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Mark Elliot Zuckerberg (/ˈzʌkərbɜːrɡ/; born May 14, 1984) is an American computer programmer and Internet
Internet
entrepreneur. He is a co-founder of Facebook, and is currently its chairman and chief executive officer.[4][5] His net worth is estimated to be US$62.2 billion as of March 25, 2018.[6] Zuckerberg launched Facebook
Facebook
from his Harvard University
Harvard University
dormitory room on February 4, 2004 with college roommates and fellow Harvard students Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes.[7] The group then introduced Facebook
Facebook
to other college campuses. Facebook
Facebook
expanded rapidly, reaching one billion users by 2012. During this time, Zuckerberg became involved in various legal disputes brought by his friends and cofounders, who claimed they were due a share of the company based upon their involvement during its development phase.[8] Since 2010, Time magazine has named Zuckerberg among the 100 wealthiest and most influential people in the world as a part of its Person of the Year award.[3][9][10] In December 2016, Zuckerberg was ranked 10th on Forbes
Forbes
list of The World's Most Powerful People.[11]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Software developer

2.1 Early years 2.2 College years

3 Career

3.1 Facebook 3.2 Wirehog 3.3 Platform, Beacon, and Connect 3.4 Internet.org 3.5 Legal controversies

3.5.1 ConnectU lawsuits 3.5.2 Saverin lawsuit 3.5.3 Pakistan
Pakistan
criminal investigation 3.5.4 Paul Ceglia 3.5.5 Palestinian terror attacks 3.5.6 Hawaiian land ownership

4 Depictions in media

4.1 The Social Network

4.1.1 Disputed accuracy

4.2 Other depictions

5 Philanthropy 6 Politics 7 Personal life 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Early life

External video

Mark Zuckerberg's career in 90 seconds, The Daily Telegraph[12]

Zuckerberg was born in 1984 in White Plains, New York.[13] He is the son of Karen (née Kempner), a psychiatrist, and Edward Zuckerberg, a dentist.[14] His ancestors came from Germany, Austria and Poland.[15] He and his three sisters, Randi, Donna, and Arielle, were brought up in Dobbs Ferry, New York, a small Westchester County village about 21 miles north of Midtown Manhattan.[16] Zuckerberg was raised Jewish and had a Bar Mitzvah
Bar Mitzvah
when he turned 13.[17] At Ardsley High School, Zuckerberg excelled in classes. He transferred to the exclusive private school Phillips Exeter Academy, in New Hampshire, in his junior year, where he won prizes in science (math, astronomy, and physics) and classical studies. In his youth, he also attended the Johns Hopkins Center for Talented Youth
Center for Talented Youth
summer camp. On his college application, Zuckerberg stated that he could read and write French, Hebrew, Latin, and ancient Greek. He was captain of the fencing team.[18][19][20] Software developer Early years Zuckerberg began using computers and writing software in middle school. His father taught him Atari
Atari
BASIC Programming
BASIC Programming
in the 1990s, and later hired software developer David Newman to tutor him privately. Zuckerberg took a graduate course in the subject at Mercy College near his home while still in high school. In one program, since his father's dental practice was operated from their home, he built a software program he called "ZuckNet" that allowed all the computers between the house and dental office to communicate with each other. It is considered a "primitive" version of AOL's Instant Messenger, which came out the following year.[21][22] According to writer Jose Antonio Vargas, "some kids played computer games. Mark created them." Zuckerberg himself recalls this period: "I had a bunch of friends who were artists. They'd come over, draw stuff, and I'd build a game out of it." However, notes Vargas, Zuckerberg was not a typical "geek-klutz", as he later became captain of his prep school fencing team and earned a classics diploma. Napster
Napster
co-founder Sean Parker, a close friend, notes that Zuckerberg was "really into Greek odysseys and all that stuff", recalling how he once quoted lines from the Roman epic poem Aeneid, by Virgil, during a Facebook
Facebook
product conference.[16] During Zuckerberg's high school years, he worked under the company name Intelligent Media Group to build a music player called the Synapse Media Player. The device used machine learning to learn the user's listening habits, which was posted to Slashdot[23] and received a rating of 3 out of 5 from PC Magazine.[24] College years Vargas noted that by the time Zuckerberg began classes at Harvard, he had already achieved a "reputation as a programming prodigy". He studied psychology and computer science and belonged to Alpha Epsilon Pi and Kirkland House.[9][16][25] In his sophomore year, he wrote a program that he called CourseMatch, which allowed users to make class selection decisions based on the choices of other students and also to help them form study groups. A short time later, he created a different program he initially called Facemash that let students select the best looking person from a choice of photos. According to Arie Hasit, Zuckerberg's roommate at the time, "he built the site for fun". Hasit explains:

We had books called Face Books, which included the names and pictures of everyone who lived in the student dorms. At first, he built a site and placed two pictures, or pictures of two males and two females. Visitors to the site had to choose who was "hotter" and according to the votes there would be a ranking.[26]

The site went up over a weekend, but by Monday morning, the college shut it down, because its popularity had overwhelmed one of Harvard's network switches and prevented students from accessing the Internet. In addition, many students complained that their photos were being used without permission. Zuckerberg apologized publicly, and the student paper ran articles stating that his site was "completely improper."[26] The following semester, in January 2004, Zuckerberg began writing code for a new Web site.[27] On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "Thefacebook", originally located at thefacebook.com.[28] Six days after the site launched, three Harvard seniors, Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra, accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com, while he was instead using their ideas to build a competing product.[29] The three complained to The Harvard Crimson, and the newspaper began an investigation in response.[citation needed] Following the official launch of the Facebook
Facebook
social media platform, the three filed a lawsuit against Zuckerberg that resulted in a settlement.[30] The agreed settlement was for 1.2 million Facebook shares that were worth US$300 million at Facebook's IPO.[31] Zuckerberg dropped out of Harvard in his sophomore year in order to complete his project.[32] In January 2014, he recalled:

I remember really vividly, you know, having pizza with my friends a day or two after—I opened up the first version of Facebook
Facebook
at the time I thought, "You know, someone needs to build a service like this for the world." But I just never thought that we'd be the ones to help do it. And I think a lot of what it comes down to is we just cared more.[33]

On May 28, 2017, Zuckerberg received an honorary degree from Harvard.[34][35] Career

Zuckerberg listening to President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
before a private meeting where Obama dined with technology business leaders in Woodside, California, February 17, 2011.

Facebook Main articles: Facebook
Facebook
and History of Facebook On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched Facebook
Facebook
from his Harvard dormitory room.[36][37] An earlier inspiration for Facebook
Facebook
may have come from Phillips Exeter Academy, the prep school from which Zuckerberg graduated in 2002. It published its own student directory, "The Photo Address Book", which students referred to as "The Facebook". Such photo directories were an important part of the student social experience at many private schools. With them, students were able to list attributes such as their class years, their friends, and their telephone numbers.[36] Once at college, Zuckerberg's Facebook
Facebook
started off as just a "Harvard thing" until Zuckerberg decided to spread it to other schools, enlisting the help of roommate Dustin Moskovitz. They began with Columbia University, New York University, Stanford, Dartmouth, Cornell, University of Pennsylvania, Brown, and Yale.[38] Samyr Laine, a triple jumper representing Haiti
Haiti
at the 2012 Summer Olympics, shared a room with Zuckerberg during Facebook's founding. "Mark was clearly on to great things," said Laine, who was Facebook's fourteenth user.[39] Zuckerberg, Moskovitz and some friends moved to Palo Alto, California in Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
where they leased a small house that served as an office. Over the summer, Zuckerberg met Peter Thiel, who invested in the company. They got their first office in mid-2004. According to Zuckerberg, the group planned to return to Harvard, but eventually decided to remain in California.[40][41] They had already turned down offers by major corporations to buy the company. In an interview in 2007, Zuckerberg explained his reasoning: "It's not because of the amount of money. For me and my colleagues, the most important thing is that we create an open information flow for people. Having media corporations owned by conglomerates is just not an attractive idea to me."[37] He restated these goals to Wired magazine in 2010: "The thing I really care about is the mission, making the world open."[42] Earlier, in April 2009, Zuckerberg sought the advice of former Netscape
Netscape
CFO Peter Currie about financing strategies for Facebook.[43] On July 21, 2010, Zuckerberg reported that the company reached the 500 million-user mark.[44] When asked whether Facebook
Facebook
could earn more income from advertising as a result of its phenomenal growth, he explained:

I guess we could ... If you look at how much of our page is taken up with ads compared to the average search query. The average for us is a little less than 10 percent of the pages and the average for search is about 20 percent taken up with ads ... That's the simplest thing we could do. But we aren't like that. We make enough money. Right, I mean, we are keeping things running; we are growing at the rate we want to.[42]

In 2010, Steven Levy, who wrote the 1984 book Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution, wrote that Zuckerberg "clearly thinks of himself as a hacker". Zuckerberg said that "it's OK to break things" "to make them better".[45][46] Facebook
Facebook
instituted "hackathons" held every six to eight weeks where participants would have one night to conceive of and complete a project.[45] The company provided music, food, and beer at the hackathons, and many Facebook
Facebook
staff members, including Zuckerberg, regularly attended.[46] "The idea is that you can build something really good in a night", Zuckerberg told Levy. "And that's part of the personality of Facebook
Facebook
now ... It's definitely very core to my personality."[45] Vanity Fair magazine named Zuckerberg number 1 on its 2010 list of the Top 100 "most influential people of the Information Age".[47] Zuckerberg ranked number 23 on the Vanity Fair 100 list in 2009.[48] In 2010, Zuckerberg was chosen as number 16 in New Statesman's annual survey of the world's 50 most influential figures.[49] In a 2011 interview with PBS
PBS
shortly after the death of Steve Jobs, Zuckerberg said that Jobs had advised him on how to create a management team at Facebook
Facebook
that was "focused on building as high quality and good things as you are".[50]

Zuckerberg and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
during their meeting at the Russian leader's residence outside Moscow, October 1, 2012

On October 1, 2012, Zuckerberg visited Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev in Moscow
Moscow
to stimulate social media innovation in Russia
Russia
and to boost Facebook's position in the Russian market.[51] Russia's communications minister tweeted that Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev urged the social media giant's founder to abandon plans to lure away Russian programmers and instead consider opening a research center in Moscow. In 2012, Facebook
Facebook
had roughly 9 million users in Russia, while domestic clone VK had around 34 million.[52] Rebecca Van Dyck, Facebook's head of consumer marketing, claimed that 85 million American Facebook
Facebook
users were exposed to the first day of the Home promotional campaign on April 6, 2013.[53] On August 19, 2013, The Washington Post
The Washington Post
reported that Zuckerberg's Facebook
Facebook
profile was hacked by an unemployed web developer.[54] At the 2013 TechCrunch
TechCrunch
Disrupt conference, held in September, Zuckerberg stated that he is working towards registering the 5 billion humans who were not connected to the Internet
Internet
as of the conference on Facebook. Zuckerberg then explained that this is intertwined with the aim of the Internet.org project, whereby Facebook, with the support of other technology companies, seeks to increase the number of people connected to the internet.[55][56] Zuckerberg was the keynote speaker at the 2014 Mobile World Congress (MWC), held in Barcelona, Spain, in March 2014, which was attended by 75,000 delegates. Various media sources highlighted the connection between Facebook's focus on mobile technology and Zuckerberg's speech, claiming that mobile represents the future of the company.[57] Zuckerberg's speech expands upon the goal that he raised at the TechCrunch
TechCrunch
conference in September 2013, whereby he is working towards expanding Internet
Internet
coverage into developing countries.[58] Alongside other American technology figures like Jeff Bezos
Jeff Bezos
and Tim Cook, Zuckerberg hosted visiting Chinese politician Lu Wei, known as the " Internet
Internet
czar" for his influence in the enforcement of China's online policy, at Facebook's headquarters on December 8, 2014. The meeting occurred after Zuckerberg participated in a Q&A session at Tsinghua University
Tsinghua University
in Beijing, China, on October 23, 2014, where he attempted to converse in Mandarin Chinese; although Facebook
Facebook
is banned in China, Zuckerberg is highly regarded among the people and was at the university to help fuel the nation's burgeoning entrepreneur sector.[59]

Zuckerberg in Beijing, People's Republic of China, 2015

Zuckerberg fielded questions during a live Q&A session at the company's headquarters in Menlo Park on December 11, 2014. The founder and CEO explained that he does not believe Facebook
Facebook
is a waste of time, because it facilitates social engagement, and participating in a public session was so that he could "learn how to better serve the community".[60][61] Zuckerberg receives a one-dollar salary as CEO of Facebook.[2] In June 2016, Business Insider
Business Insider
named Zuckerberg one of the "Top 10 Business Visionaries Creating Value for the World" along with Elon Musk
Elon Musk
and Sal Khan, due to the fact that he and his wife "pledged to give away 99% of their wealth — which is estimated at over $52.1 billion."[62] Wirehog Main article: Wirehog A month after Zuckerberg launched Facebook
Facebook
in February 2004, i2hub, another campus-only service, created by Wayne Chang, was launched. i2hub focused on peer-to-peer file sharing. At the time, both i2hub and Facebook
Facebook
were gaining the attention of the press and growing rapidly in users and publicity. In August 2004, Zuckerberg, Andrew McCollum, Adam D'Angelo, and Sean Parker
Sean Parker
launched a competing peer-to-peer file sharing service called Wirehog, a precursor to Facebook
Facebook
Platform applications.[63][64] Platform, Beacon, and Connect

Zuckerberg at the World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum
in Davos, Switzerland (January 2009).

On May 24, 2007, Zuckerberg announced Facebook
Facebook
Platform, a development platform for programmers to create social applications within Facebook. Within weeks, many applications had been built and some already had millions of users. It grew to more than 800,000 developers around the world building applications for Facebook
Facebook
Platform.[65] On November 6, 2007, Zuckerberg announced Beacon, a social advertising system that enabled people to share information with their Facebook friends based on their browsing activities on other sites. For example, eBay sellers could let friends know automatically what they have for sale via the Facebook
Facebook
news feed as they listed items for sale. The program came under scrutiny because of privacy concerns from groups and individual users. Zuckerberg and Facebook
Facebook
failed to respond to the concerns quickly, and on December 5, 2007, Zuckerberg wrote a blog post on Facebook,[66] taking responsibility for the concerns about Beacon and offering an easier way for users to opt out of the service. In 2007, Zuckerberg was added to MIT Technology Review's TR35 list as one of the top 35 innovators in the world under the age of 35.[67] On July 23, 2008, Zuckerberg announced Facebook
Facebook
Connect, a version of Facebook
Facebook
Platform for users.[citation needed] Internet.org In a public Facebook
Facebook
post, Zuckerberg launched the Internet.org project in late August 2013. He explained that the primary aim of the initiative is to provide Internet
Internet
access to the five billion people who are not connected as of the launch date. Using a three-tier strategy, Internet.org will also create new jobs and open up new markets, according to Zuckerberg. He stated in his post:

The world economy is going through a massive transition right now. The knowledge economy is the future. By bringing everyone online, we'll not only improve billions of lives, but we'll also improve our own as we benefit from the ideas and productivity they contribute to the world. Giving everyone the opportunity to connect is the foundation for enabling the knowledge economy. It is not the only thing we need to do, but it's a fundamental and necessary step.[56]

To stay proven on the efforts of bringing in the concept of net neutrality, Zuckerberg met Narendra Modi, Satya Nadella
Satya Nadella
and Sundar Pichai at Silicon Valley, to discuss on how to effectively establish affordable internet access to the less developed countries.[68] As a token of initiation, he changed his Facebook
Facebook
profile picture to extend his support to the Digital India
Digital India
to help the rural communities to stay connected to the internet.[69] Legal controversies Main article: Criticism of Facebook ConnectU lawsuits Main article: ConnectU Harvard students Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra accused Zuckerberg of intentionally making them believe he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com (later called ConnectU).[70] They filed a lawsuit in 2004, but it was dismissed on a technicality on March 28, 2007. It was refiled soon thereafter in federal court in Boston. Facebook
Facebook
countersued in regards to Social Butterfly, a project put out by The Winklevoss Chang Group, an alleged partnership between ConnectU and i2hub. On June 25, 2008, the case settled and Facebook
Facebook
agreed to transfer over 1.2 million common shares and pay $20 million in cash.[71] In November 2007, confidential court documents were posted on the website of 02138, a magazine that catered to Harvard alumni. They included Zuckerberg's Social Security number, his parents' home address, and his girlfriend's address. Facebook
Facebook
filed to have the documents removed, but the judge ruled in favor of 02138.[72] Saverin lawsuit A lawsuit filed by Eduardo Saverin
Eduardo Saverin
against Facebook
Facebook
and Zuckerberg was settled out of court. Though terms of the settlement were sealed, the company affirmed Saverin's title as co-founder of Facebook. Saverin signed a non-disclosure contract after the settlement.[73] Pakistan
Pakistan
criminal investigation In June 2010, Pakistani Deputy Attorney General Muhammad Azhar Sidiqque launched a criminal investigation into Zuckerberg and Facebook
Facebook
co-founders Dustin Moskovitz
Dustin Moskovitz
and Chris Hughes
Chris Hughes
after a "Draw Muhammad" contest was hosted on Facebook. The investigation named the anonymous German woman who created the contest. Sidiqque asked the country's police to contact Interpol
Interpol
to have Zuckerberg and the three others arrested for blasphemy. On May 19, 2010, Facebook's website was temporarily blocked in Pakistan
Pakistan
until Facebook
Facebook
removed the contest from its website at the end of May. Sidiqque also asked its UN representative to raise the issue with the United Nations General Assembly.[74][75] Paul Ceglia Main article: Paul Ceglia In June 2010, Paul Ceglia, the owner of a wood pellet fuel company in Allegany County, upstate New York, filed suit against Zuckerberg, claiming 84 percent ownership of Facebook
Facebook
and seeking monetary damages. According to Ceglia, he and Zuckerberg signed a contract on April 28, 2003, that an initial fee of $1,000 entitled Ceglia to 50% of the website's revenue, as well as an additional 1% interest in the business per day after January 1, 2004, until website completion. Zuckerberg was developing other projects at the time, among which was Facemash, the predecessor of Facebook, but did not register the domain name thefacebook.com until January 1, 2004. Facebook
Facebook
management dismissed the lawsuit as "completely frivolous". Facebook
Facebook
spokesman Barry Schnitt told a reporter that Ceglia's counsel had unsuccessfully sought an out-of-court settlement.[76][77] On October 26, 2012, federal authorities arrested Ceglia, charging him with mail and wire fraud and of "tampering with, destroying and fabricating evidence in a scheme to defraud the Facebook
Facebook
founder of billions of dollars." Ceglia is accused of fabricating emails to make it appear that he and Zuckerberg discussed details about an early version of Facebook, although after examining their emails, investigators found there was no mention of Facebook
Facebook
in them.[78] Some law firms withdrew from the case before it was initiated and others after Ceglia's arrest.[79][80] Palestinian terror attacks On July 2, 2016, Israeli cabinet minister Gilad Erdan
Gilad Erdan
accused Zuckerberg of having some responsibility for deadly attacks by Palestinians against Israelis.[81] According to him, the social network was not doing enough to ban posts to its platform that incite violence against Israelis.[82] "Some of the victims' blood is on Zuckerberg's hands", Erdan said.[83] Hawaiian land ownership In January 2017, Zuckerberg filed eight "quiet title and partition" lawsuits against hundreds of native Hawaiians to get them to sell their land to him. This land is contained within the 700 acres of land in the Hawaiian island of Kauai
Kauai
that Zuckerberg had purchased in 2014. When he learned that Hawaiian land ownership law differs from that of the other 49 states, he dropped the lawsuits.[84][85] Depictions in media The Social Network Main article: The Social Network A movie based on Zuckerberg and the founding years of Facebook, The Social Network was released on October 1, 2010, starring Jesse Eisenberg as Zuckerberg. After Zuckerberg was told about the film, he responded, "I just wished that nobody made a movie of me while I was still alive."[86] Also, after the film's script was leaked on the Internet
Internet
and it was apparent that the film would not portray Zuckerberg in a wholly positive light, he stated that he wanted to establish himself as a "good guy".[87] The film is based on the book The Accidental Billionaires
The Accidental Billionaires
by Ben Mezrich, which the book's publicist once described as "big juicy fun" rather than "reportage".[88] The film's screenwriter Aaron Sorkin
Aaron Sorkin
told New York magazine, "I don't want my fidelity to be the truth; I want it to be storytelling", adding, "What is the big deal about accuracy purely for accuracy's sake, and can we not have the true be the enemy of the good?"[89] Upon winning the Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Picture on January 16, 2011, producer Scott Rudin thanked Facebook
Facebook
and Zuckerberg "for his willingness to allow us to use his life and work as a metaphor through which to tell a story about communication and the way we relate to each other.”[90] Sorkin, who won for Best Screenplay, retracted some of the impressions given in his script:[91]

"I wanted to say to Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
tonight, if you're watching, Rooney Mara's character makes a prediction at the beginning of the movie. She was wrong. You turned out to be a great entrepreneur, a visionary, and an incredible altruist."

On January 29, 2011, Zuckerberg made a surprise guest appearance on Saturday Night Live, which was being hosted by Jesse Eisenberg. They both said it was the first time they ever met.[92] Eisenberg asked Zuckerberg, who had been critical of his portrayal by the film, what he thought of the movie. Zuckerberg replied, "It was interesting."[93] In a subsequent interview about their meeting, Eisenberg explains that he was "nervous to meet him, because I had spent now, a year and a half thinking about him ..." He adds, "Mark has been so gracious about something that’s really so uncomfortable ... The fact that he would do SNL and make fun of the situation is so sweet and so generous. It’s the best possible way to handle something that, I think, could otherwise be very uncomfortable."[94][95] Disputed accuracy Jeff Jarvis, author of the book Public Parts, interviewed Zuckerberg and believes Sorkin made up too much of the story. He states, "That's what the internet is accused of doing, making stuff up, not caring about the facts."[96] According to David Kirkpatrick, former technology editor at Fortune magazine and author of The Facebook
Facebook
Effect: The Inside Story of the Company That Is Connecting the World, (2011),[97] "the film is only "40% true ... he is not snide and sarcastic in a cruel way, the way Zuckerberg is played in the movie." He says that "a lot of the factual incidents are accurate, but many are distorted and the overall impression is false", and concludes that primarily "his motivations were to try and come up with a new way to share information on the Internet".[96] Although the film portrays Zuckerberg's creation of Facebook
Facebook
in order to elevate his stature after not getting into any of the elite final clubs at Harvard, Zuckerberg said he had no interest in joining the clubs.[16] Kirkpatrick agrees that the impression implied by the film is "false". Karel Baloun, a former senior engineer at Facebook, notes that the "image of Zuckerberg as a socially inept nerd is overstated ... It is fiction ..." He likewise dismisses the film's assertion that he "would deliberately betray a friend".[96] Other depictions Zuckerberg voiced himself on an episode of The Simpsons
The Simpsons
titled "Loan-a Lisa", which first aired on October 3, 2010. In the episode, Lisa Simpson and her friend Nelson encounter Zuckerberg at an entrepreneurs' convention. Zuckerberg tells Lisa that she does not need to graduate from college to be wildly successful, referencing Bill Gates
Bill Gates
and Richard Branson
Richard Branson
as examples.[98] On October 9, 2010, Saturday Night Live
Saturday Night Live
lampooned Zuckerberg and Facebook.[99] Andy Samberg
Andy Samberg
played Zuckerberg. The real Zuckerberg was reported to have been amused: "I thought this was funny."[100] Stephen Colbert
Stephen Colbert
awarded a "Medal of Fear" to Zuckerberg at the Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear on October 30, 2010, "because he values his privacy much more than he values yours".[101] Zuckerberg appears in the climax of the documentary film Terms and Conditions May Apply.[102][103][104] Zuckerberg was parodied in the South Park' episode "Franchise Prequel".[105] Philanthropy See also: Chan Zuckerberg Initiative

Chan and Zuckerberg in Prague (2013)

Zuckerberg donated an undisclosed amount to Diaspora, an open-source personal Web server that implements a distributed social networking service. He called it a "cool idea".[42] Zuckerberg founded the Start-up: Education foundation.[106][107] On September 22, 2010, it was reported that Zuckerberg had donated $100 million to Newark Public Schools, the public school system of Newark, New Jersey.[108][109] Critics noted the timing of the donation as being close to the release of The Social Network, which painted a somewhat negative portrait of Zuckerberg.[110] Zuckerberg responded to the criticism, saying, "The thing that I was most sensitive about with the movie timing was, I didn't want the press about The Social Network movie to get conflated with the Newark project. I was thinking about doing this anonymously just so that the two things could be kept separate."[111] Newark Mayor Cory Booker
Cory Booker
stated that he and New Jersey Governor Chris Christie
Chris Christie
had to convince Zuckerberg's team not to make the donation anonymously.[111] The money was largely wasted, according to journalist Dale Russakoff.[112][113] On December 9, 2010, Zuckerberg, Bill Gates, and investor Warren Buffett signed "The Giving Pledge", in which they promised to donate to charity at least half of their wealth over the course of time, and invited others among the wealthy to donate 50 percent or more of their wealth to charity.[114] In December 2012, Zuckerberg and his wife Priscilla Chan announced that over the course of their lives they would give the majority of their wealth to "advancing human potential and promoting equality" in the spirit of The Giving Pledge.[115] On December 1, 2015, they announced they would eventually give 99 percent of their Facebook shares (worth about US$45 billion at the time) to the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative.[116][117] On December 19, 2013, Zuckerberg announced a donation of 18 million Facebook
Facebook
shares to the Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
Community Foundation, to be executed by the end of the month—based on Facebook's valuation as of then, the shares totaled $990 million in value. On December 31, 2013, the donation was recognized as the largest charitable gift on public record for 2013.[118] The Chronicle of Philanthropy placed Zuckerberg and his wife at the top of the magazine's annual list of 50 most generous Americans for 2013, having donated roughly $1 billion to charity.[119]

Zuckerberg, Kate Roberts and Jimmy Wales

In October 2014, Zuckerberg and his wife Priscilla Chan donated US$25 million to combat the Ebola virus disease, specifically the West African Ebola virus epidemic.[120][121] in 2016, the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative announced that it would give $600 million to Biohub a location in San Francisco's Mission Bay District near the University of California, San Francisco, to allow for easy interaction and collaboration between scientists at UCSF; University of California, Berkeley; Stanford University. On December 1, 2015, Zuckerberg and Chan announced the birth of their first daughter Max, and in an open letter to Max, they pledged to donate 99 percent of their Facebook
Facebook
shares, then valued at US$45 billion, to the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, their new organization that will focus on health and education. The donation will not be given immediately, but over the course of their lives.[122][123] However, instead of forming a charitable corporation to donate the value of the stock to, as Bill Gates, Warren Buffett, Larry Page, Sergey Brin
Sergey Brin
and other tech billionaires have done, Zuckerberg and Chan chose to use the structure of a limited liability company. This has drawn criticism from a number of journalists.[124][125][126][127] Chan and Zuckerberg also signed The Giving Pledge.[128] On August 28, 2017, the couple announced the birth of their second daughter.[129] Politics In 2002, Zuckerberg registered to vote in Westchester County, New York, where he grew up, but did not cast a ballot until November 2008. Santa Clara County Registrar of Voters Spokeswoman, Elma Rosas, told Bloomberg that Zuckerberg is listed as "no preference" on voter rolls, and he voted in at least two of the past three general elections, in 2008 and 2012.[130][131]

Zuckerberg and U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, 2016

Zuckerberg has never revealed his own political views: some consider him a conservative,[132][133] while others consider him liberal.[134] On February 13, 2013, Zuckerberg hosted his first ever fundraising event for New Jersey
New Jersey
Governor Chris Christie. Zuckerberg's particular interest on this occasion was education reform, and Christie's education reform work focused on teachers unions and the expansion of charter schools.[135][136] Later that year, Zuckerberg hosted a campaign fundraiser for Newark mayor Cory Booker, who was running in the 2013 New Jersey
New Jersey
special Senate election.[137] In September 2010, with the support of Governor Chris Christie, Booker obtained a US$100 million pledge from Zuckerberg to Newark Public Schools.[138] In December 2012, Zuckerberg donated 18 million shares to the Silicon Valley Community Foundation, a community organization that includes education in its list of grant-making areas.[139][140] On April 11, 2013, Zuckerberg led the launch of a 501(c)(4) lobbying group called FWD.us. The founders and contributors to the group were primarily Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
entrepreneurs and investors, and its president was Joe Green, a close friend of Zuckerberg.[141][142][143][144] The goals of the group include immigration reform, improving the state of education in the United States, and enabling more technological breakthroughs that benefit the public,[145][146] yet it has also been criticized for financing ads advocating a variety of oil and gas development initiatives, including drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and the Keystone XL pipeline.[147] In 2013, numerous liberal and progressive groups, such as The League of Conservation Voters, MoveOn.org, the Sierra Club, Democracy for America, CREDO, Daily Kos, 350.org, and Presente and Progressives United agreed to either pull their Facebook
Facebook
ad buys or not buy Facebook
Facebook
ads for at least two weeks, in protest of Zuckerberg ads funded by FWD.us
FWD.us
that were in support of oil drilling and the Keystone XL pipeline, and in opposition to Obamacare among Republican United States
United States
senators who back immigration reform.[clarification needed][148] A media report on June 20, 2013 revealed that Zuckerberg actively engaged with Facebook
Facebook
users on his own profile page after the online publication of a FWD.us
FWD.us
video. In response to a claim that the FWD.us organization is "just about tech wanting to hire more people", the Internet
Internet
entrepreneur replied: "The bigger problem we’re trying to address is ensuring the 11 million undocumented folks living in this country now and similar folks in the future are treated fairly."[149] In June 2013, Zuckerberg joined Facebook
Facebook
employees in a company float as part of the annual San Francisco Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Celebration. The company first participated in the event in 2011, with 70 employees, and this number increased to 700 for the 2013 march. The 2013 pride celebration was especially significant, as it followed a U.S. Supreme Court ruling that deemed the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional.[150][151]

Zuckerberg with Argentine President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, 2015

When questioned about the mid-2013 PRISM scandal at the TechCrunch Disrupt conference in September 2013, Zuckerberg stated that the U.S. government "blew it." He further explained that the government performed poorly in regard to the protection of the freedoms of its citizens, the economy, and companies.[55] Zuckerberg placed a statement on his Facebook
Facebook
wall on December 9, 2015 which said that he wants "to add my voice in support of Muslims in our community and around the world" in response to the aftermath of the November 2015 Paris attacks
November 2015 Paris attacks
and the 2015 San Bernardino attack.[152][153][154][155] The statement also said that Muslims are "always welcome" on Facebook, and that his position was a result of the fact that "as a Jew, my parents taught me that we must stand up against attacks on all communities."[156][157] On February 24, 2016, Zuckerberg sent out a company-wide internal memo to employees formally rebuking employees who had crossed out handwritten "Black Lives Matter" phrases on the company walls and had written "All Lives Matter" in their place. Facebook
Facebook
allows employees to free-write thoughts and phrases on company walls. The memo was then leaked by several employees. As Zuckerberg had previously condemned this practice at previous company meetings, and other similar requests had been issued by other leaders at Facebook, Zuckerberg wrote in the memo that he would now consider this overwriting practice not only disrespectful, but "malicious as well." According to Zuckerberg's memo, " Black Lives Matter
Black Lives Matter
doesn't mean other lives don't -- it's simply asking that the black community also achieves the justice they deserve." The memo also noted that the act of crossing something out in itself, "means silencing speech, or that one person's speech is more important than another's." Zuckerberg also said in the memo that he would be launching investigations into the incidents.[158][159][160] New York's Daily News interviewed Facebook employees who commented anonymously that, "Zuckerberg was genuinely angry about the incident and it really encouraged staff that Zuckerberg showed a clear understanding of why the phrase 'Black Lives Matter' must exist, as well as why writing through it is a form of harassment and erasure."[158] In January 2017, Zuckerberg criticized Donald Trump’s executive order to severely limit immigrants and refugees from some countries.[161] Personal life Zuckerberg met his future wife, fellow student Priscilla Chan, at a fraternity party during his sophomore year at Harvard. They began dating in 2003.[162][163] In September 2010, Zuckerberg invited Chan, by then a medical student at the University of California, San Francisco,[164] to move into his rented Palo Alto house. Zuckerberg studied Mandarin in preparation for the couple's visit to China in December 2010.[165][166] On May 19, 2012, Zuckerberg and Chan married in Zuckerberg's backyard in an event that also celebrated her graduation from medical school.[167][168][169] On July 31, 2015, Zuckerberg announced that he and Chan were expecting a baby girl. He said he felt confident that the risk of miscarrying was low so far into the pregnancy, after Chan had already suffered three miscarriages.[170] On December 1, Zuckerberg announced the birth of their daughter, Maxima Chan Zuckerberg ("Max").[171][172] The couple announced on their Chinese New Year video, published on February 6, 2016, that Maxima's official Chinese name is Chen Mingyu (Chinese: 陈明宇).[173] They welcomed their second daughter, August, in August 2017.[174] Zuckerberg has also been very active in China, and he has been a member of Tsinghua University
Tsinghua University
business school's advisory board since 2014.[175] While raised Jewish, Zuckerberg later identified as an atheist,[18][176][177] a position he has since renounced.[178] He has shown an appreciation for Buddhism.[179][180] With regard to Christianity, both Zuckerberg and his wife told Pope Francis
Pope Francis
in August 2016 "how much we admire his message of mercy and tenderness, and how he's found new ways to communicate with people of every faith around the world."[181][182][183] In December 2016, when asked "Aren't you an atheist?" in response to a Christmas Day
Christmas Day
post on Facebook, Zuckerberg responded, "No. I was raised Jewish and then I went through a period where I questioned things, but now I believe religion is very important."[178] As he closed his commencement address at Harvard University in May 2017, Zuckerberg shared the Jewish prayer Mi Shebeirach, which he stated he says when he faces challenges in life.[184][185] See also

Criticism of Facebook Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
book club

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marries sweetheart". Archived from the original on May 24, 2012. Retrieved May 19, 2012.  ^ "Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
marries Priscilla Chan". cbsnews.com. Retrieved May 20, 2012.  ^ Wohlsen, Marcus (May 19, 2012). "Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
marries longtime girlfriend, Priscilla Chan: Palo Alto, Calif., ceremony caps busy week after company goes public". msnbc.com. Associated Press. Retrieved May 20, 2012.  ^ " Facebook
Facebook
founder Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
to become a father". BBC
BBC
News. BBC. July 31, 2015. Retrieved August 1, 2015.  ^ "The Switch Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
and Priscilla Chan to give away 99 percent of their Facebook
Facebook
stock, worth $45 billion".  ^ "A letter to our daughter". www.facebook.com. Retrieved December 1, 2015.  ^ Kell, John (February 8, 2016). " Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
Reveals Daughter's Chinese Name". Fortune.com. Retrieved February 29, 2016. In a pretty adorable video shared by the tech executive over the weekend, Zuckerberg and his wife Priscilla Chan said their daughter Max's Chinese name is Chen Mingyu.  ^ " Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
and his wife just unveiled their new baby girl to the world". Fox News. August 28, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2017.  ^ " Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
is back in China as Facebook
Facebook
eyes opportunity to finally enter the country". Business Insider. October 28, 2017.  ^ Vara, Vauhini (November 28, 2007). "Just How Much Do We Want to Share On Social Networks?". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 30, 2016.  ^ Daniel Alef (October 17, 2010). Mark Zuckerberg: The Face Behind Facebook
Facebook
and Social Networking. Titans of Fortune Publishing. ISBN 9781608043118. Retrieved December 30, 2016.  ^ a b Julie Zauzmer (December 30, 2016). " Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
says he's no longer an atheist, believes 'religion is very important'". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 30, 2016.  ^ " Facebook
Facebook
Is Injecting Buddhism
Buddhism
Into Its Core Business So It Can Be More Compassionate". Retrieved June 25, 2013.  ^ " Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
says " Buddhism
Buddhism
is an amazing religion". Retrieved October 27, 2015.  ^ Zauzmer, Julie (August 29, 2016). " Pope Francis
Pope Francis
and Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg had a meeting today - The Washington Post". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 7, 2017.  ^ Fox, Emily Jane (August 29, 2016). " Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
Gives the Pope an Unusual Gift". Vanity Fair. Retrieved January 7, 2017.  ^ Esteves, Junno Arocho (August 29, 2016). "Pope meets with Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg". America. Retrieved January 7, 2017.  ^ Bailey, Sarah Pulliam (May 25, 2017). " Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
shares the prayer he says to his daughter every night -". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 6, 2017. Facebook
Facebook
founder Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
gave the commencement address at Harvard University
Harvard University
on Thursday, closing his speech by sharing a Jewish prayer called the “Mi Shebeirach,” which he said he recites whenever he faces a big challenge and which he sings to his daughter, thinking of her future, when he tucks her in at night.  ^ Hallowell, Billy (May 26, 2017). "After Abandoning Atheism, Facebook Founder Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
Reveals the Prayer He Sings to His Daughter Every Night Before Bed". Faithwire. Retrieved June 6, 2017. It was during Zuckerberg’s commencement address at Harvard University
Harvard University
that he shared a Jewish prayer called the “Mi Shebeirach”— an invocation that he said he recites as he copes with major challenges in life and also when he tucks his child in at night, the Washington Post reported. 

External links

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Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(28% equity) Dustin Moskovitz
Dustin Moskovitz
(7%) Eduardo Saverin
Eduardo Saverin
(5%, formerly) Chris Hughes
Chris Hughes
(1%, formerly) Andrew McCollum

Board

Mark Zuckerberg Jim Breyer
Jim Breyer
(11%) Peter Thiel
Peter Thiel
(2%) Sheryl Sandberg Marc Andreessen Erskine Bowles Susan Desmond-Hellmann Donald E. Graham Reed Hastings

Executive officers

Current

Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(Chairman and CEO) Sheryl Sandberg
Sheryl Sandberg
(COO) David Wehner (CFO) Mike Schroepfer
Mike Schroepfer
(CTO)

Former

Sean Parker
Sean Parker
(4%, formerly) Owen Van Natta Gideon Yu Adam D'Angelo Chris Kelly Bret Taylor David Ebersman

Notable employees

Current

Chris Cox (VP of Product) Elliot Schrage
Elliot Schrage
(VP of Global Communications, Marketing and Public Policy) Lars Rasmussen (Graph Search director) John Carmack
John Carmack
(CTO of Oculus VR) Hugo Barra
Hugo Barra
(VP of Oculus VR) Naomi Gleit (VP of social good) Caryn Marooney (VP of Communications)

Former

Blake Ross
Blake Ross
(Director of Product) Ted Ullyot (VP, General Counsel, and Secretary) Matt Cohler Charlie Cheever Randi Zuckerberg Yishan Wong George Hotz Joe Lockhart Andrei Alexandrescu
Andrei Alexandrescu
(research scientist)

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Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

v t e

The World's Billionaires
The World's Billionaires
– Top ten richest people in the world as of 10 March 2018

Jeff Bezos
Jeff Bezos
($112B, United States) Bill Gates
Bill Gates
($90B, United States) Warren Buffett
Warren Buffett
($84B, United States) Bernard Arnault
Bernard Arnault
($72B, France) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
($71B, United States) Amancio Ortega
Amancio Ortega
($70B, Spain) Carlos Slim
Carlos Slim
($67.1B, Mexico) Charles Koch ($60B, United States) David Koch
David Koch
($60B, United States) Larry Ellison
Larry Ellison
($58.5B, United States)

v t e

Wealthiest people in the United States
United States
by state

AL Jimmy Rane

AK Leonard Hyde and Jonathan Rubini

AZ Bruce Halle

AR Jim Walton

CA Mark Zuckerberg

CO Charlie Ergen

CT Ray Dalio

DE Robert W. Gore
Robert W. Gore
and Elizabeth Snyder

FL Thomas Peterffy

GA Jim Kennedy

HI Pierre Omidyar

ID Frank L. VanderSloot

IL Kenneth C. Griffin

IN Carl Cook

IA Harry Stine

KS Charles Koch

KY B. Wayne Hughes

LA Tom Benson

ME Bill and Susan Alfond

MD Ted Lerner

MA Abigail Johnson

MI Dan Gilbert

MN Whitney MacMillan

MS Leslie Lampton

MO Stan Kroenke

MT Dennis Washington

NE Warren Buffett

NV Sheldon Adelson

NH Andrea Reimann-Ciardelli

NJ Donald Newhouse

NM Mack C. Chase

NY Michael Bloomberg

NC James Goodnight

ND Gary Tharaldson

OH Les Wexner

OK Harold Hamm

OR Phil Knight

PA Mary Alice Dorrance Malone

RI Jonathan M. Nelson

SC Anita Zucker

SD T. Denny Sanford

TN Thomas F. Frist Jr.

TX Alice Walton

UT Gail Miller

VT John Abele

VA Jacqueline Mars

WA Bill Gates

WV Jim Justice

WI John Menard Jr.

WY John Mars

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 101338851 LCCN: n2009022154 ISNI: 0000 0001 1478 8765 GND: 139618171 SELIBR: 341462 SUDOC: 143320165 BNF: cb16182911f (data) BIBSYS: 10033777 NDL: 01235319 BN

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