Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), known by his
pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym (or, in some cases, a variant form of a real name) adopted by an author and printed on the title page or by-line of their works in place of their real name. A pen ...
Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer. He was lauded as the "greatest humorist the United States has produced," and William Faulkner called him "the father of American literature". His novels include ''The Adventures of Tom Sawyer'' (1876) and its sequel, the ''Adventures of Huckleberry Finn'' (1884), the latter often called "Great American Novel, The Great American Novel". Twain was raised in Hannibal, Missouri, which later provided the setting for ''Tom Sawyer'' and ''Huckleberry Finn''. He served an apprenticeship with a printer and then worked as a typesetter, contributing articles to the newspaper of his older brother Orion Clemens. He later became a riverboat pilot on the Mississippi River before heading west to join Orion in Nevada. He referred humorously to his lack of success at mining, turning to journalism for the Virginia City, Nevada, Virginia City ''Territorial Enterprise''. His humorous story, "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County", was published in 1865, based on a story that he heard at Angels Hotel in Angels Camp, California, where he had spent some time as a miner. The short story brought international attention and was even translated into French. His wit and satire, in prose and in speech, earned praise from critics and peers, and he was a friend to presidents, artists, industrialists, and European royalty. Twain earned a great deal of money from his writings and lectures, but he invested in ventures that lost most of it—such as the Paige Compositor, a mechanical typesetter that failed because of its complexity and imprecision. He filed for bankruptcy in the wake of these financial setbacks, but in time overcame his financial troubles with the help of Henry Huttleston Rogers. He eventually paid all his creditors in full, even though his bankruptcy relieved him of having to do so. Twain was born shortly after an appearance of Halley's Comet, and he predicted that he would "go out with it" as well; he died the day after the comet made its closest approach to the Earth.


Early life

Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born on November 30, 1835, in Florida, Missouri. He was the sixth of seven children of Jane (''née'' Lampton; 1803–1890), a native of Kentucky, and John Marshall Clemens (1798–1847), a native of Virginia. His parents met when his father moved to Missouri. They were married in 1823. Cited in Twain was of Cornish people, Cornish, English people, English, and Ulster Scots people, Scots-Irish descent. Only three of his siblings survived childhood: Orion Clemens, Orion (1825–1897), Henry (1838–1858), and Pamela (1827–1904). His brother Pleasant Hannibal (1828) died at three weeks of age, his sister Margaret (1830–1839) when Twain was three, and his brother Benjamin (1832–1842) three years later. When he was four, Twain's family moved to Hannibal, Missouri, a port town on the Mississippi River that inspired the fictional town of St. Petersburg in ''The Adventures of Tom Sawyer'' and the ''Adventures of Huckleberry Finn''. History of slavery in Missouri, Slavery was legal in Missouri at the time, and it became a theme in these writings. His father was an attorney and judge, who died of pneumonia in 1847, when Twain was 11. The following year, Twain left school after the fifth grade to become a printer's apprentice. In 1851, he began working as a typesetter, contributing articles and humorous sketches to the ''Hannibal Journal'', a newspaper that Orion owned. When he was 18, he left Hannibal and worked as a printer in New York City, Philadelphia, St. Louis, and Cincinnati, joining the newly formed International Typographical Union, the printers trade union. He autodidact, educated himself in public library, public libraries in the evenings, finding wider information than at a conventional school. Twain describes his boyhood in ''Life on the Mississippi'', stating that "there was but one permanent ambition" among his comrades: to be a steamboatman. "Pilot was the grandest position of all. The pilot, even in those days of trivial wages, had a princely salary – from a hundred and fifty to two hundred and fifty dollars a month, and no board to pay." As Twain described it, the pilot's prestige exceeded that of the captain. The pilot had to "get up a warm personal acquaintanceship with every old snag and one-limbed cottonwood and every obscure wood pile that ornaments the banks of this river for twelve hundred miles; and more than that, must... actually know where these things are in the dark". Steamboat pilot Horace Ezra Bixby, Horace E. Bixby took Twain on as a cub pilot to teach him the river between New Orleans and St. Louis for $500 (), payable out of Twain's first wages after graduating. Twain studied the Mississippi, learning its landmarks, how to navigate its currents effectively, and how to read the river and its constantly shifting channels, reefs, submerged snags, and rocks that would "tear the life out of the strongest vessel that ever floated". It was more than two years before he received his pilot's license. Piloting also gave him his pen name from "Depth sounding#Terminology, mark twain", the leadsman's cry for a measured river depth of two fathoms (12 feet), which was safe water for a steamboat. As a young pilot, Clemens served on the steamer ''A. B. Chambers'' with Grant Marsh, who became famous for his exploits as a steamboat captain on the Missouri River. The two liked each other, and admired one another, and maintained a correspondence for many years after Clemens left the river. While training, Samuel convinced his younger brother Henry to work with him, and even arranged a post of mud clerk for him on the steamboat ''Pennsylvania Steamboat, Pennsylvania''. On June 13, 1858, the steamboat's boiler exploded; Henry succumbed to his wounds on June 21. Twain claimed to have foreseen this death in a dream a month earlier, which inspired his interest in parapsychology; he was an early member of the Society for Psychical Research. Twain was guilt-stricken and held himself responsible for the rest of his life. He continued to work on the river and was a river pilot until the American Civil War, Civil War broke out in 1861, when Mississippi River campaigns in the American Civil War, traffic was curtailed along the Mississippi River. At the start of hostilities, he enlisted briefly in a local Confederate States of America, Confederate unit. He later wrote the sketch "The Private History of a Campaign That Failed", describing how he and his friends had been Confederate volunteers for two weeks before disbanding. He then left for Nevada to work for his brother Orion, who was Secretary of the Nevada Territory. Twain describes the episode in his book ''Roughing It''.

In the American West

Orion became secretary to Nevada Territory governor James W. Nye in 1861, and Twain joined him when he moved west. The brothers traveled more than two weeks on a stagecoach across the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains, visiting the Mormon pioneers, Mormon community in Salt Lake City. Twain's journey ended in the silver-mining town of Virginia City, Nevada, where he became a mining, miner on the Comstock Lode. He failed as a miner and went to work at the Virginia City newspaper ''Territorial Enterprise'', working under a friend, the writer Dan DeQuille. He first used his pen name here on February 3, 1863, when he wrote a humorous travel account entitled "Letter From Carson – re: Joe Goodman; party at Gov. Johnson's; music" and signed it "Mark Twain". His experiences in the Western United States, American West inspired ''Roughing It'', written during 1870–71 and published in 1872. His experiences in Angels Camp (in Calaveras County, California) provided material for "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" (1865). Twain moved to San Francisco in 1864, still as a journalist, and met writers such as Bret Harte and Artemus Ward. He may have been romantically involved with the poet Ina Coolbrith. His first success as a writer came when his humorous tall tale "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" was published on November 18, 1865, in the New York weekly ''The Saturday Press (literary newspaper), The Saturday Press'', bringing him national attention. A year later, he traveled to the Hawaiian Islands, Sandwich Islands (present-day Hawaii) as a reporter for the ''Sacramento Union''. His letters to the ''Union'' were popular and became the basis for his first lectures. In 1867, a local newspaper funded his trip to the Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean aboard the ''Quaker City'', including a tour of Europe and the Middle East. He wrote a collection of travel letters which were later compiled as ''The Innocents Abroad'' (1869). It was on this trip that he met fellow passenger Charles Langdon, who showed him a picture of his sister Olivia Langdon Clemens, Olivia. Twain later claimed to have Love at first sight, fallen in love at first sight. Upon returning to the United States, Twain was offered honorary membership in Yale University's secret society Scroll and Key in 1868.

Marriage and children

File:Mark Twain House and Museum 2007.jpg, Twain House in Hartford, Connecticut Twain and Olivia Langdon corresponded throughout 1868. After she rejected his first marriage proposal, they were married in Elmira, New York in February 1870, where he courted her and managed to overcome her father's initial reluctance. She came from a "wealthy but liberal family"; through her, he met Abolitionism in the United States, abolitionists, "socialists, principled atheists and activists for women's rights and social equality", including Harriet Beecher Stowe, Frederick Douglass, and utopian socialism, utopian socialist writer William Dean Howells, who became a long-time friend. The Clemenses lived in Buffalo, New York, from 1869 to 1871. He owned a stake in the ''Buffalo Courier-Express, Buffalo Express'' newspaper and worked as an editor and writer. While they were living in Buffalo, their son Langdon died of diphtheria at the age of 19 months. They had three daughters: Susy Clemens, Susy (1872–1896), Clara Clemens, Clara (1874–1962), and Jean Clemens, Jean (1880–1909). The Clemenses formed a friendship with David Gray, who worked as an editor of the rival ''Buffalo Courier-Express, Buffalo Courier'', and his wife Martha. Twain later wrote that the Grays were "'all the solace' he and Livy had during their 'sorrowful and pathetic brief sojourn in Buffalo'", and that Gray's "delicate gift for poetry" was wasted working for a newspaper. In November 1872, Twain was a passenger on the Cunard Line steamship which rescued the nine surviving crew of the British barque ''Charles Ward''. Twain witnessed the rescue, and wrote to the Royal Humane Society recommending them to honour ''Batavia''s captain and the crew that manned the lifeboat (shipboard), lifeboat. Starting in 1873, Twain moved his family to Hartford, Connecticut, where he arranged the building of Mark Twain House, a home next door to Stowe. In the 1870s and 1880s, the family summered at Quarry Farm in Elmira, the home of Olivia's sister, Susan Crane. In 1874, Susan had a study built apart from the main house so that Twain would have a quiet place in which to write. Also, he smoked cigars constantly, and Susan did not want him to do so in her house. Twain wrote many of his classic novels during his 17 years in Hartford (1874–1891) and over 20 summers at Quarry Farm. They include ''The Adventures of Tom Sawyer'' (1876), ''The Prince and the Pauper'' (1881), ''Life on the Mississippi'' (1883), ''Adventures of Huckleberry Finn'' (1884), and ''A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court'' (1889). The couple's marriage lasted 34 years until Olivia's death in 1904. All of the Clemens family are buried in Elmira's Woodlawn Cemetery (Elmira, New York), Woodlawn Cemetery.

Love of science and technology

Twain was fascinated with science and scientific inquiry. He developed a close and lasting friendship with Nikola Tesla, and the two spent much time together in Tesla's laboratory. Twain patented three inventions, including an "Improvement in Adjustable and Detachable Straps for Garments" (to replace suspenders) and a history trivia game. Most commercially successful was a self-pasting scrapbook; a dried adhesive on the pages needed only to be moistened before use. Over 25,000 were sold. Twain was an early proponent of fingerprinting as a forensic technique, featuring it in a tall tale in ''Life on the Mississippi'' (1883) and as a central plot element in the novel ''Pudd'nhead Wilson'' (1894). Twain's novel ''A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court'' (1889) features a time traveler from the contemporary U.S., using his knowledge of science to introduce modern technology to King Arthur, Arthurian England. This type of historical manipulation became a trope of speculative fiction as alternate history, alternate histories. In 1909, Thomas Edison visited Twain at Stormfield, his home in Redding, Connecticut and filmed him. Part of the footage was used in ''The Prince and the Pauper'' (1909), a two-reel short film. It is the only known existing film footage of Twain.

Financial troubles

Twain made a substantial amount of money through his writing, but he lost a great deal through investments. He invested mostly in new inventions and technology, particularly the Paige Compositor, Paige typesetting machine. It was a beautifully engineered mechanical marvel that amazed viewers when it worked, but it was prone to breakdowns. Twain spent $300,000 (equal to $ in inflation-adjusted terms ) on it between 1880 and 1894, but before it could be perfected it was rendered obsolete by the Linotype machine, Linotype. He lost the bulk of his book profits, as well as a substantial portion of his wife's inheritance. Twain also lost money through his publishing house, Charles L. Webster and Company, which enjoyed initial success selling the Personal Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant, memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant but failed soon afterward, losing money on a biography of Pope Leo XIII. Fewer than 200 copies were sold. Twain and his family closed down their expensive Hartford home in response to the dwindling income and moved to Europe in June 1891. William M. Laffan of ''The Sun (New York), The New York Sun'' and the McClure Newspaper Syndicate offered him the publication of a series of six European letters. Twain, Olivia, and their daughter Susy were all faced with health problems, and they believed that it would be of benefit to visit European baths. The family stayed mainly in France, Germany, and Italy until May 1895, with longer spells at Berlin (winter 1891-92), Florence (fall and winter 1892-93), and Paris (winters and springs 1893-94 and 1894–95). During that period, Twain returned four times to New York due to his enduring business troubles. He took "a cheap room" in September 1893 at $1.50 per day () at The Players (New York City), The Players Club, which he had to keep until March 1894; meanwhile, he became "the Belle of New York," in the words of biographer Albert Bigelow Paine. Twain's writings and lectures enabled him to recover financially, combined with the help of his friend, Henry Huttleston Rogers. In 1893 he began a friendship with the financier, a principal of Standard Oil, that lasted the remainder of his life. Rogers first made him file for bankruptcy in April 1894, then had him transfer the copyrights on his written works to his wife to prevent creditors from gaining possession of them. Finally, Rogers took absolute charge of Twain's money until all his creditors were paid. Twain accepted an offer from Robert Sparrow Smythe and embarked on a year-long, around the world lecture tour in July 1895 to pay off his creditors in full, although he was no longer under any legal obligation to do so. It was a long, arduous journey and he was sick much of the time, mostly from a cold and a carbuncle. The first part of the itinerary took him across northern America to British Columbia, Canada, until the second half of August. For the second part, he sailed across the Pacific Ocean. His scheduled lecture in Honolulu, Hawaii had to be canceled due to a cholera epidemic. Twain went on to Fiji, Australia, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, India, Mauritius, and South Africa. His three months in India became the centerpiece of his 712-page book ''Following the Equator''. In the second half of July 1896, he sailed back to England, completing his circumnavigation of the world begun 14 months before. Twain and his family spent four more years in Europe, mainly in England and Austria (October 1897 to May 1899), with longer spells in London and Vienna. Clara had wished to study the piano under Theodor Leschetizky in Vienna. However, Jean's health did not benefit from consulting with specialists in Vienna, the "City of Doctors". The family moved to London in spring 1899, following a lead by Poultney Bigelow who had a good experience being treated by Dr. Jonas Henrik Kellgren, a Swedish Osteopathy, osteopathic practitioner in Belgravia. They were persuaded to spend the summer at Kellgren's sanatorium by the lake in the Sweden, Swedish village of Sanna. Coming back in fall, they continued the treatment in London, until Twain was convinced by lengthy inquiries in America that similar osteopathic expertise was available there. In mid-1900, he was the guest of newspaper proprietor Hugh Gilzean-Reid at Dollis Hill House, located on the north side of London. Twain wrote that he had "never seen any place that was so satisfactorily situated, with its noble trees and stretch of country, and everything that went to make life delightful, and all within a biscuit's throw of the metropolis of the world." He then returned to America in October 1900, having earned enough to pay off his debts. In winter 1900/01, he became his country's most prominent #Anti-imperialist, opponent of imperialism, raising the issue in his speeches, interviews, and writings. In January 1901, he began serving as vice-president of the American Anti-Imperialist League, Anti-Imperialist League of New York.

Speaking engagements

Twain was in great demand as a featured speaker, performing solo humorous talks similar to modern stand-up comedy. He gave paid talks to many men's clubs, including the Authors' Club, Beefsteak Club, Vagabonds, White Friars, and Monday Evening Club of Hartford. In the late 1890s, he spoke to the Savage Club in London and was elected an honorary member. He was told that only three men had been so honored, including the Edward VII of the United Kingdom, Prince of Wales, and he replied: "Well, it must make the Prince feel mighty fine." He visited Melbourne and Sydney in 1895 as part of a world lecture tour. In 1897, he spoke to the Concordia Press Club in Vienna as a special guest, following the diplomat Charlemagne Tower, Jr. He delivered the speech "''The Awful German Language, Die Schrecken der Deutschen Sprache''" ("The Horrors of the German Language")—in German—to the great amusement of the audience. In 1901, he was invited to speak at Princeton University's American Whig-Cliosophic Society, Cliosophic Literary Society, where he was made an honorary member.

Canadian visits

In 1881, Twain was honored at a banquet in Montreal, Canada where he made reference to securing a copyright. In 1883, he paid a brief visit to Ottawa, and he visited Toronto twice in 1884 and 1885 on a reading tour with George Washington Cable, known as the "Twins of Genius" tour. The reason for the Toronto visits was to secure Canadian and British copyrights for his upcoming book ''Adventures of Huckleberry Finn'', to which he had alluded in his Montreal visit. The reason for the Ottawa visit had been to secure Canadian and British copyrights for ''Life on the Mississippi''. Publishers in Toronto had printed unauthorized editions of his books at the time, before an international copyright agreement was established in 1891. These were sold in the United States as well as in Canada, depriving him of royalties. He estimated that Charles Belford, Belford Brothers' edition of ''The Adventures of Tom Sawyer'' alone had cost him ten thousand dollars (). He had unsuccessfully attempted to secure the rights for ''The Prince and the Pauper'' in 1881, in conjunction with his Montreal trip. Eventually, he received legal advice to register a copyright in Canada (for both Canada and Britain) prior to publishing in the United States, which would restrain the Canadian publishers from printing a version when the American edition was published. There was a requirement that a copyright be registered to a Canadian resident; he addressed this by his short visits to the country.

Later life and death

Twain lived in his later years at 14 West 10th Street in Manhattan. He passed through a period of deep depression which began in 1896 when his daughter Susy died of meningitis. Olivia's death in 1904 and Jean's on December 24, 1909, deepened his gloom. On May 20, 1909, his close friend Henry Rogers died suddenly. In April 1906, he heard that his friend Ina Coolbrith had lost nearly all that she owned in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, and he volunteered a few autographed portrait photographs to be sold for her benefit. To further aid Coolbrith, George Wharton James visited Twain in New York and arranged for a new portrait session. He was resistant initially, but he eventually admitted that four of the resulting images were the finest ones ever taken of him. In September, Twain started publishing Chapters from My Autobiography, chapters from his autobiography in the ''North American Review''. The same year, Charlotte Teller, a writer living with her grandmother at 3 Fifth Avenue, began an acquaintanceship with him which "lasted several years and may have included romantic intentions" on his part. Twain formed a club in 1906 for girls whom he viewed as surrogate granddaughters called the Angel Fish and Aquarium Club. The dozen or so members ranged in age from 10 to 16. He exchanged letters with his "Angel Fish" girls and invited them to concerts and the theatre and to play games. Twain wrote in 1908 that the club was his "life's chief delight". In 1907, he met Dorothy Quick (aged 11) on a transatlantic crossing, beginning "a friendship that was to last until the very day of his death". Twain was awarded an honorary Doctorate of Letters (D.Litt.) by the University of Oxford in 1907. Twain was born two weeks after Halley's Comet's closest approach in 1835; he said in 1909: Twain's prediction was accurate; he died of a heart attack on April 21, 1910, in Stormfield, one day after the comet's closest approach to Earth. Upon hearing of Twain's death, President William Howard Taft said: Twain's funeral was at the Brick Presbyterian Church (New York City), Brick Presbyterian Church on Fifth Avenue, New York. He is buried in his wife's family plot at Woodlawn Cemetery (Elmira, New York), Woodlawn Cemetery in Elmira, New York. The Langdon family plot is marked by a 12-foot monument (two fathoms, or "mark twain") placed there by his surviving daughter Clara. There is also a smaller headstone. He expressed a preference for cremation (for example, in ''Life on the Mississippi''), but he acknowledged that his surviving family would have the last word. Officials in Connecticut and New York estimated the value of Twain's estate at $471,000 ($ today).



Twain began his career writing light, humorous verse, but he became a chronicler of the vanities, hypocrisies, and murderous acts of mankind. At mid-career, he combined rich humor, sturdy narrative, and social criticism in ''Huckleberry Finn''. He was a master of rendering colloquialism, colloquial speech and helped to create and popularize a distinctive American literature built on American themes and language. Many of his works have been suppressed at times for various reasons. The ''Adventures of Huckleberry Finn'' has been repeatedly restricted in American high schools, not least for its frequent use of the word "nigger", which was in common usage in the pre-Civil War period in which the novel was set. A complete bibliography of Twain's works is nearly impossible to compile because of the vast number of pieces he wrote (often in obscure newspapers) and his use of several different pen names. Additionally, a large portion of his speeches and lectures have been lost or were not recorded; thus, the compilation of Twain's works is an ongoing process. Researchers rediscovered published material as recently as 1995 and 2015.

Early journalism and travelogues

Twain was writing for the Virginia City newspaper the ''Territorial Enterprise'' in 1863 when he met lawyer Thomas Fitch (politician), Tom Fitch, editor of the competing newspaper ''Virginia Daily Union'' and known as the "silver-tongued orator of the Pacific". He credited Fitch with giving him his "first really profitable lesson" in writing. "When I first began to lecture, and in my earlier writings," Twain later commented, "my sole idea was to make comic capital out of everything I saw and heard." In 1866, he presented his lecture on the Sandwich Islands to a crowd in Washoe City, Nevada. Afterwards, Fitch told him:
Clemens, your lecture was magnificent. It was eloquent, moving, sincere. Never in my entire life have I listened to such a magnificent piece of descriptive narration. But you committed one unpardonable sin – the unpardonable sin. It is a sin you must never commit again. You closed a most eloquent description, by which you had keyed your audience up to a pitch of the intensest interest, with a piece of atrocious anti-climax which nullified all the really fine effect you had produced.
It was in these days that Twain became a writer of the Sagebrush School; he was known later as its most famous member. His first important work was "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County," published in the ''New York Saturday Press'' on November 18, 1865. After a burst of popularity, the ''Sacramento Union'' commissioned him to write letters about his travel experiences. The first journey that he took for this job was to ride the steamer ''Ajax'' on its maiden voyage to the Hawaiian Islands, Sandwich Islands (Hawaii). All the while, he was writing letters to the newspaper that were meant for publishing, chronicling his experiences with humor. These letters proved to be the genesis to his work with the San Francisco ''The Daily Alta California, Alta California'' newspaper, which designated him a traveling correspondent for a trip from San Francisco to New York City via the Panama Canal, Panama isthmus. On June 8, 1867, he set sail on the pleasure cruiser ''Quaker City'' for five months, and this trip resulted in ''The Innocents Abroad, The Innocents Abroad or The New Pilgrims' Progress''. In 1872, he published his second piece of travel literature, ''Roughing It'', as an account of his journey from Missouri to Nevada, his subsequent life in the Western United States, American West, and his visit to Hawaii. The book lampoons American and Western society in the same way that ''Innocents'' critiqued the various countries of Europe and the Middle East. His next work was ''The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today'', his debut novel, first attempt at writing a novel. The book, written with his neighbor Charles Dudley Warner, is also his only collaboration. Twain's next work drew on his experiences on the Mississippi River. ''Old Times on the Mississippi'' was a series of sketches published in the ''Atlantic Monthly'' in 1875 featuring his disillusionment with Romanticism. ''Old Times'' eventually became the starting point for ''Life on the Mississippi''.

''Tom Sawyer'' and ''Huckleberry Finn''

Twain's next major publication was ''The Adventures of Tom Sawyer'', which draws on his youth in Hannibal. Tom Sawyer was modeled on Twain as a child, with traces of schoolmates John Briggs and Will Bowen. The book also introduces Huckleberry Finn in a supporting role, based on Twain's boyhood friend Tom Blankenship. ''The Prince and the Pauper'' was not as well received, despite a Plot (narrative), storyline that is common in film and literature today. The book tells the story of two boys born on the same day who are physically identical, acting as a social commentary as the prince and pauper switch places. Twain had started ''Adventures of Huckleberry Finn'' (which he consistently had problems completing) and had completed his travel book ''A Tramp Abroad'', which describes his travels through central and southern Europe. Twain's next major published work was the ''Adventures of Huckleberry Finn'', which confirmed him as a noteworthy American writer. Some have called it the first Great American Novel, and the book has become required reading in many schools throughout the United States. ''Huckleberry Finn'' was an offshoot from ''Tom Sawyer'' and had a more serious tone than its predecessor. Four hundred manuscript pages were written in mid-1876, right after the publication of ''Tom Sawyer''. The last fifth of ''Huckleberry Finn'' is subject to much controversy. Some say that Twain experienced a "failure of nerve," as critic Leo Marx puts it. Ernest Hemingway once said of ''Huckleberry Finn'':
If you read it, you must stop where the Nigger Jim is stolen from the boys. That is the real end. The rest is just cheating.
Hemingway also wrote in the same essay:
All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called ''Huckleberry Finn''.
Near the completion of ''Huckleberry Finn'', Twain wrote ''Life on the Mississippi'', which is said to have heavily influenced the novel. The travel work recounts Twain's memories and new experiences after a 22-year absence from the Mississippi River. In it, he also explains that "Mark Twain" was the call made when the boat was in safe water, indicating a depth of two (or wikt:twain, twain) fathoms (). The McDowell's cave, now known as Mark Twain Cave in Hannibal, Missouri and frequently discussed in Twain's book, "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer has "Sam Clemens," Twain's real name engraved on the wall by Twain himself.

Later writing

Twain produced President Ulysses S. Grant's ''Personal Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant, Memoirs'' through his fledgling publishing house, Charles L. Webster and Company, Charles L. Webster & Company, which he co-owned with Charles L. Webster, his nephew by marriage. At this time he also wrote "The Private History of a Campaign That Failed" for ''The Century Magazine''. This piece detailed his two-week stint in a Confederate army, Confederate militia during the United States Civil War, Civil War. He next focused on ''A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court'', written with the same historical fiction style as ''The Prince and the Pauper''. ''A Connecticut Yankee'' showed the absurdities of political and social norms by setting them in the court of King Arthur. The book was started in December 1885, then shelved a few months later until the summer of 1887, and eventually finished in the spring of 1889. His next large-scale work was ''Pudd'nhead Wilson'', which he wrote rapidly, as he was desperately trying to stave off bankruptcy. From November 12 to December 14, 1893, Twain wrote 60,000 words for the novel. Critics have pointed to this rushed completion as the cause of the novel's rough organization and constant disruption of the plot. This novel also contains the tale of two boys born on the same day who switch positions in life, like ''The Prince and the Pauper''. It was first published serially in ''Century Magazine'' and, when it was finally published in book form, ''Pudd'nhead Wilson'' appeared as the main title; however, the "subtitles" make the entire title read: ''The Tragedy of Pudd'nhead Wilson and the Comedy of The Extraordinary Twins''. Twain's next venture was a work of straight fiction that he called ''Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc'' and dedicated to his wife. He had long said that this was the work that he was most proud of, despite the criticism that he received for it. The book had been a dream of his since childhood, and he claimed that he had found a manuscript detailing the life of Joan of Arc when he was an adolescent. This was another piece that he was convinced would save his publishing company. His financial adviser Henry Huttleston Rogers quashed that idea and got Twain out of that business altogether, but the book was published nonetheless. To pay the bills and keep his business projects afloat, Twain had begun to write articles and commentary furiously, with diminishing returns, but it was not enough. He filed for bankruptcy in 1894. During this time of dire financial straits, he published several literary reviews in newspapers to help make ends meet. He famously derided James Fenimore Cooper in his article detailing Cooper's "Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offenses, Literary Offenses". He became an extremely outspoken critic of other authors and other critics; he suggested that, before praising Cooper's work, Thomas Lounsbury, Brander Matthews, and Wilkie Collins "ought to have read some of it".Twain, Mark
Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offenses
From Collected Tales, Sketches, Speeches and Essays, from 1891–1910. Edited by Louis J. Budd. New York: Library of America, 1992.
George Eliot, Jane Austen, and Robert Louis Stevenson also fell under Twain's attack during this time period, beginning around 1890 and continuing until his death. He outlines what he considers to be "quality writing" in several letters and essays, in addition to providing a source for the "tooth and claw" style of literary criticism. He places emphasis on concision, utility of word choice, and realism; he complains, for example, that Cooper's ''Deerslayer'' purports to be realistic but has several shortcomings. Ironically, several of his own works were later criticized for lack of continuity (''Adventures of Huckleberry Finn'') and organization (''Pudd'nhead Wilson''). Twain's wife died in 1904 while the couple were staying at the Villa di Quarto in Florence. After some time had passed he published some works that his wife, his ''de facto'' editor and censor throughout her married life, had looked down upon. ''The Mysterious Stranger'' is perhaps the best known, depicting various visits of Satan to earth. This particular work was not published in Twain's lifetime. His manuscripts included three versions, written between 1897 and 1905: the so-called Hannibal, Eseldorf, and Print Shop versions. The resulting confusion led to extensive publication of a jumbled version, and only recently have the original versions become available as Twain wrote them. Twain's last work was Mark Twain's Autobiography, his autobiography, which he dictated and thought would be most entertaining if he went off on whims and tangents in non-chronological order. Some archivists and compilers have rearranged the biography into a more conventional form, thereby eliminating some of Twain's humor and the flow of the book. The first volume of the autobiography, over 736 pages, was published by the University of California in November 2010, 100 years after his death, as Twain wished. It soon became an unexpected best-seller, making Twain one of a very few authors publishing new best-selling volumes in the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.


Twain's works have been subjected to censorship efforts. According to Stuart (2013), "Leading these banning campaigns, generally, were religious organizations or individuals in positions of influence – not so much working librarians, who had been instilled with that American "library spirit" which honored intellectual freedom (within bounds of course)". In 1905, the Brooklyn Public Library banned both ''The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn'' and ''The Adventures of Tom Sawyer'' from the children's department because of their language.


Twain's views became more radical as he grew older. In a letter to friend and fellow writer William Dean Howells in 1887 he acknowledged that his views had changed and developed over his lifetime, referring to one of his favorite works:


Before 1899, Twain was an ardent American imperialism, imperialist. In the late 1860s and early 1870s, he spoke out strongly in favor of American interests in the Kingdom of Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands. He said the war with Spain in 1898 was "the worthiest" war ever fought. In 1899, however, he reversed course. In the ''New York Herald'', October 16, 1900, Twain describes his transformation and political awakening, in the context of the Philippine–American War, to anti-imperialism: During the Boxer Rebellion, Twain said that "the Boxer is a patriot. He loves his country better than he does the countries of other people. I wish him success." From 1901, soon after his return from Europe, until his death in 1910, Twain was vice-president of the American Anti-Imperialist League,''Mark Twain's Weapons of Satire: Anti-Imperialist Writings on the Philippine-American War''. (1992, Jim Zwick, ed.) which opposed the annexation of the Philippines by the United States and had "tens of thousands of members". He wrote many Pamphlet, political pamphlets for the organization. The ''Incident in the Philippines'', posthumously published in 1924, was in response to the First Battle of Bud Dajo, Moro Crater Massacre, in which six hundred Moro people, Moros were killed. Many of his neglected and previously uncollected writings on anti-imperialism appeared for the first time in book form in 1992. Twain was critical of imperialism in other countries as well. In ''Following the Equator'', Twain expresses "hatred and condemnation of imperialism of all stripes". He was highly critical of European imperialists such as Cecil Rhodes and Leopold II of Belgium, King Leopold II of Belgium, both of whom attempted to establish colonies on the African continent during the Scramble for Africa. ''King Leopold's Soliloquy'' is a political satire about his private colony, the Congo Free State. Reports of outrageous exploitation and Atrocities in the Congo Free State, grotesque abuses led to widespread international outcry in the early 1900s, arguably the first large-scale human rights movement. In the soliloquy, the King argues that bringing Christianity to Congo Free State, the colony outweighs "a little starvation". The abuses against Congolese forced laborers continued until the movement forced the Government of Belgium, Belgian government to take direct control of the colony. During the Philippine–American War, Twain wrote a short Pacifism, pacifist story titled ''The War Prayer'', which makes the point that humanism and Christianity's preaching of love are incompatible with the conduct of war. It was submitted to ''Harper's Bazaar'' for publication, but on March 22, 1905, the magazine rejected the story as "not quite suited to a Women's magazine, woman's magazine". Eight days later, Twain wrote to his friend Daniel Carter Beard, to whom he had read the story, "I don't think the prayer will be published in my time. None but the dead are permitted to tell the truth." Because he had an exclusive contract with Harper & Brothers, Twain could not publish ''The War Prayer'' elsewhere; it remained unpublished until 1923. It was republished as campaigning material by Opposition to the Vietnam War, Vietnam War protesters. Twain acknowledged that he had originally sympathized with the more moderate Girondins of the French Revolution and then shifted his sympathies to the more radical Sansculottes, indeed identifying himself as "a Jean-Paul Marat, Marat" and writing that the Reign of Terror paled in comparison to the older terrors that preceded it. Twain supported the Russian Revolution (1905), revolutionaries in Russia against the reformists, arguing that the Tsar must be got rid of by violent means, because peaceful ones would not work. He summed up his views of revolutions in the following statement:

Civil rights

Twain was an adamant supporter of the Abolitionism in the United States, abolition of slavery and the emancipation of slaves, even going so far as to say, "Abraham Lincoln, Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, Proclamation ... not only set the black slaves free, but set the white man free also". He argued that non-whites did not receive justice in the United States, once saying, "I have seen Chinamen abused and maltreated in all the mean, cowardly ways possible to the invention of a degraded nature ... but I never saw a Chinaman righted in a court of justice for wrongs thus done to him". He paid for at least one black person to attend Yale Law School and for another black person to attend a southern university to become a minister. Twain's forward-thinking views on Race (human classification), race were not reflected in his early writings on Native Americans in the United States, American Indians. Of them, Twain wrote in 1870: As counterpoint, Twain's essay on "The Literary Offenses of Fenimore Cooper" offers a much kinder view of Indians. "No, other Indians would have noticed these things, but Cooper's Indians never notice anything. Cooper thinks they are marvelous creatures for noticing, but he was almost always in error about his Indians. There was seldom a sane one among them." In his later travelogue ''Following the Equator'' (1897), Twain observes that in colonized lands all over the world, "savages" have always been wronged by "White people, whites" in the most merciless ways, such as "robbery, humiliation, and slow, slow murder, through poverty and the white man's whiskey"; his conclusion is that "there are many humorous things in this world; among them the white man's notion that he is less savage than the other savages". In an expression that captures his East Indian experiences, he wrote, "So far as I am able to judge nothing has been left undone, either by man or Nature, to make India the most extraordinary country that the sun visits on his rounds. Where every prospect pleases, and only man is vile." Twain was also a staunch supporter of women's rights and an active campaigner for History of women's suffrage in the United States, women's suffrage. His "Votes for Women (speech), Votes for Women" speech, in which he pressed for the granting of voting rights to women, is considered one of the most famous in history. Helen Keller benefited from Twain's support as she pursued her college education and publishing despite her disabilities and financial limitations. The two were friends for roughly 16 years. Through Twain's efforts, the Connecticut legislature voted a pension for Prudence Crandall, since 1995 Connecticut's official heroine, for her efforts towards the education of young African-American women in Connecticut. Twain also offered to purchase for her use her former house in Canterbury, home of the Canterbury Female Boarding School, but she declined.


Twain wrote glowingly about Trade union, unions in the river boating industry in ''Life on the Mississippi'', which was read in union halls decades later. He supported the labor movement, especially one of the most important unions, the Knights of Labor. In a speech to them, he said:


Twain was a Presbyterianism, Presbyterian. He was critical of organized religion and certain elements of Christianity through his later life. He wrote, for example, "Faith is believing what you know ain't so", and "If Christ were here now there is one thing he would not be – a Christian". With anti-Catholic sentiment rampant in 19th century America, Twain noted he was "educated to enmity toward everything that is Catholic". As an adult, he engaged in religious discussions and attended services, his theology developing as he wrestled with the deaths of loved ones and with his own mortality.Dempsey, Terrell
Book Review: Mark Twain's Religion. William E. Phipps
2004 Mark Twain Forum
Twain generally avoided publishing his most controversial opinions on religion in his lifetime, and they are known from essays and stories that were published later. In the essay ''Three Statements of the Eighties'' in the 1880s, Twain stated that he believed in an almighty God, but not in any messages, revelations, holy scriptures such as the Bible, Divine Providence, Providence, or retribution in the afterlife. He did state that "the goodness, the justice, and the mercy of God are manifested in His works", but also that "deism, the universe is governed by strict and immutable laws", which determine "small matters", such as who dies in a pestilence. At other times, he wrote or spoke in ways that contradicted a strict deist view, for example, plainly professing a belief in Providence. In some later writings in the 1890s, he was less optimistic about the theodicy, goodness of God, observing that "if our Maker ''is'' all-powerful for good or evil, He is not in His right mind". At other times, he conjectured sardonically that perhaps God had created the world with all its tortures for some purpose of His own, but was otherwise indifferent to humanity, which was too petty and insignificant to deserve His attention anyway. In 1901, Twain criticized the actions of the missionary Dr. William Scott Ament (1851–1909) because Ament and other missionaries had collected indemnities from Chinese subjects in the aftermath of the Boxer Uprising of 1900. Twain's response to hearing of Ament's methods was published in the ''North American Review'' in February 1901: ''To the Person Sitting in Darkness'', and deals with examples of imperialism in China, South Africa, and with the U.S. occupation of the Philippines. A subsequent article, "To My Missionary Critics" published in ''The North American Review'' in April 1901, unapologetically continues his attack, but with the focus shifted from Ament to his missionary superiors, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. After his death, Twain's family suppressed some of his work that was especially irreverent toward conventional religion, including ''Letters from the Earth'', which was not published until his daughter Clara Clemens, Clara reversed her position in 1962 in response to Soviet propaganda about the withholding. The anti-religious ''The Mysterious Stranger'' was published in 1916. ''Little Bessie'', a story ridiculing Christianity, was first published in the 1972 collection ''Mark Twain's Fables of Man''. He raised money to build a Presbyterian Church in Nevada in 1864. Twain created a reverent portrayal of Joan of Arc, a subject over which he had obsessed for forty years, studied for a dozen years and spent two years writing about.Paine, Albert Bigelow
The Adventures of Mark Twain
p. 281, Kessinger 2004
In 1900 and again in 1908 he stated, "I like ''Joan of Arc'' best of all my books, it is the best". Those who knew Twain well late in life recount that he dwelt on the subject of the afterlife, his daughter Clara saying: "Sometimes he believed death ended everything, but most of the time he felt sure of a life beyond." Twain's frankest views on religion appeared in his final work ''Autobiography of Mark Twain'', the publication of which started in November 2010, 100 years after his death. In it, he said: Twain was a Freemason. He belonged to Polar Star Lodge No. 79 A.F.&A.M., based in St. Louis. He was initiated an Entered Apprentice on May 22, 1861, passed to the degree of Fellow Craft on June 12, and raised to the degree of Master Mason on July 10. Twain visited Salt Lake City for two days and met there members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. They also gave him a Book of Mormon. He later wrote in ''Roughing It'' about that book:


Twain was opposed to the vivisection practices of his day. His objection was not on a scientific basis but rather an ethical one. He specifically cited the pain caused to the animal as his basis of his opposition:
I am not interested to know whether Vivisection produces results that are profitable to the human race or doesn't. ... The pains which it inflicts upon unconsenting animals is the basis of my enmity towards it, and it is to me sufficient justification of the enmity without looking further.

Pen names

Twain used different pen names before deciding on "Mark Twain". He signed humorous and imaginative sketches as "Josh" until 1863. Additionally, he used the pen name "Thomas Jefferson Snodgrass" for a series of humorous letters. He maintained that his primary pen name came from his years working on Mississippi riverboats, where two fathoms, a depth indicating water safe for the passage of boat, was a measure on the sounding line. Twain is an archaism, archaic term for "two", as in "The veil of the temple was rent in twain." The riverboatman's cry was "mark twain" or, more fully, "by the mark twain", meaning "according to the mark [on the line], [the depth is] two [fathoms]", that is, "The water is deep and it is safe to pass." Twain said that his famous pen name was not entirely his invention. In ''Life on the Mississippi'', he wrote:
Isaiah Sellers, Captain Isaiah Sellers was not of literary turn or capacity, but he used to jot down brief paragraphs of plain practical information about the river, and sign them "MARK TWAIN", and give them to the ''Times-Picayune, New Orleans Picayune''. They related to the stage and condition of the river, and were accurate and valuable; ... At the time that the telegraph brought the news of his death, I was on the Pacific coast. I was a fresh new journalist, and needed a Pseudonym#Noms de guerre, nom de guerre; so I confiscated the ancient mariner's discarded one, and have done my best to make it remain what it was in his hands – a sign and symbol and warrant that whatever is found in its company may be gambled on as being the petrified truth; how I have succeeded, it would not be modest in me to say.
Twain's story about his pen name has been questioned by some with the suggestion that "mark twain" refers to a running bar tab that Twain would regularly incur while drinking at John Piper's saloon in Virginia City, Nevada. Samuel Clemens himself responded to this suggestion by saying, "Mark Twain was the nom de plume of one Captain Isaiah Sellers, who used to write river news over it for the ''New Orleans Picayune''. He died in 1863 and as he could no longer need that signature, I laid violent hands upon it without asking permission of the proprietor's remains. That is the history of the nom de plume I bear." In his autobiography, Twain writes further of Captain Sellers' use of "Mark Twain":
I was a cub pilot on the Mississippi River then, and one day I wrote a rude and crude satire which was leveled at Captain Isaiah Sellers, the oldest steamboat pilot on the Mississippi River, and the most respected, esteemed, and revered. For many years he had occasionally written brief paragraphs concerning the river and the changes which it had undergone under his observation during fifty years, and had signed these paragraphs "Mark Twain" and published them in the St. Louis and New Orleans journals. In my satire I made rude game of his reminiscences. It was a shabby poor performance, but I didn't know it, and the pilots didn't know it. The pilots thought it was brilliant. They were jealous of Sellers, because when the gray-heads among them pleased their vanity by detailing in the hearing of the younger craftsmen marvels which they had seen in the long ago on the river, Sellers was always likely to step in at the psychological moment and snuff them out with wonders of his own which made their small marvels look pale and sick. However, I have told all about this in "Old Times on the Mississippi." The pilots handed my extravagant satire to a river reporter, and it was published in the New Orleans True Delta. That poor old Captain Sellers was deeply wounded. He had never been held up to ridicule before; he was sensitive, and he never got over the hurt which I had wantonly and stupidly inflicted upon his dignity. I was proud of my performance for a while, and considered it quite wonderful, but I have changed my opinion of it long ago. Sellers never published another paragraph nor ever used his nom de guerre again.

Legacy and depictions

Trademark white suit

While Twain is often depicted wearing a white suit, modern representations suggesting that he wore them throughout his life are unfounded. Evidence suggests that Twain began wearing white suits on the lecture circuit, after the death of Olivia Langdon Clemens, his wife Olivia ("Livy") in 1904. However, there is also evidence showing him wearing a white suit before 1904. In 1882, he sent a photograph of himself in a white suit to 18-year-old Edward W. Bok, later publisher of the ''Ladies Home Journal'', with a handwritten dated note. The white suit did eventually become his trademark, as illustrated in anecdotes about this eccentricity (such as the time he wore a white summer suit to a Congressional hearing during the winter). McMasters' ''The Mark Twain Encyclopedia'' states that Twain did not wear a white suit in his last three years, except at one banquet speech. In his autobiography, Twain writes of his early experiments with wearing white out-of-season:Next after fine colors, I like plain white. One of my sorrows, when the summer ends, is that I must put off my cheery and comfortable white clothes and enter for the winter into the depressing captivity of the shapeless and degrading black ones. It is mid-October now, and the weather is growing cold up here in the New Hampshire hills, but it will not succeed in freezing me out of these white garments, for here the neighbors are few, and it is only of crowds that I am afraid. I made a brave experiment, the other night, to see how it would feel to shock a crowd with these unseasonable clothes, and also to see how long it might take the crowd to reconcile itself to them and stop looking astonished and outraged. On a stormy evening I made a talk before a full house, in the village, clothed like a ghost, and looking as conspicuous, all solitary and alone on that platform, as any ghost could have looked; and I found, to my gratification, that it took the house less than ten minutes to forget about the ghost and give its attention to the tidings I had brought.
I am nearly seventy-one, and I recognize that my age has given me a good many privileges; valuable privileges; privileges which are not granted to younger persons. Little by little I hope to get together courage enough to wear white clothes all through the winter, in New York. It will be a great satisfaction to me to show off in this way; and perhaps the largest of all the satisfactions will be the knowledge that every scoffer, of my sex, will secretly envy me and wish he dared to follow my lead.
Autobiography of Mark Twain
, ''Volume 2'', October 8, 1906 (2013, 2008), Paragraph 14

See also

* Mark Twain bibliography


Further reading

* Nathan G. Alexander
"Unclasping the Eagle's Talons: Mark Twain, American Freethought, and the Responses to Imperialism."
''The Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era'' 17, no. 3 (2018): 524–545. . * Lucius Beebe. ''Comstock Commotion: The Story of the Territorial Enterprise and Virginia City News'', Stanford University Press, 1954 * Louis J. Budd, ed. ''Mark Twain, Collected Tales, Sketches, Speeches & Essays 1891–1910'' (Library of America, 1992) () * Ken Burns, Dayton Duncan, and Geoffrey C. Ward, ''Mark Twain: An Illustrated Biography''. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001 () * Philip S. Foner.
Mark Twain: Social Critic
'. New York: International Publishers. 1966.
Gregg Camfield
''The Oxford Companion to Mark Twain''. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002 () * Guy Cardwell, ed. ''Mark Twain, Mississippi Writings'', (Library of America, 1982) () * Guy Cardwell, ed. ''Mark Twain, The Innocents Abroad & Roughing It'', (Library of America, 1984) * James M. Cox. ''Mark Twain: The Fate of Humor'', Princeton University Press, 1966 () * Everett Emerson. ''Mark Twain: A Literary Life'', Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000 ()
Shelley Fisher Fishkin
ed. ''A Historical Guide to Mark Twain''. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002 ()
Susan K. Harris
ed. ''Mark Twain, Historical Romances'' (Library of America, 1994) () * Hamlin L. Hill, ed. ''Mark Twain, The Gilded Age and Later Novels'' (Library of America, 2002) * Jason Gary Horn. ''Mark Twain: A Descriptive Guide to Biographical Sources'', Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 1999 () * William Dean Howells. ''My Mark Twain'', Mineloa, NY: Dover Publications, 1997 () * Fred Kaplan (biographer), Fred Kaplan. ''The Singular Mark Twain: A Biography'', New York: Doubleday, 2003 () * Justin Kaplan. ''Mr. Clemens and Mark Twain: A Biography'', New York: Simon and Schuster, 1966 () * J. R. LeMaster and James D. Wilson, eds. ''The Mark Twain Encyclopedia'', New York: Garland, 1993 () * Andrew Levy, ''Huck Finn's America: Mark Twain and the Era that Shaped His Masterpiece.'' New York: Simon and Schuster, 2015. * Jerome Loving, ''Mark Twain: The Adventures of Samuel L. Clemens.'' Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010. * Bruce Michelson, ''Mark Twain on the Loose'', Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1995 () * Patrick Ober, ''Mark Twain and Medicine: "Any Mummery Will Cure"'' Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2003 () * Albert Bigelow Paine. ''Mark Twain, A Biography: The Personal and Literary Life of Samuel Langhorne Clemens'', Harper & Bros., 1912. * Ron Powers. ''Dangerous Water: A Biography of the Boy Who Became Mark Twain'', New York: Da Capo Press, 1999. * Ron Powers. ''Mark Twain: A Life'', New York: Random House, 2005. () * R. Kent Rasmussen. ''Critical Companion to Mark Twain: A Literary Reference to His Life and Work'', Facts On File, 2007. Revised edition of ''Mark Twain A to Z'' * R. Kent Rasmussen, ed. ''The Quotable Mark Twain: His Essential Aphorisms, Witticisms and Concise Opinions'', Contemporary Books, 1997 * * Tarnoff, Ben. ''The Bohemians: Mark Twain and the San Francisco Writers Who Reinvented American Literature.'' New York: The Penguin Press, 2014 *
"A True Story, Repeated Word for Word As I Heard It"
from ''The Atlantic Monthly''. Nov. 1874: 591–594. Boston: Atlantic Monthly Co.

External links

Western American Literature Journal: Mark Twain

Online editions

Works by Mark Twain
at Standard Ebooks * * * *


The Mark Twain Papers and Project
of the Bancroft Library, University of California Berkeley. Archive of Mark Twain's papers and writings
Mark Twain Room
at Buffalo & Erie County Public Library
Samuel Langhorne Clemens collection of papers
at New York Public Library
Mark Twain Original Manuscripts from 1862–1909
Shapell Manuscript Foundation
Mark Twain's Mississippi
at Northern Illinois University Libraries
Finding aid to the Mark Twain papers at Columbia University. Rare Book & Manuscript Library.
* hdl:10079/fa/beinecke.clemenss, Samuel Langhorne Clemens Collection. Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library. {{DEFAULTSORT:Twain, Mark Mark Twain, 1835 births 1910 deaths 19th-century American novelists 19th-century American short story writers 20th-century American novelists 20th-century American short story writers American abolitionists American alternate history writers American autobiographers American businesspeople American humorists American male non-fiction writers American male novelists American male short story writers American memoirists American people of Cornish descent American people of English descent American people of Scotch-Irish descent American Presbyterians American satirists American travel writers Anti-imperialism Anti-vivisectionists Articles containing video clips Burials at Woodlawn Cemetery (Elmira, New York) Christian abolitionists Clemens family Comedians from Connecticut Comedians from Mississippi Comedians from Nevada Confederate States Army soldiers Critics of Christian Science Critics of Mormonism Hall of Fame for Great Americans inductees Holy Land travellers Journalists from Nevada Lecturers Mississippi River Novelists from Connecticut Novelists from Missouri Novelists from Nevada People from Hannibal, Missouri People from Hartford, Connecticut People from Monroe County, Missouri People from Redding, Connecticut People from Virginia City, Nevada People of the California Gold Rush People of Missouri in the American Civil War People of the Philippine–American War Pseudonymous writers Sagebrush School Self-published authors Shakespeare authorship theorists Writers about religion and science Writers from Elmira, New York Writers from St. Louis Writers from the San Francisco Bay Area