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Markos Botsaris
Markos Botsaris
(Greek: Μάρκος Μπότσαρης, c. 1788 – 21 August 1823) was a Greek general and hero of the Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
and captain of the Souliotes.[1] Botsaris is among the most revered national heroes in Greece.

Contents

1 Early life 2 French Army and repatriation to Souli 3 Greek War of Independence 4 Family and companions 5 Legacy

5.1 The Greek–Arbanitic dictionary

6 Gallery 7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 10 External links

Early life[edit] Botsaris was born into one of the leading clans of the Souliotes, in the region of Souli, Epirus.[2] He was the second son of captain Kitsos Botsaris, who was murdered in Arta in 1809 under the orders of Ali Pasha. The Botsaris clan came from the village of Dragani (today Ambelia), near Paramythia. French Army and repatriation to Souli[edit] In 1803, after the capture of Souli
Souli
by Ali Pasha, Botsaris and the remnants of the Souliotes
Souliotes
crossed over to the Ionian Islands, where he served in the Albanian Regiment of the French army for 11 years and became one the regiment's officers.[3] In 1814, he joined the Greek patriotic society known as the Filiki Eteria. In 1820, with other Souliots, he came back to Epirus
Epirus
and fought against Ali Pasha in the Ottoman army at the Siege of Ioannina, but soon the Souliotes
Souliotes
changed side and fought the Ottoman army with the troops of Ali Pasha, in exchange of their former region, the Souli. Greek War of Independence[edit]

Flag raised by Markos Botsaris, in Souli, October 1820, depicting Saint George and with the words: Freedom-Religion-Fatherland in Greek.[4]

Botsaris surprises the Turkish camp and falls fatally wounded by Eugène Delacroix

Botsaris dying in Karpenisi
Karpenisi
by Peter von Hess

In 1821, Botsaris took part in the revolution against the Ottoman Empire. He and other Souliot captains, including Kitsos Tzavelas, Notis Botsaris, Lampros Veikos, and Giotis Danglis only enlisted fellow Souliot kin into their bands.[1] At the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence, he distinguished himself by his courage, tenacity and skill as a partisan leader in the fighting in western Greece, and was conspicuous in the defence of Missolonghi
Missolonghi
during the first siege of the city (1822–1823). On the night of 21 August 1823 he led the celebrated attack on Karpenisi
Karpenisi
by 350 Souliots, against around 3,000 Ottoman Albanian troops who formed the vanguard of the army with which Mustafa Pasha, the Pasha of Shkoder
Shkoder
(modern northern Albania) and advanced to reinforce the besiegers. Botsaris' men ambushed the enemy camp and inflicted serious causalties, but Botsaris was shot in the head and killed.[5] Botsaris was buried with full honors in Missolonghi. After the Ottomans captured the city, in 1826, his grave was desecrated by Ottoman Albanian groups.[6] Family and companions[edit] Many of his family members became key figures of the Greek political establishment. Markos' brother Kostas (Constantine) Botsaris, who also fought at Karpenisi
Karpenisi
and completed the victory, lived on to become a respected Greek general and parliamentarian in the Greek kingdom.[7] He died in Athens
Athens
on 13 November 1853. Markos's son, Dimitrios Botsaris, born in 1813, was three times minister of war during the reigns of Otto of Greece
Greece
and George I of Greece. He died in Athens
Athens
on 17 August 1870. His daughter, Katerina "Rosa" Botsari, was in the service of Queen Amalia of Greece. Markos' son, Dimitrios Botsaris became three times Minister of War of Greece, under Kings Otto and George I.[8] Evangelis Zappas, the renowned benefactor and founder of the modern Olympic Games, was the aide-de-camp and close friend of Markos Botsaris.[9] Legacy[edit] Many Philhellenes visiting Greece
Greece
had admired Botsaris' courage and numerous poets wrote poems about him. American poet Fitz-Greene Halleck wrote a poem entitled Marco Bozzaris, Juste Olivier also wrote an award-winning poem for him, in 1825.[10] The national poet of Greece, Dionysios Solomos, composed a poem titled "On Markos Botsaris", in which he likens the mourning over Botsaris' body to the lamentation of Hector, as described in the last book of the Iliad.[11] His memory is still celebrated in popular ballads in Greece. Botsaris is also widely considered to be the author of a Greek–Albanian lexicon written in Corfu in 1809, at the insistence of François Pouqueville, Napoleon Bonaparte's general consul at the court of Ali Pasha in Ioannina.[12] The dictionary is of importance for the knowledge of the extinct Souliot dialect.[13] However, although the book is known as the Botsaris dictionary, scholar Xhevat Lloshi has argued in several works that Botsaris couldn't have possibly written that dictionary by himself, both because of his young age, and because of a note of Pouqueville that clearly says that the dictionary was drafted under the dictation of Marko's father, uncle, and future father-in-law.[14] In Greek music, the Zakynthian composer Pavlos Carrer
Pavlos Carrer
composed in 1858 the opera “Marco Bozzari” to his honour. In 1858 excerpts from the opera were performed in Athens
Athens
in the presence of King Otto.[15] Also, there are several folk songs dedicated to Botsaris, like a Tsamiko from Central Greece, named Song of Markos Botsaris
Markos Botsaris
(Greek: του Μάρκου Μπότσαρη),[16] and from the Greek minority of southern Albania
Albania
(Northern Epirus) (Καημένε Μάρκο Μπότσαρη).[17] Popular dramas and school plays were written soon after his death.[18][19] Botsaris was depicted on the reverse of the Greek 50 lepta coin of 1976–2001.[20] He often adorns posters in Greek classrooms, government offices, and military barracks, as a member of the Greek pantheon of national heroes. The Greek–Arbanitic dictionary[edit] The original manuscript of the dictionary is at the National Library in Paris (Supplément Grec 251). Botsaris titled his dictionary “Lexicon of the simple Romaic and Arbanitic language” (Λεξικόν της Ρωμαϊκοις και Αρβανητηκής Απλής (sic)). The Greek terms are in columns on the left of the pages, not in alphabetical order, and the Albanian words on the right, written in Greek letters. Apart from single words, the dictionary includes complexes of words or short phrases. The Greek entries are in total 1701 and the Albanian 1494. On the first page there is a hand-written notice by Pouqueville: “Ce lexique est écrit de la main de Marc Botzari à Corfou 1809 devant moi.” This manuscript, which includes also a kind of Greek–Albanian self-teaching method with dialogues written by Ioannes Vilaras and a French-Albanian glossary by Pouqueville, was donated by the latter to the Library in 1819. The dictionary was dictated to the young M. Botsaris by his father Kitsos (1754–1813), his uncle Notis (1759–1841) and his father-in-law Christakis Kalogerou from Preveza. Titos Yochalas, a Greek historian who studied and edited the manuscript, noticing that some Greek words are translated into Albanian in more than one way, believes that M. Botsaris was writing the Greek words and the elders were translating into Albanian. As many of the entries seem unlikely to be useful either for the Suliots or the Albanians of that time and circumstances, Yochalas believes that the dictionary was composed after Pouqueville’s initiative, possibly as a source for a future French-Albanian dictionary. He also observes that the Albanian phrases are syntaxed as if were Greek, concluding that either the mother tongue of the authors was the Greek or the Greek language
Greek language
had a very strong influence on the Albanian, if the latter was possibly spoken in Souli
Souli
(Yochalas, p. 53). The Albanian idiom of the dictionary belongs to the Tosk dialect of south Albanian and retains many archaic elements, found also in the dialect spoken by the Greco-Albanian communities of South Italy and Sicily. In the Albanian entries there are many loans from Greek (approx. 510), as well as from Turkish (approx. 190) and Italian (21).[21] Gallery[edit]

An oil painting on canvas of Markos Botsaris
Markos Botsaris
by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1874.

Tomb of Markos Botsaris
Markos Botsaris
in Missolonghi, copy by Georgios Bonanos. The original by French sculptor David d'Angers
David d'Angers
is in Athens.

Markos Botsaris
Markos Botsaris
by Giovanni Boggi, 1826.

The death of Markos Botsaris. Painting by Ludovico Lipparini, Civico Museo Sartorio, Trieste, Italy.

The death of Markos Botsaris. Painting by Marsigli Filippo, Benaki Museum, Athens.

The death of Markos Botsaris
Markos Botsaris
by Georg Emanuel Opitz, Benaki Museum, Athens.

Death of Markos Mpotsaris by Athanasios Iatridis

Katerina Rosa Botsaris (daughter of Markos) in Amalia dress. painted by Joseph Karl Stieler, Schönheitengalerie, Munich.

See also[edit]

Botzaris Metro Station

References[edit]

^ a b Brigands with a Cause, Brigandage and Irredentism in Modern Greece
Greece
1821–1912, by John S. Koliopoulos, Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1987. p. 53. ISBN 0-19-822863-5 ^ Katherine Elizabeth Fleming. The Muslim Bonaparte: diplomacy and orientalism in Ali Pasha's Greece. Princeton University Press, 1999. ISBN 978-0-691-00194-4, p. 99"The Souliotes, a Greek-speaking tribe of Albanian origin... Ali had tried off and over..." ^ Zamoyski, Adam (2000). Holy madness: romantics, patriots, and revolutionaries, 1776–1871. Viking. p. 232. ISBN 0-670-89271-8.  ^ Χατζηλύρας, Αλέξανδρος-Μιχαήλ. "H Ελληνική Σημαία. H ιστορία και οι παραλλαγές της κατά την Επανάσταση - Η σημασία και η καθιέρωσή της" (PDF). Hellenic Army General Stuff. p. 12. Retrieved 2 May 2016.  ^ Dakin, Douglas (1973). The Greek struggle for independence 1821–1833. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 102. ISBN 9780520023420.  ^ Βαρβαρήγος, Ποθητός. Θρησκεία και Θρησκευτική Ζωή κατά τον πόλεμο της Ανεξαρτησίας (in Greek). University of Thessaloniki. pp. 73, 98. Retrieved 17 February 2013.  ^ University of Chicago (1946). Encyclopædia britannica: a new survey of universal knowledge, Volume 3. Encyclopædia britannica, inc. p. 957. Marco Botsaris’s brother Kosta (Constantine), who fought at Karpenisi
Karpenisi
and completed the victory, lived to become a general and senator in the Greek Kingdom. Kosta died in 1853..  ^ University of Chicago. Encyclopædia britannica: a new survey of universal knowledge. Encyclopædia britannica, inc., 1946, p. 957 ^ The Modern Olympics, A Struggle for Revival, by David C. Young. p. 13. 1996 The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5374-5 ^ Poetry Archive - Marco Bozzaris ^ Mackridge, edited by Peter (1996). Ancient Greek myth in modern Greek poetry : essays in memory of C.A. Trypanis (1. publ. ed.). London: Frank Cass. pp. xvii. ISBN 978-0-7146-4751-7. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Markos Botsarēs, Titos P. Giochalas: To Hellēno-Alvanikon lexikon tou Markou Botsarē: (philologikē ekdosis ek tou autographou), Grapheion Dēmosieumatōn tēs Akadēmias Athēnōn, 1980, 424 pages. ^ JOCHALAS, Titos, To ellino-alvanikon lexikon tou Markou Botzari, Athens
Athens
1980. ^ Lloshi, Xhevat (2008). bocari rreth alfabetit#v=onepage&q&f=false Rreth Alfabetit te shqipes Check url= value (help). Logos. p. 107. ISBN 9989582688. Retrieved 2010-06-01.  ^ A. Xepapadakou, “The Marco Bozzari by Pavlos Carrer, a ‘national’ Opera”, in Moussikos Logos, 5, Corfu: Ionian University-Dept. of Music Studies, 2003, 27–63. ^ Antōnēs I. Phlountzēs Akronauplia kai Akronaupliōtes, 1937–1943. Themelio, 1979, p. 286 (Greek) ^ Nikolaos V. Dēmētriou,Eleutherios N. Dēmētriou. Voreios Ēpeiros: tragoudia kai choroi. Trochalia, 2000, p. 45. ^ Enangelides Tryfon, The education during the Turkish occupation, Athens, 1936, vol. 2, p. 79. A school play titled "Markos Botsaris" was played in Greece
Greece
in 1825. ^ Alkaios Theodoros, The death of Markos Botsaris, published in Athens, undated. The author died in 1833. ^ Bank of Greece
Greece
Archived 28 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. Drachma Banknotes & Coins: 50 lepta Archived 1 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. – Retrieved on 27 March 2009. ^ Yochalas Titos (editor, 1980) The Greek-Albanian Dictionary of Markos Botsaris. Academy of Greece, Athens
Athens
1980 (in Greek)

Sources[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Botzaris, Marco". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Botsaris, 180 Years from the Greek Revolution Lloshi, Xhevat (2008). Rreth Alfabetit te Shqipes. Logos. ISBN 9789989582684. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Markos Botsaris
Markos Botsaris
at Wikimedia Commons

v t e

Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
(1821–29)

Background

Ottoman Greece

People

Ali Pasha Armatoloi Proestoi Klephts Daskalogiannis Cosmas of Aetolia Dionysius the Philosopher Lambros Katsonis Maniots Phanariotes Souliotes

Events

Orlov Revolt Souliote War (1803)

Greek Enlightenment

People

Athanasios Christopoulos Theoklitos Farmakidis Rigas Feraios Anthimos Gazis Theophilos Kairis Adamantios Korais Eugenios Voulgaris

Organizations

Ellinoglosso Xenodocheio Filiki Eteria Filomousos Eteria Society of the Phoenix Serene Grand Orient of Greece

Publications

Adelphiki Didaskalia Asma Polemistirion Hellenic Nomarchy Pamphlet of Rigas Feraios Salpisma Polemistirion Thourios or Patriotic hymn

European intervention

Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774) Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca Greek Plan
Greek Plan
of Catherine the Great Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792) French Revolution Fall of the Republic of Venice Napoleonic Wars

Septinsular Republic Adriatic campaign of 1807–14 Albanian Regiment 1st Regiment Greek Light Infantry

United States of the Ionian Islands

Ideas

Nationalism Eastern Orthodox Christianity Liberalism Constitutionalism

Events

Battles

Kalamata Patras Wallachian uprising Alamana 1st Acropolis Gravia Valtetsi Doliana Dragashani Sculeni Vasilika Trench Tripolitsa Peta Dervenakia 1st Messolonghi Karpenisi 2nd Messolonghi Greek civil wars Sphacteria Neokastro Maniaki Lerna Mills 3rd Messolonghi Mani 2nd Acropolis Arachova Kamatero Phaleron Chios expedition Petra

Massacres

Constantinople Thessaloniki Navarino Tripolitsa Naousa Samothrace Chios Psara Kasos

Naval conflicts

Nauplia Psara Samos Andros Sphacteria Gerontas Souda Alexandria Itea Navarino

Ships

Greek sloop Karteria Greek brig Aris

Greek regional councils and statutes

Messenian Senate Directorate of Achaea Peloponnesian Senate Senate of Western Continental Greece Areopagus of Eastern Continental Greece Provisional Regime of Crete Military-Political System of Samos

Greek national assemblies

First (Epidaurus) Second (Astros) Third (Troezen) Fourth (Argos) Fifth (Nafplion)

International Conferences, Treaties and Protocols

Congress of Laibach Congress of Verona Protocol of St. Petersburg Treaty of London Conference of Poros London Protocol of 1828 London Protocol of 1829 Treaty of Adrianople London Protocol of 1830 London Conference Treaty of Constantinople

Personalities

Greece

Chian Committee Odysseas Androutsos Anagnostaras Markos Botsaris Laskarina Bouboulina Constantin Denis Bourbaki Hatzimichalis Dalianis Athanasios Diakos Germanos III of Old Patras Dimitrios Kallergis Athanasios Kanakaris Constantine Kanaris Ioannis Kapodistrias Stamatios Kapsas Georgios Karaiskakis Nikolaos Kasomoulis Ioannis Kolettis Theodoros Kolokotronis Georgios Kountouriotis Antonios Kriezis Nikolaos Kriezotis Kyprianos of Cyprus Georgios Lassanis Lykourgos Logothetis Andreas Londos Yannis Makriyannis Manto Mavrogenous Alexandros Mavrokordatos Petrobey Mavromichalis Andreas Metaxas Andreas Miaoulis Theodoros Negris Nikitaras Antonis Oikonomou Ioannis Orlandos Papaflessas Dimitrios Papanikolis Emmanouel Pappas Ioannis Papafis Christoforos Perraivos Nikolaos Petimezas Georgios Sachtouris Iakovos Tombazis Anastasios Tsamados Ioannis Varvakis Demetrios Ypsilantis

Philhellenes

London Philhellenic Committee Lord Byron François-René de Chateaubriand Richard Church Lord Cochrane Jean-Gabriel Eynard Vincenzo Gallina Charles Fabvier Thomas Gordon Frank Abney Hastings Carl von Heideck Johann Jakob Meyer Karl Normann Maxime Raybaud Giuseppe Rosaroll Santorre di Santa Rosa Friedrich Thiersch Ludwig I of Bavaria German Legion (el) Serbs

Moldavia
Moldavia
and Wallachia (Danubian Principalities)

Alexander Ypsilantis Sacred Band Alexandros Kantakouzinos Georgios Kantakouzinos Giorgakis Olympios Yiannis Pharmakis Dimitrie Macedonski Tudor Vladimirescu

Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Egypt

Sultan Mahmud II Hurshid Pasha Nasuhzade Ali Pasha (tr) Omer Vrioni Kara Mehmet Mahmud Dramali Pasha Koca Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha Reşid Mehmed Pasha Yussuf Pasha Ibrahim Pasha Soliman Pasha al-Faransawi

Britain, France
France
and Russia

Stratford Canning Edward Codrington Henri de Rigny Nicholas I of Russia Login Geiden

Morea expedition

Military

Nicolas Joseph Maison Louis-Eugène Cavaignac Antoine Virgile Schneider Amédée Despans-Cubières Auguste Regnaud de Saint-Jean d'Angély Camille Alphonse Trézel

Scientific

Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent Gabriel Bibron Gaspard Auguste Brullé Gérard Paul Deshayes Eugène Emmanuel Amaury Duval Pierre-Narcisse Guérin Edgar Quinet

Impact

Art

Eugène Delacroix Louis Dupré Peter von Hess Victor Hugo François Pouqueville Alexander Pushkin Karl Krazeisen Andreas Kalvos Dionysios Solomos Theodoros Vryzakis Hellas The Reception of Lord Byron
Lord Byron
at Missolonghi Greece
Greece
on the Ruins of Missolonghi The Massacre at Chios The Free Besieged Hymn to Liberty The Archipelago on Fire The Apotheosis of Athanasios Diakos

Remembrance

25 March (Independence Day) Hymn to Liberty Eleftheria i thanatos Pedion tou Areos Propylaea (Munich) Garden of Heroes (Missolonghi) Royal Phalanx Evzones
Evzones
(Presidential Guard)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 31165824 ISNI: 0000 0000 8045 1063 GND: 11890664X SUDOC: 153589213 BNF: cb13772280r (da

.