat, and the SCLC's lack of results contributed to a growing gulf between the organization and the more radical SNCC. After Albany, King
King
sought to choose engagements for the SCLC in which he could control the circumstances, rather than entering into pre-existing situations.[70] Birmingham campaign Main article: Birmingham campaign

King
King
was arrested for protesting the treatment of blacks in Birmingham.

In April 1963, the SCLC began a campaign against racial segregation and economic injustice in Birmingham, Alabama. The campaign used nonviolent but intentionally confrontational tactics, developed in part by Rev. Wyatt Tee Walker. Black people in Birmingham, organizing with the SCLC, occupied public spaces with marches and sit-ins, openly violating laws that they considered unjust. King's intent was to provoke mass arrests and "create a situation so crisis-packed that it will inevitably open the door to negotiation."[71] However, the campaign's early volunteers did not succeed in shutting down the city, or in drawing media attention to the police's actions. Over the concerns of an uncertain King, SCLC strategist James Bevel
James Bevel
changed the course of the campaign by recruiting children and young adults to join in the demonstrations.[72] Newsweek
Newsweek
called this strategy a Children's Crusade.[73][74] During the protests, the Birmingham Police Department, led by Eugene "Bull" Connor, used high-pressure water jets and police dogs against protesters, including children. Footage of the police response was broadcast on national television news and dominated the nation's attention, shocking many white Americans and consolidating black Americans behind the movement.[75] Not all of the demonstrators were peaceful, despite the avowed intentions of the SCLC. In some cases, bystanders attacked the police, who responded with force. King
King
and the SCLC were criticized for putting children in harm's way. But the campaign was a success: Connor lost his job, the "Jim Crow" signs came down, and public places became more open to blacks. King's reputation improved immensely.[73] King
King
was arrested and jailed early in the campaign—his 13th arrest[76] out of 29.[77] From his cell, he composed the now-famous Letter from Birmingham Jail
Letter from Birmingham Jail
that responds to calls on the movement to pursue legal channels for social change. King
King
argues that the crisis of racism is too urgent, and the current system too entrenched: "We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed."[78] He points out that the Boston Tea Party, a celebrated act of rebellion in the American colonies, was illegal civil disobedience, and that, conversely, "everything Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
did in Germany was 'legal'."[78] King
King
also expresses his frustration with white moderates and clergymen too timid to oppose an unjust system:

I have almost reached the regrettable conclusion that the Negro's great stumbling block in his stride toward freedom is not the White Citizen's Councilor or the Ku Klux Klanner, but the white moderate, who is more devoted to "order" than to justice; who prefers a negative peace which is the absence of tension to a positive peace which is the presence of justice; who constantly says: "I agree with you in the goal you seek, but I cannot agree with your methods of direct action"; who paternalistic-ally believes he can set the timetable for another man's freedom; who lives by a mythical concept of time and who constantly advises the Negro to wait for a "more convenient season."[78]

St. Augustine, Florida Main article: St. Augustine movement In March 1964, King
King
and the SCLC joined forces with Robert Hayling's then-controversial movement in St. Augustine, Florida. Hayling's group had been affiliated with the NAACP
NAACP
but was forced out of the organization for advocating armed self-defense alongside nonviolent tactics. However, the pacifist SCLC accepted them.[79] King
King
and the SCLC worked to bring white Northern activists to St. Augustine, including a delegation of rabbis and the 72-year-old mother of the governor of Massachusetts, all of whom were arrested.[80][81] During June, the movement marched nightly through the city, "often facing counter demonstrations by the Klan, and provoking violence that garnered national media attention." Hundreds of the marchers were arrested and jailed. During the course of this movement, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed.[82] Selma, Alabama Main article: Selma to Montgomery marches In December 1964, King
King
and the SCLC joined forces with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Selma, Alabama, where the SNCC had been working on voter registration for several months.[83] A local judge issued an injunction that barred any gathering of three or more people affiliated with the SNCC, SCLC, DCVL, or any of 41 named civil rights leaders. This injunction temporarily halted civil rights activity until King
King
defied it by speaking at Brown Chapel on January 2, 1965.[84] During the 1965 march to Montgomery, Alabama, violence by state police and others against the peaceful marchers resulted in much publicity, which made Alabama's racism visible nationwide. New York City On February 6, 1964, King
King
delivered the inaugural speech of a lecture series initiated at the New School
New School
called "The American Race Crisis." No audio record of his speech has been found, but in August 2013, almost 50 years later, the school discovered an audiotape with 15 minutes of a question-and-answer session that followed King's address. In these remarks, King
King
referred to a conversation he had recently had with Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
in which he compared the sad condition of many African Americans to that of India's untouchables.[85] March on Washington, 1963 Main article: March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
(1963)

King, representing the SCLC, was among the leaders of the "Big Six" civil rights organizations who were instrumental in the organization of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which took place on August 28, 1963. The other leaders and organizations comprising the Big Six were Roy Wilkins
Roy Wilkins
from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Whitney Young, National Urban League; A. Philip Randolph, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; John Lewis, SNCC; and James L. Farmer Jr., of the Congress of Racial Equality.[86] Bayard Rustin's open homosexuality, support of democratic socialism, and his former ties to the Communist Party USA
Communist Party USA
caused many white and African-American leaders to demand King
King
distance himself from Rustin,[87] which King
King
agreed to do.[88] However, he did collaborate in the 1963 March on Washington, for which Rustin was the primary logistical and strategic organizer.[89][90] For King, this role was another which courted controversy, since he was one of the key figures who acceded to the wishes of United States
United States
President John F. Kennedy in changing the focus of the march.[91][92] Kennedy initially opposed the march outright, because he was concerned it would negatively impact the drive for passage of civil rights legislation. However, the organizers were firm that the march would proceed.[93] With the march going forward, the Kennedys decided it was important to work to ensure its success. President Kennedy was concerned the turnout would be less than 100,000. Therefore, he enlisted the aid of additional church leaders and Walter Reuther, president of the United Automobile Workers, to help mobilize demonstrators for the cause.[94]

King
King
gave his most famous speech, "I Have a Dream", before the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.

The march originally was conceived as an event to dramatize the desperate condition of blacks in the southern U.S. and an opportunity to place organizers' concerns and grievances squarely before the seat of power in the nation's capital. Organizers intended to denounce the federal government for its failure to safeguard the civil rights and physical safety of civil rights workers and blacks. However, the group acquiesced to presidential pressure and influence, and the event ultimately took on a far less strident tone.[95] As a result, some civil rights activists felt it presented an inaccurate, sanitized pageant of racial harmony; Malcolm X
Malcolm X
called it the "Farce on Washington", and the Nation of Islam forbade its members from attending the march.[95][96]

I Have a Dream

30-second sample from "I Have a Dream" speech by Martin Luther King Jr. at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
on August 28, 1963

Problems playing this file? See media help.

The march did, however, make specific demands: an end to racial segregation in public schools; meaningful civil rights legislation, including a law prohibiting racial discrimination in employment; protection of civil rights workers from police brutality; a $2 minimum wage for all workers (equivalent to $16 in 2017); and self-government for Washington, D.C., then governed by congressional committee.[97][98][99] Despite tensions, the march was a resounding success.[100] More than a quarter of a million people of diverse ethnicities attended the event, sprawling from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial
Lincoln Memorial
onto the National Mall
National Mall
and around the reflecting pool. At the time, it was the largest gathering of protesters in Washington, D.C.'s history.[100] King
King
delivered a 17-minute speech, later known as "I Have a Dream". In the speech's most famous passage—in which he departed from his prepared text, possibly at the prompting of Mahalia Jackson, who shouted behind him, "Tell them about the dream!"[101][102]—King said:[103]

I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: 'We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.' I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today. I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification; one day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today.

"I Have a Dream" came to be regarded as one of the finest speeches in the history of American oratory.[104] The March, and especially King's speech, helped put civil rights at the top of the agenda of reformers in the United States
United States
and facilitated passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.[105][106] The original typewritten copy of the speech, including King's handwritten notes on it, was discovered in 1984 to be in the hands of George Raveling, the first African-American basketball coach of the University of Iowa. In 1963, Raveling, then 26, was standing near the podium, and immediately after the oration, impulsively asked King
King
if he could have his copy of the speech. He got it.[107]

Selma voting rights movement and "Bloody Sunday", 1965 Main article: Selma to Montgomery marches

The civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, in 1965

Acting on James Bevel's call for a march from Selma to Montgomery, King, Bevel, and the SCLC, in partial collaboration with SNCC, attempted to organize the march to the state's capital. The first attempt to march on March 7, 1965, was aborted because of mob and police violence against the demonstrators. This day has become known as Bloody Sunday and was a major turning point in the effort to gain public support for the civil rights movement. It was the clearest demonstration up to that time of the dramatic potential of King's nonviolence strategy. King, however, was not present.[18] On March 5, King
King
met with officials in the Johnson Administration in order to request an injunction against any prosecution of the demonstrators. He did not attend the march due to church duties, but he later wrote, "If I had any idea that the state troopers would use the kind of brutality they did, I would have felt compelled to give up my church duties altogether to lead the line."[108] Footage of police brutality against the protesters was broadcast extensively and aroused national public outrage.[109] King
King
next attempted to organize a march for March 9. The SCLC petitioned for an injunction in federal court against the State of Alabama; this was denied and the judge issued an order blocking the march until after a hearing. Nonetheless, King
King
led marchers on March 9 to the Edmund Pettus Bridge
Edmund Pettus Bridge
in Selma, then held a short prayer session before turning the marchers around and asking them to disperse so as not to violate the court order. The unexpected ending of this second march aroused the surprise and anger of many within the local movement.[110] The march finally went ahead fully on March 25, 1965.[111][112] At the conclusion of the march on the steps of the state capitol, King
King
delivered a speech that became known as "How Long, Not Long." In it, King
King
stated that equal rights for African Americans could not be far away, "because the arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends toward justice."[a][113][114] Chicago
Chicago
open housing movement, 1966 Main article: Chicago
Chicago
Freedom Movement

King
King
stands behind President Johnson as he signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

In 1966, after several successes in the south, King, Bevel, and others in the civil rights organizations took the movement to the North, with Chicago
Chicago
as their first destination. King
King
and Ralph Abernathy, both from the middle class, moved into a building at 1550 S. Hamlin Avenue, in the slums of North Lawndale[115] on Chicago's West Side, as an educational experience and to demonstrate their support and empathy for the poor.[116] The SCLC formed a coalition with CCCO, Coordinating Council of Community Organizations, an organization founded by Albert Raby, and the combined organizations' efforts were fostered under the aegis of the Chicago
Chicago
Freedom Movement.[117] During that spring, several white couple/black couple tests of real estate offices uncovered racial steering: discriminatory processing of housing requests by couples who were exact matches in income, background, number of children, and other attributes.[118] Several larger marches were planned and executed: in Bogan, Belmont Cragin, Jefferson Park, Evergreen Park (a suburb southwest of Chicago), Gage Park, Marquette Park, and others.[117][119][120]

President Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
meeting with King
King
in the White House Cabinet Room, 1966

King
King
later stated and Abernathy wrote that the movement received a worse reception in Chicago
Chicago
than in the South. Marches, especially the one through Marquette Park on August 5, 1966, were met by thrown bottles and screaming throngs. Rioting seemed very possible.[121][122] King's beliefs militated against his staging a violent event, and he negotiated an agreement with Mayor Richard J. Daley
Richard J. Daley
to cancel a march in order to avoid the violence that he feared would result.[123] King was hit by a brick during one march but continued to lead marches in the face of personal danger.[124] When King
King
and his allies returned to the South, they left Jesse Jackson, a seminary student who had previously joined the movement in the South, in charge of their organization.[125] Jackson continued their struggle for civil rights by organizing the Operation Breadbasket movement that targeted chain stores that did not deal fairly with blacks.[126] A 1967 CIA document declassified in 2017 downplayed King's role in the "black militant situation" in Chicago, with a source stating that King “sought at least constructive, positive projects.”[127] Opposition to the Vietnam War See also: Opposition to United States
United States
involvement in the Vietnam War

External audio

You can listen to the speech, "Why I Am Opposed to the War in Vietnam", by Martin Luther King
King
here.

King
King
was long opposed to American involvement in the Vietnam War,[128] but at first avoided the topic in public speeches in order to avoid the interference with civil rights goals that criticism of President Johnson's policies might have created.[128] However, at the urging of SCLC's former Director of Direct Action and now the head of the Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, James Bevel,[129] King
King
eventually agreed to publicly oppose the war as opposition was growing among the American public.[128] During an April 4, 1967, appearance at the New York City
New York City
Riverside Church—exactly one year before his death— King
King
delivered a speech titled "Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence."[130] He spoke strongly against the U.S.'s role in the war, arguing that the U.S. was in Vietnam "to occupy it as an American colony"[131] and calling the U.S. government "the greatest purveyor of violence in the world today."[132] He also connected the war with economic injustice, arguing that the country needed serious moral change:

A true revolution of values will soon look uneasily on the glaring contrast of poverty and wealth. With righteous indignation, it will look across the seas and see individual capitalists of the West investing huge sums of money in Asia, Africa and South America, only to take the profits out with no concern for the social betterment of the countries, and say: "This is not just."[133]

King
King
also opposed the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
because it took money and resources that could have been spent on social welfare at home. The United States Congress was spending more and more on the military and less and less on anti-poverty programs at the same time. He summed up this aspect by saying, "A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death."[133] He stated that North Vietnam "did not begin to send in any large number of supplies or men until American forces had arrived in the tens of thousands",[134] and accused the U.S. of having killed a million Vietnamese, "mostly children."[135] King
King
also criticized American opposition to North Vietnam's land reforms.[136] King's opposition cost him significant support among white allies, including President Johnson, Billy Graham,[137] union leaders and powerful publishers.[138] "The press is being stacked against me", King
King
said,[139] complaining of what he described as a double standard that applauded his nonviolence at home, but deplored it when applied "toward little brown Vietnamese children."[140] Life magazine called the speech "demagogic slander that sounded like a script for Radio Hanoi",[133] and The Washington Post
The Washington Post
declared that King
King
had "diminished his usefulness to his cause, his country, his people."[140][141]

King
King
speaking to an anti-Vietnam war rally at the University of Minnesota in St. Paul, April 27, 1967

The "Beyond Vietnam" speech reflected King's evolving political advocacy in his later years, which paralleled the teachings of the progressive Highlander Research and Education Center, with which he was affiliated.[142][143] King
King
began to speak of the need for fundamental changes in the political and economic life of the nation, and more frequently expressed his opposition to the war and his desire to see a redistribution of resources to correct racial and economic injustice.[144] He guarded his language in public to avoid being linked to communism by his enemies, but in private he sometimes spoke of his support for democratic socialism.[145][146] In a 1952 letter to Coretta Scott, he said: "I imagine you already know that I am much more socialistic in my economic theory than capitalistic ..."[147] In one speech, he stated that "something is wrong with capitalism" and claimed, "There must be a better distribution of wealth, and maybe America must move toward a democratic socialism."[148] King
King
had read Marx while at Morehouse, but while he rejected "traditional capitalism", he also rejected communism because of its "materialistic interpretation of history" that denied religion, its "ethical relativism", and its "political totalitarianism."[149] King
King
also stated in "Beyond Vietnam" that "true compassion is more than flinging a coin to a beggar ... it comes to see that an edifice which produces beggars needs restructuring."[150] King
King
quoted a United States
United States
official who said that from Vietnam to Latin America, the country was "on the wrong side of a world revolution."[150] King condemned America's "alliance with the landed gentry of Latin America", and said that the U.S. should support "the shirtless and barefoot people" in the Third World
Third World
rather than suppressing their attempts at revolution.[150] King's stance on Vietnam encouraged Allard K. Lowenstein, William Sloane Coffin and Norman Thomas, with the support of anti-war Democrats, to attempt to persuade King
King
to run against President Johnson in the 1968 United States
United States
presidential election. King contemplated but ultimately decided against the proposal on the grounds that he felt uneasy with politics and considered himself better suited for his morally unambiguous role as an activist.[151] On April 15, 1967, King
King
participated and spoke at an anti-war march from Manhattan's Central Park to the United Nations. The march was organized by the Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam and initiated by its chairman, James Bevel. At the U.N. King also brought up issues of civil rights and the draft.

I have not urged a mechanical fusion of the civil rights and peace movements. There are people who have come to see the moral imperative of equality, but who cannot yet see the moral imperative of world brotherhood. I would like to see the fervor of the civil-rights movement imbued into the peace movement to instill it with greater strength. And I believe everyone has a duty to be in both the civil-rights and peace movements. But for those who presently choose but one, I would hope they will finally come to see the moral roots common to both.[152]

Seeing an opportunity to unite civil rights activists and anti-war activists,[129] Bevel convinced King
King
to become even more active in the anti-war effort.[129] Despite his growing public opposition towards the Vietnam War, King
King
was also not fond of the hippie culture which developed from the anti-war movement.[153] In his 1967 Massey Lecture, King
King
stated:

The importance of the hippies is not in their unconventional behavior, but in the fact that hundreds of thousands of young people, in turning to a flight from reality, are expressing a profoundly discrediting view on the society they emerge from.[153]

On January 13, 1968 (the day after President Johnson's State of the Union Address), King
King
called for a large march on Washington against "one of history's most cruel and senseless wars."[154][155]

We need to make clear in this political year, to congressmen on both sides of the aisle and to the president of the United States, that we will no longer tolerate, we will no longer vote for men who continue to see the killings of Vietnamese and Americans as the best way of advancing the goals of freedom and self-determination in Southeast Asia.[154][155]

Poor People's Campaign, 1968 Main article: Poor People's Campaign

A shantytown established in Washington, D. C. to protest economic conditions as a part of the Poor People's Campaign.

In 1968, King
King
and the SCLC organized the "Poor People's Campaign" to address issues of economic justice. King
King
traveled the country to assemble "a multiracial army of the poor" that would march on Washington to engage in nonviolent civil disobedience at the Capitol until Congress created an "economic bill of rights" for poor Americans.[156][157] The campaign was preceded by King's final book, Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? which laid out his view of how to address social issues and poverty. King
King
quoted from Henry George
Henry George
and George's book, Progress and Poverty, particularly in support of a guaranteed basic income.[158][159][160] The campaign culminated in a march on Washington, D.C., demanding economic aid to the poorest communities of the United States. King
King
and the SCLC called on the government to invest in rebuilding America's cities. He felt that Congress had shown "hostility to the poor" by spending "military funds with alacrity and generosity." He contrasted this with the situation faced by poor Americans, claiming that Congress had merely provided "poverty funds with miserliness."[157] His vision was for change that was more revolutionary than mere reform: he cited systematic flaws of "racism, poverty, militarism and materialism", and argued that "reconstruction of society itself is the real issue to be faced."[161] The Poor People's Campaign
Poor People's Campaign
was controversial even within the civil rights movement. Rustin resigned from the march, stating that the goals of the campaign were too broad, that its demands were unrealizable, and that he thought that these campaigns would accelerate the backlash and repression on the poor and the black.[162] After King's death The plan to set up a shantytown in Washington, D.C., was carried out soon after the April 4 assassination. Criticism of King's plan was subdued in the wake of his death, and the SCLC received an unprecedented wave of donations for the purpose of carrying it out. The campaign officially began in Memphis, on May 2, at the hotel where King
King
was murdered.[163] Thousands of demonstrators arrived on the National Mall
National Mall
and established a camp they called "Resurrection City." They stayed for six weeks.[164] Assassination
Assassination
and aftermath Main article: Assassination
Assassination
of Martin Luther King
King
Jr.

The Lorraine Motel, where King
King
was assassinated, is now the site of the National Civil Rights Museum.

I've Been to the Mountaintop

Final 30 seconds of "I've Been to the Mountaintop" speech by Martin Luther King
King
Jr.

Problems playing this file? See media help.

On March 29, 1968, King
King
went to Memphis, Tennessee, in support of the black sanitary public works employees, who were represented by AFSCME Local 1733. The workers had been on strike since March 12 for higher wages and better treatment. In one incident, black street repairmen received pay for two hours when they were sent home because of bad weather, but white employees were paid for the full day.[165][166][167] On April 3, King
King
addressed a rally and delivered his "I've Been to the Mountaintop" address at Mason Temple, the world headquarters of the Church of God in Christ. King's flight to Memphis had been delayed by a bomb threat against his plane.[168] In the prophetic peroration of the last speech of his life, in reference to the bomb threat, King said the following:

And then I got to Memphis. And some began to say the threats, or talk about the threats that were out. What would happen to me from some of our sick white brothers? Well, I don't know what will happen now. We've got some difficult days ahead. But it doesn't matter with me now. Because I've been to the mountaintop. And I don't mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. But I'm not concerned about that now. I just want to do God's will. And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I've looked over. And I've seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land. So I'm happy, tonight. I'm not worried about anything. I'm not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord.[169]

King
King
was booked in Room 306 at the Lorraine Motel
Lorraine Motel
(owned by Walter Bailey) in Memphis. Abernathy, who was present at the assassination, testified to the United States
United States
House Select Committee on Assassinations that King
King
and his entourage stayed at Room 306 so often that it was known as the "King-Abernathy suite."[170] According to Jesse Jackson, who was present, King's last words on the balcony before his assassination were spoken to musician Ben Branch, who was scheduled to perform that night at an event King
King
was attending: "Ben, make sure you play 'Take My Hand, Precious Lord' in the meeting tonight. Play it real pretty."[171] King
King
was fatally shot by James Earl Ray
James Earl Ray
at 6:01 p.m., April 4, 1968, as he stood on the motel's second-floor balcony. The bullet entered through his right cheek, smashing his jaw, then traveled down his spinal cord before lodging in his shoulder.[172][173] Abernathy heard the shot from inside the motel room and ran to the balcony to find King
King
on the floor.[174] Jackson stated after the shooting that he cradled King's head as King
King
lay on the balcony, but this account was disputed by other colleagues of King; Jackson later changed his statement to say that he had "reached out" for King.[175] After emergency chest surgery, King
King
died at St. Joseph's Hospital at 7:05 p.m.[176] According to biographer Taylor Branch, King's autopsy revealed that though only 39 years old, he "had the heart of a 60 year old", which Branch attributed to the stress of 13 years in the civil rights movement.[177] Aftermath Further information: King
King
assassination riots

King's friend Mahalia Jackson
Mahalia Jackson
(seen here in 1964) sang at his funeral.

The assassination led to a nationwide wave of race riots in Washington, D.C., Chicago, Baltimore, Louisville, Kansas City, and dozens of other cities.[178][179] Presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy was on his way to Indianapolis
Indianapolis
for a campaign rally when he was informed of King's death. He gave a short, improvised speech to the gathering of supporters informing them of the tragedy and urging them to continue King's ideal of nonviolence.[180] The following day, he delivered a prepared response in Cleveland.[181] James Farmer
James Farmer
Jr., and other civil rights leaders also called for non-violent action, while the more militant Stokely Carmichael
Stokely Carmichael
called for a more forceful response.[182] The city of Memphis quickly settled the strike on terms favorable to the sanitation workers.[183] President Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
declared April 7 a national day of mourning for the civil rights leader.[184] Vice President Hubert Humphrey attended King's funeral on behalf of the President, as there were fears that Johnson's presence might incite protests and perhaps violence.[185] At his widow's request, King's last sermon at Ebenezer Baptist Church was played at the funeral,[186] a recording of his "Drum Major" sermon, given on February 4, 1968. In that sermon, King made a request that at his funeral no mention of his awards and honors be made, but that it be said that he tried to "feed the hungry", "clothe the naked", "be right on the [Vietnam] war question", and "love and serve humanity."[187] His good friend Mahalia Jackson
Mahalia Jackson
sang his favorite hymn, "Take My Hand, Precious Lord", at the funeral.[188] Two months after King's death, James Earl Ray—who was on the loose from a previous prison escape—was captured at London Heathrow Airport while trying to leave England on a false Canadian passport. He was using the alias Ramon George Sneyd on his way to white-ruled Rhodesia.[189] Ray was quickly extradited to Tennessee and charged with King's murder. He confessed to the assassination on March 10, 1969, though he recanted this confession three days later.[190] On the advice of his attorney Percy Foreman, Ray pleaded guilty to avoid a trial conviction and thus the possibility of receiving the death penalty. He was sentenced to a 99-year prison term.[190][191] Ray later claimed a man he met in Montreal, Quebec, with the alias "Raoul" was involved and that the assassination was the result of a conspiracy.[192][193] He spent the remainder of his life attempting, unsuccessfully, to withdraw his guilty plea and secure the trial he never had.[191] Ray died in 1998 at age 70.[194] Allegations of conspiracy

The sarcophagus of Martin Luther King
King
and Coretta Scott King
Coretta Scott King
at the Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site
Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site
in Atlanta, Georgia

Ray's lawyers maintained he was a scapegoat similar to the way that John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
assassin Lee Harvey Oswald
Lee Harvey Oswald
is seen by conspiracy theorists.[195] Supporters of this assertion said that Ray's confession was given under pressure and that he had been threatened with the death penalty.[191][196] They admitted that Ray was a thief and burglar, but claimed that he had no record of committing violent crimes with a weapon.[193] However, prison records in different U.S. cities have shown that he was incarcerated on numerous occasions for charges of armed robbery.[197] In a 2008 interview with CNN, Jerry Ray, the younger brother of James Earl Ray, claimed that James was smart and was sometimes able to get away with armed robbery. Jerry Ray said that he had assisted his brother on one such robbery. "I never been with nobody as bold as he is," Jerry said. "He just walked in and put that gun on somebody, it was just like it's an everyday thing."[197] Those suspecting a conspiracy in the assassination point to the two successive ballistics tests which proved that a rifle similar to Ray's Remington Gamemaster had been the murder weapon. Those tests did not implicate Ray's specific rifle.[191][198] Witnesses near King
King
at the moment of his death said that the shot came from another location. They said that it came from behind thick shrubbery near the boarding house—which had been cut away in the days following the assassination—and not from the boarding house window.[199] However, Ray's fingerprints were found on various objects (a rifle, a pair of binoculars, articles of clothing, a newspaper) that were left in the bathroom where it was determined the gunfire came from.[197] An examination of the rifle containing Ray's fingerprints also determined that at least one shot was fired from the firearm at the time of the assassination.[197] In 1997, King's son Dexter Scott King
Dexter Scott King
met with Ray, and publicly supported Ray's efforts to obtain a new trial.[200] Two years later, King's widow Coretta Scott King
Coretta Scott King
and the couple's children won a wrongful death claim against Loyd Jowers
Loyd Jowers
and "other unknown co-conspirators." Jowers claimed to have received $100,000 to arrange King's assassination. The jury of six whites and six blacks found in favor of the King
King
family, finding Jowers to be complicit in a conspiracy against King
King
and that government agencies were party to the assassination.[201][202] William F. Pepper represented the King
King
family in the trial.[203] In 2000, the U.S. Department of Justice
U.S. Department of Justice
completed the investigation into Jowers' claims but did not find evidence to support allegations about conspiracy. The investigation report recommended no further investigation unless some new reliable facts are presented.[204] A sister of Jowers admitted that he had fabricated the story so he could make $300,000 from selling the story, and she in turn corroborated his story in order to get some money to pay her income tax.[205][206] In 2002, The New York Times
The New York Times
reported that a church minister, Rev. Ronald Denton Wilson, claimed his father, Henry Clay Wilson—not James Earl Ray—assassinated King. He stated, "It wasn't a racist thing; he thought Martin Luther King
King
was connected with communism, and he wanted to get him out of the way." Wilson provided no evidence to back up his claims.[207] King
King
researchers David Garrow and Gerald Posner
Gerald Posner
disagreed with William F. Pepper's claims that the government killed King.[208] In 2003, Pepper published a book about the long investigation and trial, as well as his representation of James Earl Ray
James Earl Ray
in his bid for a trial, laying out the evidence and criticizing other accounts.[209][210] King's friend and colleague, James Bevel, also disputed the argument that Ray acted alone, stating, "There is no way a ten-cent white boy could develop a plan to kill a million-dollar black man."[211] In 2004, Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
stated:

The fact is there were saboteurs to disrupt the march. And within our own organization, we found a very key person who was on the government payroll. So infiltration within, saboteurs from without and the press attacks. ... I will never believe that James Earl Ray
James Earl Ray
had the motive, the money and the mobility to have done it himself. Our government was very involved in setting the stage for and I think the escape route for James Earl Ray.[212]

Legacy

Martin Luther King
King
Jr. statue over the west entrance of Westminster Abbey, installed in 1998

King's main legacy was to secure progress on civil rights in the U.S. Just days after King's assassination, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1968.[213] Title VIII of the Act, commonly known as the Fair Housing Act, prohibited discrimination in housing and housing-related transactions on the basis of race, religion, or national origin (later expanded to include sex, familial status, and disability). This legislation was seen as a tribute to King's struggle in his final years to combat residential discrimination in the U.S.[213] Internationally, King's legacy includes influences on the Black Consciousness Movement and civil rights movement in South Africa.[214][215] King's work was cited by and served as an inspiration for South African leader Albert Lutuli, who fought for racial justice in his country and was later awarded the Nobel Prize.[216] The day following King's assassination, school teacher Jane Elliott conducted her first "Blue Eyes/Brown Eyes" exercise with her class of elementary school students in Riceville, Iowa. Her purpose was to help them understand King's death as it related to racism, something they little understood as they lived in a predominantly white community.[217] King
King
has become a national icon in the history of American liberalism and American progressivism.[218] King
King
also influenced Irish politician and activist John Hume. Hume, the former leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party, cited King's legacy as quintessential to the Northern Irish civil rights movement and the signing of the Good Friday Agreement, calling him "one of my great heroes of the century."[219][220][221] King's wife Coretta Scott King
Coretta Scott King
followed in her husband's footsteps and was active in matters of social justice and civil rights until her death in 2006. The same year that Martin Luther King
King
was assassinated, she established the King
King
Center in Atlanta, Georgia, dedicated to preserving his legacy and the work of championing nonviolent conflict resolution and tolerance worldwide.[222] Their son, Dexter King, serves as the center's chairman.[223][224] Daughter Yolanda King, who died in 2007, was a motivational speaker, author and founder of Higher Ground Productions, an organization specializing in diversity training.[225] Even within the King
King
family, members disagree about his religious and political views about gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people. King's widow Coretta publicly said that she believed her husband would have supported gay rights.[226] However, his youngest child, Bernice King, has said publicly that he would have been opposed to gay marriage.[227] On February 4, 1968, at the Ebenezer Baptist Church, in speaking about how he wished to be remembered after his death, King
King
stated:

I'd like somebody to mention that day that Martin Luther King
King
Jr. tried to give his life serving others. I'd like for somebody to say that day that Martin Luther King
King
Jr. tried to love somebody. I want you to say that day that I tried to be right on the war question. I want you to be able to say that day that I did try to feed the hungry. I want you to be able to say that day that I did try in my life to clothe those who were naked. I want you to say on that day that I did try in my life to visit those who were in prison. And I want you to say that I tried to love and serve humanity. Yes, if you want to say that I was a drum major. Say that I was a drum major for justice. Say that I was a drum major for peace. I was a drum major for righteousness. And all of the other shallow things will not matter. I won't have any money to leave behind. I won't have the fine and luxurious things of life to leave behind. But I just want to leave a committed life behind.[182][228]

Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Day Main article: Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Day Beginning in 1971, cities such as St. Louis, Missouri, and states established annual holidays to honor King.[229] At the White House Rose Garden on November 2, 1983, President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
signed a bill creating a federal holiday to honor King. Observed for the first time on January 20, 1986, it is called Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Day. Following President George H. W. Bush's 1992 proclamation, the holiday is observed on the third Monday of January each year, near the time of King's birthday.[230][231] On January 17, 2000, for the first time, Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Martin Luther King Jr. Day
was officially observed in all fifty U.S. states.[232] Arizona
Arizona
(1992), New Hampshire
New Hampshire
(1999) and Utah
Utah
(2000) were the last three states to recognize the holiday. Utah
Utah
previously celebrated the holiday at the same time but under the name Human Rights Day.[233] Liturgical commemorations King
King
is remembered as a martyr by the Episcopal Church in the United States of America with an annual feast day on the anniversary of his death, April 4.[234] The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America commemorates King
King
liturgically on the anniversary of his birth, January 15.[235] UK legacy and The Martin Luther King
King
Peace Committee

Banner at the 2012 Republican National Convention

In the United Kingdom, The Northumbria and Newcastle Universities Martin Luther King
King
Peace Committee[236] exists to honor King's legacy, as represented by his final visit to the UK to receive an honorary degree from Newcastle University in 1967.[237] The Peace Committee operates out of the chaplaincies of the city's two universities, Northumbria and Newcastle, both of which remain centres for the study of Martin Luther King
King
and the US civil rights movement. Inspired by King's vision, it undertakes a range of activities across the UK as it seeks to "build cultures of peace." In 2017, Newcastle University unveiled a bronze statue of King
King
to celebrate the 50th anniversary of his honorary doctorate ceremony.[238] The Students Union also voted to rename their bar 'Luthers'.[239] Ideas, influences, and political stances Religion

King
King
at the 1963 Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C.

As a Christian
Christian
minister, King's main influence was Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ
and the Christian
Christian
gospels, which he would almost always quote in his religious meetings, speeches at church, and in public discourses. King's faith was strongly based in Jesus' commandment of loving your neighbor as yourself, loving God above all, and loving your enemies, praying for them and blessing them. His nonviolent thought was also based in the injunction to turn the other cheek in the Sermon on the Mount, and Jesus' teaching of putting the sword back into its place (Matthew 26:52).[240] In his famous Letter from Birmingham Jail, King urged action consistent with what he describes as Jesus' "extremist" love, and also quoted numerous other Christian
Christian
pacifist authors, which was very usual for him. In another sermon, he stated:

Before I was a civil rights leader, I was a preacher of the Gospel. This was my first calling and it still remains my greatest commitment. You know, actually all that I do in civil rights I do because I consider it a part of my ministry. I have no other ambitions in life but to achieve excellence in the Christian
Christian
ministry. I don't plan to run for any political office. I don't plan to do anything but remain a preacher. And what I'm doing in this struggle, along with many others, grows out of my feeling that the preacher must be concerned about the whole man.[241][242]

In his speech "I've Been to the Mountaintop", he stated that he just wanted to do God's will. Nonviolence

King
King
worked alongside Quakers such as Bayard Rustin
Bayard Rustin
to develop non-violent tactics.

Veteran African-American civil rights activist Bayard Rustin
Bayard Rustin
was King's first regular advisor on nonviolence.[243] King
King
was also advised by the white activists Harris Wofford and Glenn Smiley.[244] Rustin and Smiley came from the Christian
Christian
pacifist tradition, and Wofford and Rustin both studied Gandhi's teachings. Rustin had applied nonviolence with the Journey of Reconciliation campaign in the 1940s,[245] and Wofford had been promoting Gandhism to Southern blacks since the early 1950s.[244] King
King
had initially known little about Gandhi and rarely used the term "nonviolence" during his early years of activism in the early 1950s. King
King
initially believed in and practiced self-defense, even obtaining guns in his household as a means of defense against possible attackers. The pacifists guided King by showing him the alternative of nonviolent resistance, arguing that this would be a better means to accomplish his goals of civil rights than self-defense. King
King
then vowed to no longer personally use arms.[246][247] In the aftermath of the boycott, King
King
wrote Stride Toward Freedom, which included the chapter Pilgrimage to Nonviolence. King
King
outlined his understanding of nonviolence, which seeks to win an opponent to friendship, rather than to humiliate or defeat him. The chapter draws from an address by Wofford, with Rustin and Stanley Levison also providing guidance and ghostwriting.[248] King
King
was inspired by Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
and his success with nonviolent activism, and as a theology student, King
King
described Gandhi as being one of the "individuals who greatly reveal the working of the Spirit of God".[249] King
King
had "for a long time ... wanted to take a trip to India."[250] With assistance from Harris Wofford, the American Friends Service Committee, and other supporters, he was able to fund the journey in April 1959.[251][252] The trip to India affected King, deepening his understanding of nonviolent resistance and his commitment to America's struggle for civil rights. In a radio address made during his final evening in India, King
King
reflected, "Since being in India, I am more convinced than ever before that the method of nonviolent resistance is the most potent weapon available to oppressed people in their struggle for justice and human dignity." King's admiration of Gandhi's nonviolence did not diminish in later years. He went so far as to hold up his example when receiving the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1964, hailing the "successful precedent" of using nonviolence "in a magnificent way by Mohandas K. Gandhi to challenge the might of the British Empire ... He struggled only with the weapons of truth, soul force, non-injury and courage."[253] Another influence for King's nonviolent method was Henry David Thoreau's essay On Civil Disobedience and its theme of refusing to cooperate with an evil system.[254] He also was greatly influenced by the works of Protestant theologians Reinhold Niebuhr
Reinhold Niebuhr
and Paul Tillich,[255] and said that Walter Rauschenbusch's Christianity
Christianity
and the Social Crisis left an "indelible imprint" on his thinking by giving him a theological grounding for his social concerns.[256][257] King
King
was moved by Rauschenbusch's vision of Christians spreading social unrest in "perpetual but friendly conflict" with the state, simultaneously critiquing it and calling it to act as an instrument of justice.[258] He was apparently unaware of the American tradition of Christian
Christian
pacifism exemplified by Adin Ballou
Adin Ballou
and William Lloyd Garrison[259] King
King
frequently referred to Jesus' Sermon on the Mount as central for his work.[260][261][262][257] King
King
also sometimes used the concept of "agape" (brotherly Christian
Christian
love).[263] However, after 1960, he ceased employing it in his writings.[264] Even after renouncing his personal use of guns, King
King
had a complex relationship with the phenomenon of self-defense in the movement. He publicly discouraged it as a widespread practice, but acknowledged that it was sometimes necessary.[265] Throughout his career King
King
was frequently protected by other civil rights activists who carried arms, such as Colonel Stone Johnson,[266] Robert Hayling, and the Deacons for Defense and Justice.[267][268] Politics As the leader of the SCLC, King
King
maintained a policy of not publicly endorsing a U.S. political party or candidate: "I feel someone must remain in the position of non-alignment, so that he can look objectively at both parties and be the conscience of both—not the servant or master of either."[269] In a 1958 interview, he expressed his view that neither party was perfect, saying, "I don't think the Republican party is a party full of the almighty God nor is the Democratic party. They both have weaknesses ... And I'm not inextricably bound to either party."[270] King
King
did praise Democratic Senator Paul Douglas
Paul Douglas
of Illinois as being the "greatest of all senators" because of his fierce advocacy for civil rights causes over the years.[271] King
King
critiqued both parties' performance on promoting racial equality:

Actually, the Negro has been betrayed by both the Republican and the Democratic party. The Democrats have betrayed him by capitulating to the whims and caprices of the Southern Dixiecrats. The Republicans have betrayed him by capitulating to the blatant hypocrisy of reactionary right wing northern Republicans. And this coalition of southern Dixiecrats and right wing reactionary northern Republicans defeats every bill and every move towards liberal legislation in the area of civil rights.[272]

Although King
King
never publicly supported a political party or candidate for president, in a letter to a civil rights supporter in October 1956 he said that he was undecided as to whether he would vote for Adlai Stevenson or Dwight Eisenhower, but that "In the past I always voted the Democratic ticket."[273] In his autobiography, King
King
says that in 1960 he privately voted for Democratic candidate John F. Kennedy: "I felt that Kennedy would make the best president. I never came out with an endorsement. My father did, but I never made one." King
King
adds that he likely would have made an exception to his non-endorsement policy for a second Kennedy term, saying "Had President Kennedy lived, I would probably have endorsed him in 1964."[274] In 1964, King
King
urged his supporters "and all people of goodwill" to vote against Republican Senator Barry Goldwater
Barry Goldwater
for president, saying that his election "would be a tragedy, and certainly suicidal almost, for the nation and the world."[275] King
King
supported the ideals of democratic socialism, although he was reluctant to speak directly of this support due to the anti-communist sentiment being projected throughout the United States at the time, and the association of socialism with communism. King believed that capitalism could not adequately provide the basic necessities of many American people, particularly the African-American community.[276] Compensation See also: Reparations for slavery debate in the United States King
King
stated that black Americans, as well as other disadvantaged Americans, should be compensated for historical wrongs. In an interview conducted for Playboy
Playboy
in 1965, he said that granting black Americans only equality could not realistically close the economic gap between them and whites. King
King
said that he did not seek a full restitution of wages lost to slavery, which he believed impossible, but proposed a government compensatory program of $50 billion over ten years to all disadvantaged groups.[277] He posited that "the money spent would be more than amply justified by the benefits that would accrue to the nation through a spectacular decline in school dropouts, family breakups, crime rates, illegitimacy, swollen relief rolls, rioting and other social evils."[278] He presented this idea as an application of the common law regarding settlement of unpaid labor, but clarified that he felt that the money should not be spent exclusively on blacks. He stated, "It should benefit the disadvantaged of all races."[279] Family planning On being awarded the Planned Parenthood
Planned Parenthood
Federation of America's Margaret Sanger
Margaret Sanger
Award on May 5, 1966, King
King
said:

Recently, the press has been filled with reports of sightings of flying saucers. While we need not give credence to these stories, they allow our imagination to speculate on how visitors from outer space would judge us. I am afraid they would be stupefied at our conduct. They would observe that for death planning we spend billions to create engines and strategies for war. They would also observe that we spend millions to prevent death by disease and other causes. Finally they would observe that we spend paltry sums for population planning, even though its spontaneous growth is an urgent threat to life on our planet. Our visitors from outer space could be forgiven if they reported home that our planet is inhabited by a race of insane men whose future is bleak and uncertain. There is no human circumstance more tragic than the persisting existence of a harmful condition for which a remedy is readily available. Family planning, to relate population to world resources, is possible, practical and necessary. Unlike plagues of the dark ages or contemporary diseases we do not yet understand, the modern plague of overpopulation is soluble by means we have discovered and with resources we possess. What is lacking is not sufficient knowledge of the solution but universal consciousness of the gravity of the problem and education of the billions who are its victims...[280][281]

FBI and King's personal life

Memo describing FBI attempts to disrupt the Poor People's Campaign with fraudulent claims about King‍—‌part of the COINTELPRO campaign against the anti-war and civil rights movements

FBI surveillance and wiretapping FBI director J. Edgar Hoover
J. Edgar Hoover
personally ordered surveillance of King, with the intent to undermine his power as a civil rights leader.[138][282] According to the Church Committee, a 1975 investigation by the U.S. Congress, "From December 1963 until his death in 1968, Martin Luther King
King
Jr. was the target of an intensive campaign by the Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal Bureau of Investigation
to 'neutralize' him as an effective civil rights leader."[283] In the fall of 1963, the FBI received authorization from Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
to proceed with wiretapping of King's phone lines.[284] The Bureau informed President John F. Kennedy; he and his brother unsuccessfully tried to persuade King
King
to dissociate himself from Stanley Levison, a New York lawyer who had been involved with Communist Party USA.[285][286] Although Robert Kennedy only gave written approval for limited wiretapping of King's telephone lines "on a trial basis, for a month or so",[287] Hoover extended the clearance so his men were "unshackled" to look for evidence in any areas of King's life they deemed worthy.[55] The Bureau placed wiretaps on the home and office phone lines of Levison and King, and bugged King's rooms in hotels as he traveled across the country.[285][288] In 1967, Hoover listed the SCLC as a black nationalist hate group, with the instructions: "No opportunity should be missed to exploit through counterintelligence techniques the organizational and personal conflicts of the leaderships of the groups ... to insure the targeted group is disrupted, ridiculed, or discredited."[282][289] NSA monitoring of King's communications In a secret operation code-named "Minaret", the National Security Agency (NSA) monitored the communications of leading Americans, including King, who criticized the U.S. war in Vietnam.[290] A review by the NSA itself concluded that Minaret was "disreputable if not outright illegal."[290] Allegations of communism For years, Hoover had been suspicious about potential influence of communists in social movements such as labor unions and civil rights.[291] Hoover directed the FBI to track King
King
in 1957, and the SCLC as it was established (it did not have a full-time executive director until 1960).[56] The investigations were largely superficial until 1962, when the FBI learned that one of King's most trusted advisers was New York City
New York City
lawyer Stanley Levison.[292] The FBI feared Levison was working as an "agent of influence" over King, in spite of its own reports in 1963 that Levison had left the Party and was no longer associated in business dealings with them.[293] Another King
King
lieutenant, Hunter Pitts O'Dell, was also linked to the Communist Party by sworn testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC).[294] However, by 1976 the FBI had acknowledged that it had not obtained any evidence that King himself or the SCLC were actually involved with any communist organizations.[283] For his part, King
King
adamantly denied having any connections to communism. In a 1965 Playboy
Playboy
interview, he stated that "there are as many Communists in this freedom movement as there are Eskimos in Florida."[295] He argued that Hoover was "following the path of appeasement of political powers in the South" and that his concern for communist infiltration of the civil rights movement was meant to "aid and abet the salacious claims of southern racists and the extreme right-wing elements."[283] Hoover did not believe King's pledge of innocence and replied by saying that King
King
was "the most notorious liar in the country."[296] After King
King
gave his "I Have A Dream" speech during the March on Washington on August 28, 1963, the FBI described King
King
as "the most dangerous and effective Negro leader in the country."[288] It alleged that he was "knowingly, willingly and regularly cooperating with and taking guidance from communists."[297] The attempt to prove that King
King
was a communist was related to the feeling of many segregationists that blacks in the South were happy with their lot but had been stirred up by "communists" and "outside agitators."[298] However, the 1950s and '60s civil rights movement arose from activism within the black community dating back to before World War I. King
King
said that "the Negro revolution is a genuine revolution, born from the same womb that produces all massive social upheavals—the womb of intolerable conditions and unendurable situations."[299] CIA surveillance CIA files declassified in 2017 revealed that the agency was investigating possible links between King
King
and Communism
Communism
after a Washington Post article dated November 4, 1964 claimed he was invited to the Soviet Union and that Ralph Abernathy, spokesman for subject, refused to comment on the source of the invitation.[300] Adultery

King
King
and Malcolm X, March 26, 1964

Having concluded that King
King
was dangerous due to communist infiltration, the FBI attempted to discredit King
King
through revelations regarding his private life. FBI surveillance of King, some of it since made public, attempted to demonstrate that he also engaged in numerous extramarital affairs.[288] Lyndon Johnson
Lyndon Johnson
once said that King
King
was a "hypocritical preacher."[301] In his 1989 autobiography And the Walls Came Tumbling Down, Ralph Abernathy stated that King
King
had a "weakness for women", although they "all understood and believed in the biblical prohibition against sex outside of marriage. It was just that he had a particularly difficult time with that temptation."[302] In a later interview, Abernathy said that he only wrote the term "womanizing", that he did not specifically say King
King
had extramarital sex and that the infidelities King
King
had were emotional rather than sexual.[303] Abernathy criticized the media for sensationalizing the statements he wrote about King's affairs,[303] such as the allegation that he admitted in his book that King
King
had a sexual affair the night before he was assassinated.[303] In his original wording, Abernathy had claimed he saw King
King
coming out of his room with a lady when he awoke the next morning and later claimed that "he may have been in there discussing and debating and trying to get her to go along with the movement, I don't know."[303] In his 1986 book Bearing the Cross, David Garrow wrote about a number of extramarital affairs, including one woman King
King
saw almost daily. According to Garrow, "that relationship ... increasingly became the emotional centerpiece of King's life, but it did not eliminate the incidental couplings ... of King's travels." He alleged that King explained his extramarital affairs as "a form of anxiety reduction." Garrow asserted that King's supposed promiscuity caused him "painful and at times overwhelming guilt."[304] King's wife Coretta appeared to have accepted his affairs with equanimity, saying once that "all that other business just doesn't have a place in the very high level relationship we enjoyed."[305] Shortly after Bearing the Cross was released, civil rights author Howell Raines gave the book a positive review but opined that Garrow's allegations about King's sex life were "sensational" and stated that Garrow was "amassing facts rather than analyzing them."[306] The FBI distributed reports regarding such affairs to the executive branch, friendly reporters, potential coalition partners and funding sources of the SCLC, and King's family.[307] The bureau also sent anonymous letters to King
King
threatening to reveal information if he did not cease his civil rights work.[308] The FBI– King
King
suicide letter sent to King
King
just before he received the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
read, in part:

The FBI– King
King
suicide letter,[309] mailed anonymously by the FBI

The American public, the church organizations that have been helping—Protestants, Catholics and Jews will know you for what you are—an evil beast. So will others who have backed you. You are done. King, there is only one thing left for you to do. You know what it is. You have just 34 days in which to do (this exact number has been selected for a specific reason, it has definite practical significant [sic]). You are done. There is but one way out for you. You better take it before your filthy fraudulent self is bared to the nation.[310]

The letter was accompanied by a tape recording—excerpted from FBI wiretaps—of several of King's extramarital liaisons.[311] King interpreted this package as an attempt to drive him to suicide,[312] although William Sullivan, head of the Domestic Intelligence Division at the time, argued that it may have only been intended to "convince Dr. King
King
to resign from the SCLC."[283] King
King
refused to give in to the FBI's threats.[288] In 1977, Judge John Lewis Smith Jr. ordered all known copies of the recorded audiotapes and written transcripts resulting from the FBI's electronic surveillance of King
King
between 1963 and 1968 to be held in the National Archives and sealed from public access until 2027.[313] Police observation during the assassination A fire station was located across from the Lorraine Motel, next to the boarding house in which James Earl Ray
James Earl Ray
was staying. Police officers were stationed in the fire station to keep King
King
under surveillance.[314] Agents were watching King
King
at the time he was shot.[315] Immediately following the shooting, officers rushed out of the station to the motel. Marrell McCollough, an undercover police officer, was the first person to administer first aid to King.[316] The antagonism between King
King
and the FBI, the lack of an all points bulletin to find the killer, and the police presence nearby led to speculation that the FBI was involved in the assassination.[317] Awards and recognition

King
King
showing his medallion, which he received from Mayor Wagner

Statue of King
King
in Birmingham's Kelly Ingram Park

Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, where King
King
ministered, was renamed Dexter Avenue King
King
Memorial Baptist Church in 1978.

King
King
was awarded at least fifty honorary degrees from colleges and universities.[318] On October 14, 1964, King
King
became the youngest winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, which was awarded to him for leading nonviolent resistance to racial prejudice in the U.S.[319] In 1965, he was awarded the American Liberties Medallion by the American Jewish Committee for his "exceptional advancement of the principles of human liberty."[318][320] In his acceptance remarks, King
King
said, "Freedom is one thing. You have it all or you are not free."[321] In 1957, he was awarded the Spingarn Medal
Spingarn Medal
from the NAACP.[322] Two years later, he won the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award for his book Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story.[323] In 1966, the Planned Parenthood Federation of America awarded King
King
the Margaret Sanger Award for "his courageous resistance to bigotry and his lifelong dedication to the advancement of social justice and human dignity."[324] Also in 1966, King
King
was elected as a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.[325] In November 1967 he made a 24-hour trip to the United Kingdom to receive an honorary degree from Newcastle University, being the first African-American to be so honoured by Newcastle.[326] In a moving impromptu acceptance speech,[327] he said

There are three urgent and indeed great problems that we face not only in the United States
United States
of America but all over the world today. That is the problem of racism, the problem of poverty and the problem of war.

In 1971 he was posthumously awarded a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for his Why I Oppose the War in Vietnam.[328] In 1977, the Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
was posthumously awarded to King
King
by President Jimmy Carter. The citation read:

Martin Luther King
King
Jr. was the conscience of his generation. He gazed upon the great wall of segregation and saw that the power of love could bring it down. From the pain and exhaustion of his fight to fulfill the promises of our founding fathers for our humblest citizens, he wrung his eloquent statement of his dream for America. He made our nation stronger because he made it better. His dream sustains us yet.[329]

King
King
and his wife were also awarded the Congressional Gold Medal
Congressional Gold Medal
in 2004.[330] King
King
was second in Gallup's List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th Century.[331] In 1963, he was named Time Person of the Year, and in 2000, he was voted sixth in an online "Person of the Century" poll by the same magazine.[332] King
King
placed third in the Greatest American contest conducted by the Discovery Channel
Discovery Channel
and AOL.[333] Five-dollar bill On April 20, 2016, Treasury Secretary
Treasury Secretary
Jacob Lew
Jacob Lew
announced that the $5, $10, and $20 bills would all undergo redesign prior to 2020. Lew said that while Lincoln would remain on the obverse of the $5 bill, the reverse would be redesigned to depict various historical events that had occurred at the Lincoln Memorial. Among the planned designs are images from King's "I Have a Dream" speech and the 1939 concert by opera singer Marian Anderson.[334] Works

Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story (1958) ISBN 978-0-06-250490-6 The Measure of a Man (1959) ISBN 978-0-8006-0877-4 Strength to Love
Strength to Love
(1963) ISBN 978-0-8006-9740-2 Why We Can't Wait
Why We Can't Wait
(1964) ISBN 978-0-8070-0112-7 Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? (1967) ISBN 978-0-8070-0571-2 The Trumpet of Conscience (1968) ISBN 978-0-8070-0170-7 A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King
King
Jr. (1986) ISBN 978-0-06-250931-4 The Autobiography of Martin Luther King
King
Jr. (1998), ed. Clayborne Carson ISBN 978-0-446-67650-2 "All Labor Has Dignity" (2011) ed. Michael Honey ISBN 978-0-8070-8600-1 "Thou, Dear God": Prayers That Open Hearts and Spirits Collection of King's prayers. (2011), ed. Lewis Baldwin ISBN 978-0-8070-8603-2 MLK: A Celebration in Word and Image Photographed by Bob Adelman, introduced by Charles Johnson ISBN 978-0-8070-0316-9

See also

Memorials to Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Sermons and speeches of Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Equality before the law Violence begets violence List of civil rights leaders List of peace activists United States
United States
labor law Post–civil rights era in African-American history

References Notes

^ Though commonly attributed to King, this expression originated with 19th-century abolitionist Theodore Parker.[113]

Citations

^ "Martin Luther King
King
Wins The Nobel Prize for Peace". The New York Times. October 15, 1964. Retrieved February 13, 2018.  ^ Ogletree, Charles J. (2004). All Deliberate Speed: Reflections on the First Half Century of Brown v. Board of Education. W W Norton & Co. p. 138. ISBN 0-393-05897-2.  ^ "Upbringing & Studies". The King
King
Center. Archived from the original on January 9, 2013. Retrieved September 2, 2012.  ^ King
King
1992, pp. 30–31. ^ a b Mikkelson, David (July 19, 2003). "Four Things About King". Snopes. Snopes.com. Retrieved March 14, 2011.  ^ King
King
1992, p. 31. ^ "King, James Albert".  ^ Nsenga, Burton. "AfricanAncestry.com Reveals Roots of MLK and Marcus Garvey".  ^ Nelson, Alondra (2016). The Social Life of DNA. pp. 160–161. ISBN 9780807027189.  ^ King
King
1992, p. 76. ^ Katznelson, Ira (2005). When Affirmative Action was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America. WW Norton & Co. p. 5. ISBN 0-393-05213-3.  ^ Millender, Dharathula H. (1986). Martin Luther King
King
Jr.: Young Man with a Dream. Aladdin. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-0-02-042010-1.  ^ Frady, Marshall (2005). Martin Luther King, Jr: A Life. pp. 12–15. ISBN 978-0-14-303648-7.  ^ Pierce, Alan (2004). Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
Abdo Pub Co. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-59197-727-8.  ^ Blake, John. "How MLK became an angry black man".  ^ Carson, Clayborn. "Martin Luther King
King
Jr".  ^ a b c "An Autobiography of Religious Development". The Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Research and Education Institute. Stanford University. Retrieved April 2, 2016.  ^ a b King
King
1998, p. 6. ^ a b c Fleming, Alice (2008). Martin Luther King
King
Jr.: A Dream of Hope. Sterling. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-4027-4439-6.  ^ King
King
1992, p. 82. ^ King
King
1992, pp. 35–36. ^ Frady 2002, p. 18. ^ Downing, Frederick L. (1986). To See the Promised Land: The Faith Pilgrimage of Martin Luther King, Jr. Mercer University Press. p. 150. ISBN 0-86554-207-4.  ^ Nojeim, Michael J. (2004). Gandhi and King: The Power of Nonviolent Resistance. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 179. ISBN 0-275-96574-0.  ^ Farris, Christine King
King
(2009). Through It All: Reflections on My Life, My Family, and My Faith. Atria Books. pp. 44–47. ISBN 978-1-4165-4881-2.  ^ a b c Frady 2002, pp. 20–22. ^ L. Lewis, David (2013). King: A Biography. University of Illinois Press. p. 27.  ^ "Coretta Scott King". The Daily Telegraph. February 1, 2006. Archived from the original on January 9, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2008.  ^ Warren, Mervyn A. (2001). King
King
Came Preaching: The Pulpit Power of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. InterVarsity Press. p. 35. ISBN 0-8308-2658-0.  ^ Civil Rights History from the Ground Up: Local Struggles, a National Movement. University of Georgia Press. p. 410.  ^ Fuller, Linda K. (2004). National Days, National Ways: Historical, Political, And Religious Celebrations around the World. Greenwood Publishing. p. 314. ISBN 0-275-97270-4.  ^ a b Radin, Charles A. (October 11, 1991). "Panel Confirms Plagiarism by King
King
at BU". The Boston Globe. p. 1.  ^ Baldwin, Lewis V. (2010). The Voice of Conscience: The Church in the Mind of Martin Luther King, Jr. Oxford University Press. pp. 42–44. ISBN 9780195380316.  ^ "Boston U. Panel Finds Plagiarism
Plagiarism
by Dr. King". The New York Times. October 11, 1991. Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved November 13, 2013.  ^ "King's Ph.D. dissertation, with attached note" (PDF). Retrieved November 7, 2014.  ^ Ling, Peter (October 1996). "Plagiarism, preaching and prophecy: the legacy of Martin Luther King, Jr. and the persistence of racism [Review]". Ethnic and Racial Studies. 19 (4): 912–916. doi:10.1080/01419870.1996.9993942.  ^ Manheimer, Ann S. (2004). Martin Luther King
King
Jr.: Dreaming of Equality. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 103. ISBN 1-57505-627-5.  ^ "December 1, 1955: Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
arrested". CNN. March 11, 2003. Retrieved June 8, 2008.  ^ Walsh, Frank (2003). The Montgomery Bus Boycott. Gareth Stevens. p. 24. ISBN 0-8368-5403-9.  ^ McMahon, Thomas F. (2004). Ethical Leadership Through Transforming Justice. University Press of America. p. 25. ISBN 0-7618-2908-3.  ^ Fisk, Larry J.; Schellenberg, John (1999). Patterns of Conflict, Paths to Peace. Broadview Press. p. 115. ISBN 1-55111-154-3.  ^ King
King
1992, p. 9. ^ a b Jackson 2006, p. 53. ^ Frady 2002, p. 52. ^ Miller, Steven P. (2009). Billy Graham
Billy Graham
and the Rise of the Republican South. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-8122-4151-8. Retrieved April 8, 2015.  ^ Marable, Manning; Mullings, Leith (2000). Let Nobody Turn Us Around: Voices of Resistance, Reform, and Renewal: an African American Anthology. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 391–2. ISBN 0-8476-8346-X.  ^ "Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom". Civil Rights Digital Library. Retrieved October 25, 2013.  ^ "Program from the SCLC's Tenth Annual Convention". The King
King
Center. Retrieved September 7, 2015.  ^ Pearson, Hugh (2002). When Harlem Nearly Killed King: The 1958 Stabbing of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Seven Stories Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-58322-614-8. ^ Graham, Renee (February 4, 2002). "'King' is a Deft Exploration of the Civil Rights Leader's Stabbing". The Boston Globe.  – via  HighBeam Research (subscription required). Retrieved January 20, 2013.  ^ "Today in History, September 20".  – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). Associated Press. September 19, 2012. Retrieved January 20, 2013.  ^ "Measure of a Man, The (1959)". Martin Luther King
King
Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle. Stanford University. Archived from the original on January 24, 2013. Retrieved January 24, 2013.  ^ "Martin Luther King
King
Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle: Gandhi Society for Human Rights". Stanford University.  ^ Theoharis, Athan G.; Poveda, Tony G.; Powers, Richard Gid; Rosenfeld, Susan (1999). The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide. Greenwood Publishing. p. 148. ISBN 0-89774-991-X.  ^ a b Herst 2007, pp. 372–74. ^ a b Theoharis, Athan G.; Poveda, Tony G.; Powers, Richard Gid; Rosenfeld, Susan (1999). The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 123. ISBN 0-89774-991-X.  ^ Wilson, Joseph; Marable, Manning; Ness, Immanuel (2006). Race and Labor Matters in the New U.S. Economy. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 47. ISBN 0-7425-4691-8.  ^ Schofield, Norman (2006). Architects of Political Change: Constitutional Quandaries and Social Choice Theory. Cambridge University Press. p. 189. ISBN 0-521-83202-0.  ^ Shafritz, Jay M. (1998). International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration. Westview Press. p. 1242. ISBN 0-8133-9974-2.  ^ Loevy, Robert D.; Humphrey, Hubert H.; Stewart, John G. (1997). The Civil Rights Act of 1964: The Passage of the Law that Ended Racial Segregation. SUNY Press. p. 337. ISBN 0-7914-3361-7.  ^ Glisson 2006, p. 190. ^ Bobbitt, David (2007). The Rhetoric of Redemption: Kenneth Burke's Redemption Drama and Martin Luther King
King
Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" Speech. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 105. ISBN 0-7425-2928-2.  ^ Ling, Peter J. (2002). Martin Luther King, Jr. Routledge. pp. 250–1. ISBN 0-415-21664-8.  ^ Yeshitela, Omali. "Abbreviated Report from the International Tribunal on Reparations for Black People in the U.S." African People's Socialist Party. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved June 15, 2008.  ^ a b King, Martin Luther. The Autobiography of Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Hatchette Digital. 2001. Accessed January 4, 2013. ^ King, Martin Luther (1990). A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Harper Collins. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-06-064691-2.  ^ King
King
Center: Billy Graham
Billy Graham
Accessed September 15, 2014 ^ Glisson 2006, pp. 190–93. ^ "Albany, GA Movement". Civil Rights Movement Veterans. Retrieved September 8, 2008.  ^ Frady 2002, p. 96. ^ Garrow, (1986) p. 246. ^ McWhorter, Diane (2001). "Two Mayors and a King". Carry Me Home: Birmingham, Alabama: The Climactic Battle of the Civil Rights Revolution. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-2648-6.  ^ a b Harrell, David Edwin; Gaustad, Edwin S.; Miller, Randall M.; Boles, John B.; Woods, Randall Bennett; Griffith, Sally Foreman (2005). Unto a Good Land: A History of the American People, Volume 2. Wm B Eerdmans Publishing. p. 1055. ISBN 0-8028-2945-7.  ^ "Birmingham USA: Look at Them Run". Newsweek:  27. May 13, 1963.  ^ Frady 2002, pp. 113–14. ^ "Integration: Connor and King". Newsweek:  28, 33. April 22, 1963.  ^ King, Coretta Scott. "The Meaning of The King
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Jr.'s Troubled Attitude toward Nonviolent Resistance" (PDF). Exposé. Harvard College Writing Program. Retrieved January 19, 2015.  ^ "Nonviolence: The Only Road to Freedom – Teaching American History". teachingamericanhistory.org.  ^ "Birmingham civil rights activist Colonel Stone Johnson has died (slideshow)". AL.com.  ^ "Armed Resistance in the Civil Rights Movement: Charles E. Cobb and Danielle L. McGuire on Forgotten History". The American Prospect.  ^ Lance Hill. "The Deacons for Defense: Armed Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement (University of North Carolina Press, 2006), p. 245–250". Books.google.com. Retrieved July 12, 2016.  ^ Oates, Stephen B. (December 13, 1993). Let the Trumpet Sound: A Life of Martin Luther King, Jr. HarperCollins. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-06-092473-7.  ^ King
King
Jr., Martin Luther (2000). Carson, Clayborne; Holloran, Peter; Luker, Ralph; Russell, Penny A., eds. The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr: Symbol of the Movement, January 1957 – December 1958. University of California Press. p. 364. ISBN 978-0-520-22231-1.  ^ Merriner, James L. (March 9, 2003). "Illinois' liberal giant, Paul Douglas". Chicago
Chicago
Tribune. Retrieved May 17, 2015.  ^ King
King
Jr., Martin Luther (2000). Carson, Clayborne; Holloran, Peter; Luker, Ralph; Russell, Penny A., eds. The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr: Symbol of the Movement, January 1957 – December 1958. University of California Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-520-22231-1.  ^ King
King
Jr., Martin Luther (1992). Carson, Clayborne; Holloran, Peter; Luker, Ralph; Russell, Penny A., eds. The papers of Martin Luther King Jr. University of California Press. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-520-07951-9.  ^ King
King
Jr., Martin Luther; Carson, Clayborne (1998). The Autobiography of Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Hachette Digital. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-446-52412-4.  ^ "Mr. Conservative: Barry Goldwater's Opposition to the Civil Rights Act of 1964". September 18, 2006. Retrieved May 17, 2015.  ^ Hendricks Jr., Obery M. "The Uncompromising Anti-Capitalism of Martin Luther King
King
Jr".  ^ Washington 1991, p. 366. ^ Washington 1991, pp. 365–67. ^ Washington 1991, pp. 367–68. ^ "Quotes". worldpopulationbalance.org. Retrieved 9 July 2014.  ^ "Family Planning – A Special
Special
and Urgent Concern". Planned Parenthood. Retrieved July 9, 2014.  ^ a b Honey, Michael K. (2007). "Standing at the Crossroads". Going down Jericho Road the Memphis strike, Martin Luther King's last campaign (1 ed.). Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04339-6. Hoover developed around-the-clock surveillance campaign aimed at destroying King.  ^ a b c d Church, Frank (April 23, 1976), " Church Committee
Church Committee
Book
Book
III", Dr. Martin Luther King
King
Jr., Case Study, Church Committee  ^ Garrow, David J. (July–August 2002). "The FBI and Martin Luther King". The Atlantic Monthly.  ^ a b Ryskind, Allan H. (February 27, 2006). "JFK and RFK Were Right to Wiretap MLK". Human Events. Archived from the original on October 4, 2008. Retrieved August 27, 2008.  ^ Kotz 2005. ^ Herst 2007, p. 372. ^ a b c d Christensen, Jen (April 7, 2008). "FBI tracked King's every move". CNN. Retrieved June 14, 2008.  ^ Glick, Brian (1989). War at Home: Covert Action Against U.S. Activists and What We Can Do About It. South End Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-89608-349-3.  ^ a b The Guardian, September 26, 2013, "Declassified NSA Files Show Agency Spied on Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali and MLK Operation Minaret Set Up in 1960s to Monitor Anti-Vietnam Critics, Branded 'Disreputable If Not Outright Illegal' by NSA Itself," The Guardian ^ Downing, Frederick L. (1986). To See the Promised Land: The Faith Pilgrimage of Martin Luther King, Jr. Mercer University Press. pp. 246–7. ISBN 0-86554-207-4.  ^ Kotz 2005, p. 233. ^ Kotz 2005, pp. 70–74. ^ Woods, Jeff (2004). Black Struggle, Red Scare: Segregation and Anti-communism in the South, 1948–1968. LSU Press. p. 126. ISBN 0-8071-2926-7.  See also: Wannall, Ray (2000). The Real J. Edgar Hoover: For the Record. Turner Publishing. p. 87. ISBN 1-56311-553-0.  ^ Washington 1991, p. 362. ^ Bruns, Roger (2006). Martin Luther King
King
Jr.: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing. p. 67. ISBN 0-313-33686-5.  ^ Kotz 2005, p. 83. ^ Gilbert, Alan (1990). Democratic Individuality: A Theory of Moral Progress. Cambridge University Press. p. 435. ISBN 0-521-38709-4.  ^ Washington 1991, p. 363. ^ CIA (November 5, 1967). "Martin Luther King" (PDF). Retrieved February 13, 2018.  ^ Sidey, Hugh (February 10, 1975). "L.B.J., Hoover and Domestic Spying". Time. Archived from the original on September 21, 2011. Retrieved June 14, 2008.  ^ Abernathy, Ralph (1989). And the walls came tumbling down: an autobiography. Harper & Row. p. 471. ISBN 978-0-06-016192-7.  ^ a b c d Abernathy, Ralph David (October 29, 1989). "And the Walls Came Tumbling Down". Booknotes. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007. Retrieved June 14, 2008.  ^ Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King
King
Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. William Morrow & Co. 1986. pp. 375–6.  ^ Frady 2002, p. 67. ^ Raines, Howell (November 30, 1986). "Driven to Martyrdom". The New York Times. Retrieved July 12, 2013.  ^ Burnett, Thom (2005). Conspiracy Encyclopedia. Collins & Brown. p. 58. ISBN 1-84340-287-4.  ^ Spragens, William C. (1988). Popular Images of American Presidents. Greenwood Publishing. p. 532. ISBN 978-0-313-22899-5.  ^ Gage, Beverly (November 11, 2014). "What an Uncensored Letter to M.L.K. Reveals". The New York Times. Retrieved January 9, 2015.  ^ Kotz 2005, p. 247. ^ Frady 2002, pp. 158–159. ^ Wilson, Sondra K. (1999). In Search of Democracy: The NAACP
NAACP
Writings of James Weldon Johnson, Walter White, and Roy Wilkins
Roy Wilkins
(1920–1977). Oxford University Press. p. 466. ISBN 0-19-511633-X.  ^ Phillips, Geraldine N. (Summer 1997). "Documenting the Struggle for Racial Equality in the Decade of the Sixties". Prologue. The National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved June 15, 2008.  ^ Polk, Jim (December 29, 2008). "Black In America – Behind the Scenes: 'Eyewitness to Murder: The King
King
Assassination'". CNN. Retrieved April 14, 2016.  ^ McKnight, Gerald (1998). The Last Crusade: Martin Luther King
King
Jr., the FBI, and the Poor People's Crusade. Westview Press. p. 76. ISBN 0-8133-3384-9.  ^ Martin Luther King
King
Jr.: The FBI Files. Filiquarian Publishing. 2007. pp. 40–2. ISBN 1-59986-253-0.  See also: Polk, James (April 7, 2008). " King
King
conspiracy theories still thrive 40 years later". CNN. Retrieved June 16, 2008.  and "King's FBI file Part 1 of 2" (PDF). FBI. Retrieved January 16, 2012.  and "King's FBI file Part 2 of 2" (PDF). FBI. Retrieved January 16, 2012.  ^ Knight, Peter (2003). Conspiracy Theories in American History: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 408–9. ISBN 1-57607-812-4.  ^ a b Warren, Mervyn A. (2001). King
King
Came Preaching: The Pulpit Power of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. InterVarsity Press. p. 79. ISBN 0-8308-2658-0.  ^ Wintle, Justin (2001). Makers of Modern Culture: Makers of Culture. Routledge. p. 272. ISBN 0-415-26583-5.  ^ Engel, Irving M. "Commemorating Martin Luther King
King
Jr.: Presentation of American Liberties Medallion". American Jewish Committee. Archived from the original on June 4, 2006. Retrieved March 15, 2018.  ^ King
King
Jr., Martin Luther. "Commemorating Martin Luther King
King
Jr.: Response to Award of American Liberties Medallion". American Jewish Committee. Archived from the original on June 9, 2006. Retrieved March 15, 2018.  ^ " Spingarn Medal
Spingarn Medal
Winners: 1915 to Today". NAACP. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved January 16, 2013.  ^ "Martin Luther King
King
Jr". Anisfield-Wolf Book
Book
Awards. Retrieved October 2, 2011.  ^ "The Reverend Martin Luther King
King
Jr. upon accepting The Planned Parenthood Federation Of America Margaret Sanger
Margaret Sanger
Award". PPFA. Archived from the original on February 24, 2008. Retrieved August 27, 2008.  ^ "SCLC Press Release". SCLC via the King
King
Center. May 16, 1966. Archived from the original on January 9, 2013. Retrieved August 31, 2012.  ^ Ward, Brian. "A King
King
in Newcastle; Martin Luther King
King
Jr. And British Race Relations, 1967–1968." The Georgia Historical Quarterly 79, no. 3 (1995): 599–632. ^ "Martin Luther King
King
Honorary Ceremony – Congregations – Newcastle University". ncl.ac.uk. Archived from the original on December 12, 2013.  ^ Gates, Henry Louis; Appiah, Anthony (1999). Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. Basic Civitas Books. p. 1348. ISBN 0-465-00071-1.  ^ Carter, Jimmy (July 11, 1977). "Presidential Medal of Freedom Remarks on Presenting the Medal to Dr. Jonas E. Salk and to Martin Luther King
King
Jr". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on January 4, 2013. Retrieved January 4, 2013.  ^ " Congressional Gold Medal
Congressional Gold Medal
Recipients (1776 to Present)". Office of the Clerk: U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved June 16, 2008.  ^ Gallup, George; Gallup Jr., Alec (2000). The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion 1999. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 249. ISBN 0-8420-2699-1.  ^ Harpaz, Beth J. (December 27, 1999). "Time Names Einstein as Person of the Century".  – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). Associated Press. Retrieved January 20, 2013.  ^ "Reagan voted 'greatest American'". BBC. June 28, 2005. Retrieved August 27, 2008.  ^ "Anti-slavery activist Harriet Tubman to replace Jackson on the front of the $20 bill". USAToday.com. April 21, 2016. Retrieved August 28, 2017. 

Sources

Abernathy, Ralph (1989). And the Walls Came Tumbling Down: An Autobiography. Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-016192-2.  Branch, Taylor (2006). At Canaan's Edge: America In the King
King
Years, 1965–1968. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-85712-X.  Cohen, Adam Seth; Taylor, Elizabeth (2000). Pharaoh: Mayor Richard J. Daley: His Battle for Chicago
Chicago
and the Nation. Back Bay. ISBN 0-316-83489-0.  Frady, Marshall (2002). Martin Luther King
King
Jr.: A Life. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303648-7.  Garrow, David J. (1981). The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-006486-9.  Garrow, David. Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King
King
Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(1989). Pulitzer Prize. ISBN 978-0-06-056692-0 "James L. Bevel, The Strategist of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement", a 1984 paper by Randall Kryn, published with a 1988 addendum by Kryn in Prof. David Garrow's We Shall Overcome, Volume II (Carlson Publishing Company, 1989). Glisson, Susan M. (2006). The Human Tradition in the Civil Rights Movement. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-4409-5.  Herst, Burton (2007). Bobby and J. Edger. Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1982-6.  Jackson, Thomas F. (2006). From Civil Rights to Human Rights: Martin Luther King
King
Jr. and the Struggle for Economic Justice. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-3969-0.  King, Martin Luther, Jr. (1998). Carson, Clayborne, ed. Autobiography. Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-52412-3.  King, Martin Luther, Jr. (1992). Carson, Clayborne; Luker, Ralph E.; Russell, Penny A.; Harlan, Louis R., eds. The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr., Volume I: Called to Serve, January 1929–June 1951. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07950-7.  Kotz, Nick (2005). Judgment Days: Lyndon Baines Johnson, Martin Luther King
King
Jr., and the Laws that Changed America. Houghton Mifflin Books. ISBN 0-618-08825-3.  Lawson, Steven F.; Payne, Charles M.; Patterson, James T. (2006). Debating the Civil Rights Movement, 1945–1968. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-5109-1.  Robbins, Mary Susannah (2007). Against the Vietnam War: Writings by Activists. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-5914-9.  Washington, James M. (1991). A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-064691-8. 

Further reading

Ayton, Mel (2005). A Racial Crime: James Earl Ray
James Earl Ray
And The Murder Of Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Archebooks Publishing. ISBN 1-59507-075-3.  Branch, Taylor (1988). Parting the Waters: America in the King
King
Years, 1954–1963. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-46097-8.  Branch, Taylor (1998). Pillar of Fire: America in the King
King
Years, 1963–1965. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-80819-6.  King, Coretta Scott (1993) [1969]. My Life with Martin Luther King, Jr. Henry Holth & Co. ISBN 0-8050-2445-X.  King
King
Jr., Martin Luther (2015). Cornel West, ed. The Radical King. Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-1282-3.  Kirk, John A., ed. Martin Luther King
King
Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement: Controversies and Debates (2007). pp. 224 Schulke, Flip; McPhee, Penelope. King
King
Remembered, Foreword by Jesse Jackson (1986). ISBN 978-1-4039-9654-1 Waldschmidt-Nelson, Britta. Dreams and Nightmares: Martin Luther King Jr. Malcolm X, and the Struggle for Black Equality. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2012. ISBN 0-8130-3723-9.

External links

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Jr.at's sister projects

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Speeches and interviews

"Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Historic Speeches and Interviews" King
King
Institute Encyclopedia multimedia The New Negro, King
King
interviewed by J. Waites Waring "Beyond Vietnam" speech text and audio "Why I Am Opposed to the War in Vietnam", sermon at the Ebenezer Baptist Church on April 30, 1967 (audio of speech with video 23:31) "Walk to Freedom", Detroit, June 23, 1963. Walter P. Reuther Library of Labor and Urban Affairs. Wayne State University. Audio from April 1961 King, "The Church on the Frontier of Racial Tensions", speech at Southern Seminary Martin Luther King
King
Jr. on IMDb Appearances on C-SPAN

Awards and achievements

Preceded by International Committee of the Red Cross and League of Red Cross Societies Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
Laureate 1964 Succeeded by UNICEF

v t e

Martin Luther King
King
Jr.

Speeches, movements, and protests

Speeches

"Give Us the Ballot" (1957) "I Have a Dream" (1963) "How Long, Not Long" (1965) "Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence" (1967) "I've Been to the Mountaintop" (1968)

Writings

Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story (1958) The Measure of a Man (1959)

"What Is Man?"

"Second Emancipation Proclamation" Strength to Love (1963) Letter from Birmingham Jail (1963) Why We Can't Wait (1964) Conscience for Change (1967) Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? (1967)

Movements and protests

Montgomery bus boycott (1955–1956) Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom (1957) Albany Movement (1961–1962) Birmingham campaign (1963) March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom (1963) St. Augustine movement (1963–1964) Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) Chicago
Chicago
Freedom Movement (1966) Mississippi March Against Fear (1966) Anti- Vietnam War
Vietnam War
movement (1967) Memphis sanitation strike (1968) Poor People's Campaign (1968)

People

Family

Coretta Scott King (wife) Yolanda King (daughter) Martin Luther King
King
III (son) Dexter Scott King (son) Bernice King (daughter) Martin Luther King
King
Sr. (father) Alberta Williams King (mother) Christine King
King
Farris (sister) A. D. King (brother) Alveda King (niece)

Other leaders

Ralph Abernathy (mentor and friend) Ella Baker (colleague) James Bevel (strategist / colleague) Dorothy Cotton (colleague) Jesse Jackson (protégé) Bernard Lafayette (colleague) James Lawson (colleague) John Lewis (colleague) Joseph Lowery (colleague) Benjamin Mays (mentor) Diane Nash (colleague) James Orange (colleague) Bayard Rustin (advisor) Fred Shuttlesworth (colleague) C. T. Vivian (colleague) Wyatt Walker (colleague) Hosea Williams (colleague) Andrew Young (colleague)

Assassination

James Earl Ray Lorraine Motel (now National Civil Rights Museum) Funeral MLK Records Act Riots Loyd Jowers
Loyd Jowers
trial United States
United States
House Select Committee on Assassinations

Media

Film

King: A Filmed Record... Montgomery to Memphis (1970 documentary) Our Friend, Martin (1999 animated) Boycott (2001 film) The Witness: From the Balcony of Room 306 (2008 documentary) Alpha Man: The Brotherhood of MLK (2011 documentary) Selma (2014 film) All the Way (2016 film)

Television

King (1978 miniseries) "The First Store" ( The Jeffersons
The Jeffersons
episode, 1980) "Great X-Pectations" ( A Different World
A Different World
episode, 1993) "The Promised Land" ( New York Undercover
New York Undercover
episode, 1997) "Return of the King" (The Boondocks episode, 2006)

Plays

The Meeting (1987) The Mountaintop (2009) I Dream (2010) All the Way (2012)

Illustrated

Martin Luther King
King
and the Montgomery Story (1957 comic book)

Music

"Abraham, Martin and John" (Dion) "March! For Martin Luther King" (John Fahey) "Martin Luther King's Dream" (Strawbs) "Happy Birthday" (Stevie Wonder) "Pride (In the Name of Love)" (U2) "MLK" (U2) " King
King
Holiday" ( King
King
Dream Chorus and Holiday Crew) "By The Time I Get To Arizona" (Public Enemy) "Shed a Little Light" (James Taylor) "Up to the Mountain" (Patti Griffin) "Never Alone Martin" (Jason Upton) "Symphony Of Brotherhood" (Miri Ben-Ari) Joseph Schwantner: New Morning for the World; Nicolas Flagello: The Passion of Martin Luther King (1995 album) "A Dream" (Common featuring Will.i.am) "Glory" (Common and John Legend)

Related topics

Southern Christian
Christian
Leadership Conference (SCLC) Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Day Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Memorial National Historical Park King
King
Center for Nonviolent Social Change Dexter Avenue Baptist Church National Civil Rights Museum Authorship issues Alpha Phi Alpha
Alpha Phi Alpha
fraternity Season for Nonviolence U.S. Capitol Rotunda sculpture Oval Office bust Homage to King
King
sculpture, Atlanta Dr. Martin Luther King
King
Jr. sculpture, Houston Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Memorial, San Francisco Landmark for Peace Memorial, Indianapolis Dr. Martin Luther King
King
Jr. statue, Milwaukee The Dream sculpture, Portland, Oregon Dr. Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Library Memorials to Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Eponymous streets America in the King
King
Years Civil rights movement
Civil rights movement
in popular culture Lee–Jackson– King
King
Day Martin Luther King
King
High School (other) Lycée Martin Luther King
King
(other)

v t e

Presidents of the Southern Christian
Christian
Leadership Conference

Martin Luther King
King
Jr. (1957–68) Ralph Abernathy
Ralph Abernathy
(1968–77) Joseph Lowery
Joseph Lowery
(1977–97) Martin Luther King III
Martin Luther King III
(1997–2004) Fred Shuttlesworth
Fred Shuttlesworth
(2004) Charles Steele Jr. (2004–09) Howard W. Creecy Jr. (2009–11) Charles Steele Jr. (2012–present)

v t e

Civil rights movement

Notable events (timeline)

Prior to 1954

Murder of Harry and Harriette Moore

1954–1959

Brown v. Board of Education

Bolling v. Sharpe Briggs v. Elliott Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County Gebhart v. Belton

White America, Inc. Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company Emmett Till Montgomery bus boycott

Browder v. Gayle

Tallahassee bus boycott Mansfield school desegregation 1957 Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom

"Give Us the Ballot"

Royal Ice Cream sit-in Little Rock Nine

National Guard blockade

Civil Rights Act of 1957 Kissing Case Biloxi wade-ins

1960–1963

Greensboro sit-ins Nashville sit-ins Sit-in
Sit-in
movement Civil Rights Act of 1960 Gomillion v. Lightfoot Boynton v. Virginia Rock Hill sit-ins Robert F. Kennedy's Law Day Address Freedom Rides

attacks

Garner v. Louisiana Albany Movement University of Chicago
Chicago
sit-ins "Second Emancipation Proclamation" Meredith enrollment, Ole Miss riot "Segregation now, segregation forever"

Stand in the Schoolhouse Door

1963 Birmingham campaign

Letter from Birmingham Jail Children's Crusade Birmingham riot 16th Street Baptist Church bombing

John F. Kennedy's Report to the American People on Civil Rights March on Washington

"I Have a Dream"

St. Augustine movement

1964–1968

Twenty-fourth Amendment Bloody Tuesday Freedom Summer

workers' murders

Civil Rights Act of 1964 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches

"How Long, Not Long"

Voting
Voting
Rights Act of 1965 Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections March Against Fear White House
White House
Conference on Civil Rights Chicago
Chicago
Freedom Movement/ Chicago
Chicago
open housing movement Memphis sanitation strike King
King
assassination

funeral riots

Poor People's Campaign Civil Rights Act of 1968 Green v. County School Board of New Kent County

Activist groups

Alabama Christian
Christian
Movement for Human Rights Atlanta
Atlanta
Student Movement Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Congress of Racial Equality
Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE) Committee on Appeal for Human Rights Council for United Civil Rights Leadership Dallas County Voters League Deacons for Defense and Justice Georgia Council on Human Relations Highlander Folk School Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights Montgomery Improvement Association Nashville Student Movement NAACP

Youth Council

Northern Student Movement National Council of Negro Women National Urban League Operation Breadbasket Regional Council of Negro Leadership Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC) Southern Regional Council Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
(SNCC) The Freedom Singers Wednesdays in Mississippi Women's Political Council

Activists

Ralph Abernathy Victoria Gray Adams Zev Aelony Mathew Ahmann William G. Anderson Gwendolyn Armstrong Arnold Aronson Ella Baker Marion Barry Daisy Bates Harry Belafonte James Bevel Claude Black Gloria Blackwell Randolph Blackwell Unita Blackwell Ezell Blair Jr. Joanne Bland Julian Bond Joseph E. Boone William Holmes Borders Amelia Boynton Raylawni Branch Ruby Bridges Aurelia Browder H. Rap Brown Guy Carawan Stokely Carmichael Johnnie Carr James Chaney J. L. Chestnut Colia Lafayette Clark Ramsey Clark Septima Clark Xernona Clayton Eldridge Cleaver Kathleen Cleaver Charles E. Cobb Jr. Annie Lee Cooper Dorothy Cotton Claudette Colvin Vernon Dahmer Jonathan Daniels Joseph DeLaine Dave Dennis Annie Devine Patricia Stephens Due Joseph Ellwanger Charles Evers Medgar Evers Myrlie Evers-Williams Chuck Fager James Farmer Walter E. Fauntroy James Forman Marie Foster Golden Frinks Andrew Goodman Fred Gray Jack Greenberg Dick Gregory Lawrence Guyot Prathia Hall Fannie Lou Hamer William E. Harbour Vincent Harding Dorothy Height Lola Hendricks Aaron Henry Oliver Hill Donald L. Hollowell James Hood Myles Horton Zilphia Horton T. R. M. Howard Ruby Hurley Jesse Jackson Jimmie Lee Jackson Richie Jean Jackson T. J. Jemison Esau Jenkins Barbara Rose Johns Vernon Johns Frank Minis Johnson Clarence Jones J. Charles Jones Matthew Jones Vernon Jordan Tom Kahn Clyde Kennard A. D. King C.B. King Coretta Scott King Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Martin Luther King
King
Sr. Bernard Lafayette James Lawson Bernard Lee Sanford R. Leigh Jim Letherer Stanley Levison John Lewis Viola Liuzzo Z. Alexander Looby Joseph Lowery Clara Luper Malcolm X Mae Mallory Vivian Malone Thurgood Marshall Benjamin Mays Franklin McCain Charles McDew Ralph McGill Floyd McKissick Joseph McNeil James Meredith William Ming Jack Minnis Amzie Moore Douglas E. Moore Harriette Moore Harry T. Moore William Lewis Moore Irene Morgan Bob Moses William Moyer Elijah Muhammad Diane Nash Charles Neblett Edgar Nixon Jack O'Dell James Orange Rosa Parks James Peck Charles Person Homer Plessy Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Fay Bellamy Powell Al Raby Lincoln Ragsdale A. Philip Randolph George Raymond Jr. Bernice Johnson Reagon Cordell Reagon James Reeb Frederick D. Reese Gloria Richardson David Richmond Bernice Robinson Jo Ann Robinson Bayard Rustin Bernie Sanders Michael Schwerner Cleveland Sellers Charles Sherrod Alexander D. Shimkin Fred Shuttlesworth Modjeska Monteith Simkins Glenn E. Smiley A. Maceo Smith Kelly Miller Smith Mary Louise Smith Maxine Smith Ruby Doris Smith-Robinson Charles Kenzie Steele Hank Thomas Dorothy Tillman A. P. Tureaud Hartman Turnbow Albert Turner C. T. Vivian Wyatt Tee Walker Hollis Watkins Walter Francis White Roy Wilkins Hosea Williams Kale Williams Robert F. Williams Andrew Young Whitney Young Sammy Younge Jr. James Zwerg

Influences

Nonviolence

Padayatra

Sermon on the Mount Mahatma Gandhi

Ahimsa Satyagraha

The Kingdom of God Is Within You Frederick Douglass W. E. B. Du Bois Mary McLeod Bethune

Related

Jim Crow laws Plessy v. Ferguson

Separate but equal

Buchanan v. Warley Hocutt v. Wilson Sweatt v. Painter Heart of Atlanta
Atlanta
Motel, Inc. v. United States Katzenbach v. McClung Loving v. Virginia Fifth Circuit Four Brown Chapel Holt Street Baptist Church Edmund Pettus Bridge March on Washington Movement African-American churches attacked Journey of Reconciliation Freedom Songs

"Kumbaya" "Keep Your Eyes on the Prize" "Oh, Freedom" "This Little Light of Mine" "We Shall Not Be Moved" "We Shall Overcome"

Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam

"Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence"

Watts riots Voter Education Project 1960s counterculture In popular culture

King
King
Memorial Birmingham Civil Rights National Monument Freedom Riders
Freedom Riders
National Monument Civil Rights Memorial

Noted historians

Taylor Branch Clayborne Carson John Dittmer Michael Eric Dyson Chuck Fager Adam Fairclough David Garrow David Halberstam Vincent Harding Steven F. Lawson Doug McAdam Diane McWhorter Charles M. Payne Timothy Tyson Akinyele Umoja Movement photographers

v t e

Civil Rights Memorial

In memoriam

Louis Allen Willie Brewster Benjamin Brown Johnnie Mae Chappell James Chaney Addie Mae Collins Vernon Dahmer Jonathan Daniels Henry Hezekiah Dee Roman Ducksworth Jr. Willie Edwards Medgar Evers Andrew Goodman Paul Guihard Samuel Hammond Jr. Jimmie Lee Jackson Wharlest Jackson Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Bruce W. Klunder George W. Lee Herbert Lee Viola Liuzzo Carol Denise McNair Delano Herman Middleton Charles Eddie Moore Oneal Moore William Lewis Moore Mack Charles Parker Lemuel Penn James Reeb John Earl Reese Carole Robertson Michael Schwerner Henry Ezekial Smith Lamar Smith Emmett Till Clarence Triggs Virgil Lamar Ware Cynthia Wesley Ben Chester White Sammy Younge Jr.

Contributors

Southern Poverty Law Center Maya Lin

Related

Murder of Harry and Harriette Moore

Civil rights movement

v t e

Coretta Scott King

April 27, 1927 – January 30, 2006

Life

Childhood and education Civil rights movement 1967 San Francisco anti-war march King
King
Center for Nonviolent Social Change 2004 Gandhi Peace Prize Death and funeral

Books

My Life with Martin Luther King, Jr. (1969 autobiography)

Other

Martin Luther King, Jr. Day

Reaction

Recognition and tributes

Namesakes

Coretta Scott King
Coretta Scott King
Award Coretta Scott King
Coretta Scott King
Young Women's Leadership Academy

Family

Martin Luther King
King
Jr. (husband) Yolanda King
Yolanda King
(daughter) Martin Luther King III
Martin Luther King III
(son) Dexter Scott King
Dexter Scott King
(son) Bernice King
Bernice King
(daughter) Edythe Scott Bagley
Edythe Scott Bagley
(sister)

Cultural depictions

King
King
(1978 miniseries) Our Friend, Martin
Our Friend, Martin
(1999 animated) Selma (2014 film) Betty and Coretta (2013 film)

Commons Wikiquote

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Mahatma Gandhi

Life events and movements

Indian Ambulance Corps Bardoli Satyagraha Champaran Satyagraha Kheda Satyagraha Indian independence movement Non-cooperation Movement Chauri Chaura incident Purna Swaraj

flag

Salt March Dharasana Satyagraha Vaikom Satyagraha Aundh Experiment Gandhi–Irwin Pact

Second Round Table Conference

Padayatra Poona Pact Natal Indian Congress Quit India

speech

Gujarat Vidyapith
Gujarat Vidyapith
University Harijan
Harijan
Sevak Sangh Ashrams (Kochrab Tolstoy Farm Sabarmati Sevagram) List of fasts Assassination

Philosophy

Gandhism Economics

trusteeship

Education Sarvodaya Satyagraha Swadeshi Swaraj Gandhi cap

Publications

Harijan Hind Swaraj
Swaraj
(Indian Home Rule) Indian Opinion The Story of My Experiments with Truth Young India Seven Social Sins (Gandhi Heritage Portal)

Influences

A Letter to a Hindu Ahimsa

nonviolence

Bhagavad Gita Henry David Thoreau Civil Disobedience (essay) Civil disobedience Fasting Harishchandra Hinduism Khadi John Ruskin Parsee Rustomjee Leo Tolstoy The Kingdom of God Is Within You The Masque of Anarchy Muhammad Narmad Pacifism Sermon on the Mount Shravan Shrimad Rajchandra Henry Stephens Salt Tirukkuṛaḷ Unto This Last

Gandhi's translation

"Raghupati Raghav Raja Ram" "Ekla Chalo Re" "Hari Tuma Haro" "Vaishnava Jana To" Vegetarianism

Associates

Swami Anand C. F. Andrews Jamnalal Bajaj Shankarlal Banker Sarla Behn Vinoba Bhave Brij Krishna Chandiwala Sudhakar Chaturvedi Jugatram Dave Mahadev Desai Dada Dharmadhikari Kanu Gandhi Shiv Prasad Gupta Umar Hajee Ahmed Jhaveri J. C. Kumarappa Hermann Kallenbach Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan Acharya Kripalani Mirabehn Mohanlal Pandya Vallabhbhai Patel Narhari Parikh Mithuben Petit Chakravarti Rajagopalachari Bibi Amtus Salam Sonja Schlesin Anugrah Narayan Sinha Shri Krishna Singh Rettamalai Srinivasan V. A. Sundaram Abbas Tyabji Ravishankar Vyas

Legacy

Artistic depictions Gandhigiri Gandhi Peace Award Gandhi Peace Prize Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Kashi Vidyapith Indian currency

Family

Karamchand Gandhi (father) Kasturba (wife) Harilal (son) Manilal (son) Ramdas (son) Devdas (son) Maganlal (cousin) Samaldas (nephew) Arun (grandson) Ela (granddaughter) Rajmohan (grandson) Gopalkrishna (grandson) Ramchandra (grandson) Kanu (grandson) Kanu (grandnephew) Tushar (great-grandson) Leela (great-granddaughter)

Influenced

James Bevel Steve Biko 14th Dalai Lama Gopaldas Ambaidas Desai Morarji Desai Eknath Easwaran Maria Lacerda de Moura James Lawson Martin Luther King
King
Jr. Nelson Mandela Brajkishore Prasad Rajendra Prasad Ramjee Singh Aung San Suu Kyi Lanza del Vasto Abhay Bang Sane Guruji

Memorials

Statues

Houston Johannesburg London (Parliament Square) New York Patna Pietermaritzburg Washington

Observances

Gandhi Jayanti International Day of Non-Violence Martyrs' Day Season for Nonviolence

Other

Aga Khan Palace Gandhi Bhawan Gandhi Mandapam Gandhi Market Bookstores Gandhi Promenade Gandhi Smriti Gandhi Memorial Gandhi Memorial Museum, Madurai Kaba Gandhi No Delo Kirti Mandir Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
College Mohandas Gandhi High School National Gandhi Museum Raj Ghat Sabarmati Ashram Satyagraha
Satyagraha
House Gandhi Teerth Roads named after Gandhi Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Memorial Centre, Matale

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize

1901–1925

1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian
Christian
Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes

1926–1950

1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B. Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche

1951–1975

1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B. Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther King
King
Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov

1976–2000

1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung

2001–present

2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad
Muhammad
Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016 Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

v t e

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King
King
Jr. (1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King
King
Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

v t e

Pacem in Terris Peace and Freedom Award laureates

1960s

1964 John Howard Griffin / John F. Kennedy 1965 Martin Luther King
King
Jr. 1966 R. Sargent Shriver 1967 A. Philip Randolph 1968 James Groppi 1969 Saul Alinsky

1970s

1971 Dorothy Day 1974 Harold Hughes 1975 Hélder Câmara 1976 Mother Teresa 1979 Thomas Gumbleton

1980s

1980 Crystal Lee Sutton / Ernest Leo Unterkoefler 1982 George F. Kennan 1983 Helen Caldicott 1985 Joseph Bernardin 1986 Maurice John Dingman 1987 Desmond Tutu 1989 Eileen Egan

1990s

1990 Mairead Maguire 1991 María Julia Hernández 1992 César Chávez 1993 Daniel Berrigan 1995 Jim Wallis 1996 Samuel Ruiz 1997 Jim and Shelley Douglass

2000s

2000 George G. Higgins 2001 Lech Wałęsa 2002 Gwen Hennessey / Dorothy Hennessey 2004 Arthur Simon 2005 Donald Mosley 2007 Salim Ghazal 2008 Marvin Mottet 2009 Hildegard Goss-Mayr

2010s

2010 John Dear 2011 Álvaro Leonel Ramazzini Imeri 2012 Kim Bobo 2013 Jean Vanier 2014 Simone Campbell 2015 Thích Nhất Hạnh 2016 Gustavo Gutiérrez 2017 Widad Akreyi

Catholicism portal

v t e

Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album

1959−1980

Stan Freberg
Stan Freberg
– The Best of the Stan Freberg
Stan Freberg
Shows (1959) Carl Sandburg
Carl Sandburg
Lincoln Portrait (1960) Robert Bialek (producer) – FDR Speaks (1961) Leonard Bernstein
Leonard Bernstein
– Humor in Music (1962) Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
– The Story-Teller: A Session With Charles Laughton (1963) Edward Albee
Edward Albee
(playwright) – Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(1964) That Was the Week That Was
That Was the Week That Was
– BBC Tribute to John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1965) Goddard Lieberson
Goddard Lieberson
(producer) – John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
- As We Remember Him (1966) Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
- A Reporter Remembers, Vol. I The War Years (1967) Everett Dirksen
Everett Dirksen
– Gallant Men (1968) Rod McKuen
Rod McKuen
– Lonesome Cities (1969) Art Linkletter
Art Linkletter
& Diane Linkletter – We Love You Call Collect (1970) Martin Luther King
King
Jr. – Why I Oppose the War in Vietnam (1971) Les Crane
Les Crane
– Desiderata (1972) Bruce Botnick (producer) – Lenny performed by the original Broadway cast (1973) Richard Harris
Richard Harris
Jonathan Livingston Seagull (1974) Peter Cook
Peter Cook
and Dudley Moore
Dudley Moore
– Good Evening (1975) James Whitmore
James Whitmore
Give 'em Hell, Harry!
Give 'em Hell, Harry!
(1976) Henry Fonda, Helen Hayes, James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
and Orson Welles
Orson Welles
- Great American Documents (1977) Julie Harris – The Belle of Amherst
The Belle of Amherst
(1978) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
Original Motion Picture Soundtrack (1979) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
– Ages of Man - Readings From Shakespeare
Shakespeare
(1980)

1981−2000

Pat Carroll – Gertrude Stein, Gertrude Stein, Gertrude Stein
Gertrude Stein
(1981) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Donovan's Brain
Donovan's Brain
(1982) Tom Voegeli (producer) – Raiders of the Lost Ark
Raiders of the Lost Ark
- The Movie on Record performed by Various Artists (1983) William Warfield
William Warfield
Lincoln Portrait (1984) Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
– The Words of Gandhi (1985) Mike Berniker (producer) & the original Broadway cast – Ma Rainey's Black Bottom (1986) Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Chips Moman, Ricky Nelson, Roy Orbison, Carl Perkins
Carl Perkins
and Sam Phillips
Sam Phillips
– Interviews From the Class of '55 Recording Sessions (1987) Garrison Keillor
Garrison Keillor
Lake Wobegon Days (1988) Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
– Speech by Rev. Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
(1989) Gilda Radner
Gilda Radner
– It's Always Something (1990) George Burns
George Burns
– Gracie: A Love Story (1991) Ken Burns
Ken Burns
– The Civil War (1992) Earvin "Magic" Johnson and Robert O'Keefe – What You Can Do to Avoid AIDS (1993) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
On the Pulse of Morning
On the Pulse of Morning
(1994) Henry Rollins
Henry Rollins
– Get in the Van (1995) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
– Phenomenal Woman (1996) Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
It Takes a Village (1997) Charles Kuralt
Charles Kuralt
– Charles Kuralt's Spring (1998) Christopher Reeve
Christopher Reeve
Still Me
Still Me
(1999) LeVar Burton
LeVar Burton
– The Autobiography of Martin Luther King
King
Jr. (2000)

2001−present

Sidney Poitier, Rick Harris & John Runnette (producers) – The Measure of a Man: A Spiritual Autobiography (2001) Quincy Jones, Jeffrey S. Thomas, Steven Strassman (engineers) and Elisa Shokoff (producer) – Q: The Autobiography of Quincy Jones (2002) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
and Charles B. Potter (producer) – A Song Flung Up to Heaven / Robin Williams, Nathaniel Kunkel (engineer/mixer) and Peter Asher (producer) – Live 2002 (2003) Al Franken
Al Franken
and Paul Ruben (producer) – Lies and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them (2004) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
– My Life (2005) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Dreams from My Father
Dreams from My Father
(2006) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
– Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis / Ossie Davis and Ruby Dee
Ruby Dee
- With Ossie and Ruby (2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
and Jacob Bronstein (producer) – The Audacity of Hope (2008) Beau Bridges, Cynthia Nixon
Cynthia Nixon
and Blair Underwood
Blair Underwood
– An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore
Al Gore
(2009) Michael J. Fox
Michael J. Fox
– Always Looking Up (2010) Jon Stewart
Jon Stewart
– The Daily Show with Jon Stewart
Jon Stewart
Presents Earth (The Audiobook) (2011) Betty White
Betty White
– If You Ask Me (And Of Course You Won't) (2012) Janis Ian
Janis Ian
– Society's Child (2013) Stephen Colbert
Stephen Colbert
– America Again: Re-becoming The Greatness We Never Weren't (2014) Joan Rivers
Joan Rivers
– Diary of a Mad Diva (2015) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
– A Full Life: Reflections at 90 (2016) Carol Burnett
Carol Burnett
– In Such Good Company: Eleven Years of Laughter, Mayhem, and Fun in the Sandbox (2017) Carrie Fisher
Carrie Fisher
The Princess Diarist
The Princess Diarist
(2018)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 100170140 LCCN: n79084324 ISNI: 0000 0001 2145 0746 GND: 118562215 SELIBR: 201480 SUDOC: 026949814 BNF: cb11909768k (data) MusicBrainz: 80f23097-a035-4409-84d7-7caa855f53a8 NLA: 35116159 NDL: 00469568 NKC: jn20000700891 NARA: 1358262 BNE: XX879954 SNAC: w6qs5m3z

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