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Marib (Arabic: مَـأْرِب‎, translit. Maʾrib) is the capital city of Ma'rib
Ma'rib
Governorate, Yemen. It was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Saba’
Saba’
(Arabic: سَـبَـأ‎),[1][2] which some scholars believe to be the ancient Sheba
Sheba
of biblical fame.[3] It is located approximately 120 kilometres (75 miles) east of Yemen's modern capital, Sana'a. It has a current population of 16,794. In 2011, Ma'rib
Ma'rib
has been referred to as "the Al Qaeda
Al Qaeda
capital of Yemen".[4]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Ancient 1.2 Yemeni Civil War

2 Oil refinery 3 Climate 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

History[edit] Ancient[edit] Main article: Sabaeans

The Barran Temple, a relic of the Sabaean
Sabaean
era

The Sabaean
Sabaean
kingdom was based around Ma'rib, with territory in northern Yemen. The Sabaean
Sabaean
kings made their capital at Ma'rib, and built great irrigation works such as the Ma'rib
Ma'rib
Dam, whose ruins are still visible. The Marib Dam
Dam
supported a flourishing culture for more than a thousand years; its collapse in 575 CE, before the birth of Muhammad, may be one of the main reasons that Arabia
Arabia
did not become Christian.[5][clarification needed] They also built castles and temples in the area, notably Awwam
Awwam
and Barran, respectively. Saba was known for dealing in the lucrative frankincense[3] and myrrh[6] trade. They were a seafaring people and were known to have influence and a population in the Northeast African kingdom of Dʿmt, across the Red Sea in Eritrea
Eritrea
and Ethiopia, the only other source of both frankincense and myrrh. In 25 BC, Aelius Gallus of Rome led an expedition to Ma'rib, laying siege to the city. He suffered major losses and was forced to retreat to Egypt.[7] The site of ancient Ma'rib
Ma'rib
was largely abandoned during the 20th century. Although a small village remains, the multi-story mud-brick buildings of the historic city are largely in ruins. The modern city of Ma'rib
Ma'rib
is located about 3.5 kilometres (2.2 miles) north of the center of the ancient city. Yemeni Civil War[edit] During the Yemeni Civil War (2015–present), Ma'rib
Ma'rib
and the surrounding Ma'rib Governorate
Ma'rib Governorate
came under attack by the Houthis, a Zaidi Shia movement rebelling against the government of Abdrabbuh Mansour Hadi. The tribes of Ma'rib
Ma'rib
repelled the Houthis
Houthis
with help from the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen. According to the Abu Dhabi-based The National newspaper, "With 80 per cent of the province’s population Sunni and only one of the five main tribes supportive of the Zaidi Shiite Houthis, tribal fighters managed to repel the attack. As a result, the Houthis
Houthis
control only about 20 per cent of Marib and the oil fields remained under Hadi's control. Many of the tribes in Marib, and in neighbouring Al Jawf and Shabwa
Shabwa
provinces, are loyal to Saudi Arabia, which has offered financial support over many years. According to two tribal chiefs there are 8,000 Yemeni forces and tribal fighters based in Marib united against the Houthis. Some are directly loyal to President Hadi, others to Saudi Arabia
Arabia
and a large number to the Islah Party, a religiously conservative political group. The entire First Armoured Brigade, considered a military wing of Islah, based in Sanaa, was transferred to Marib in 2014 to defend the province. Other sections of Yemen's military remained loyal to Ali Abdullah Saleh, the former president overthrown by Arab Spring protests who has now sided with the Houthis
Houthis
against Hadi. After the Saudi-led coalition joined the war in March 2015 and drove the Houthis
Houthis
from most of Yemen's southern provinces in July 2015, focus shifted to Marib, known s the gateway to Sana'a, where the strong support base made it a natural location for an attack in the north. The city of Marib is just 173 kilometres (107 miles) from the capital, and the province adjoins the predominantly Sunni provinces of Al Jawf, Al-Baitha and Shabwa, where the Houthis' control is unlikely to hold if attacked. In particular, Al-Jawf to the north would provide a route towards the Houthi's Saada stronghold. The coalition began moving supplies to Marib in March 2015, using land routes from Saudi Arabia through Hadramout and Shabwa
Shabwa
provinces. On August 2015, coalition forces started flying more reinforcements to Marib using a small airport in the tiny town of Safer, 60km east of Marib city. Loyalist military sources said further reinforcements including tanks, armoured vehicles, rocket launchers and Apache helicopters arrived August 2015. The town serves as a base for the state-run Safer Exploration and Production Operations Company and other foreign companies working in Yemen's vital energy sector. The main gas pipeline south also runs through the town, which is controlled by the pro-Hadi military commander Abdullah Al-Shaddadi. The nearest Houthi presence was in Baihan in Shabwa
Shabwa
province, 50 kilometres (31 miles) away."[8][9] Forty-five Emirati troops, along with 10 Saudis
Saudis
and 5 Bahrainis were killed in a Houthi ballistic missile strike on the Safer base near Ma'rib
Ma'rib
on December 14, 2015.[10] According to Al-Jazeera, by 7 April 2015, Houthi forces had been expelled from the majority of Ma'rib Governorate
Ma'rib Governorate
by Saudi-backed tribesmen. The governor of Marib told Al-Jazeera
Al-Jazeera
that forces allied to President Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi and the Gulf coalition were "perusing the last pockets of Houthis" in the province.[11] Oil refinery[edit] The Yemen
Yemen
Oil Refining Company opened a refinery in Ma'rib
Ma'rib
in 1986, which produces 10,000 barrels (1,600 m3) of oil per day (2009). In November 2009, the company announced an agreement with Korea's Shinhan to expand and upgrade the refinery to produce 25,000 barrels (4,000 m3)/day.[12] Ma'rib
Ma'rib
is the start of the Marib-Ra's Isa oil pipeline (438 km (272 mi)), with a capacity of 200,000 barrels (32,000 m3) per day.[13] Climate[edit] Ma'rib
Ma'rib
has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification: BWh).

Climate data for Ma'rib

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 25.5 (77.9) 26.4 (79.5) 28.3 (82.9) 29.9 (85.8) 31.7 (89.1) 33.3 (91.9) 32.5 (90.5) 31.8 (89.2) 30.7 (87.3) 28.6 (83.5) 25.5 (77.9) 26.3 (79.3) 29.21 (84.57)

Daily mean °C (°F) 18.0 (64.4) 18.8 (65.8) 21.4 (70.5) 23.0 (73.4) 25.0 (77) 26.1 (79) 26.3 (79.3) 25.6 (78.1) 24.5 (76.1) 21.4 (70.5) 18.4 (65.1) 18.6 (65.5) 22.26 (72.06)

Average low °C (°F) 10.6 (51.1) 11.2 (52.2) 14.5 (58.1) 16.1 (61) 18.4 (65.1) 18.9 (66) 20.2 (68.4) 19.4 (66.9) 18.3 (64.9) 14.3 (57.7) 11.4 (52.5) 11.0 (51.8) 15.36 (59.64)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 4 (0.16) 1 (0.04) 4 (0.16) 12 (0.47) 19 (0.75) 1 (0.04) 21 (0.83) 31 (1.22) 8 (0.31) 1 (0.04) 2 (0.08) 3 (0.12) 107 (4.22)

Source: Climate-Data.org[14]

See also[edit]

Middle East Shabwah Shibam Tubba'

References[edit]

^ Quran 27:6–93 ^ Quran 34:15–18 ^ a b "Saba / Sa'abia / Sheba". The History Files (http://www.historyfiles.co.uk). Retrieved 2008-06-27. The kingdom of Saba is known to have existed in the region of Yemen. By 1000 BC caravan trains of camels journeyed from Oman
Oman
in south-east Arabia
Arabia
to the Mediterranean. As the camel drivers passed through the deserts of Yemen, experts believe that many of them would have called in at Ma'rib. Dating from at least 1050 BC, and now barren and dry, Ma'rib was then a lush oasis teeming with palm trees and exotic plants. Ideally placed, it was situated on the trade routes and with a unique dam of vast proportions. It was also one of only two main sources of frankincense (the other being East Africa), so Saba had a virtual monopoly. Ma'rib's wealth accumulated to such an extent that the city became a byword for riches beyond belief throughout the Arab world. Its people, the Sabeans
Sabeans
- a group whose name bears the same etymological root as Saba - lived in South Arabia
Arabia
between the tenth and sixth centuries BC. Their main temple - Mahram Bilqis, or temple of the moon god (situated about three miles (5 km) from the capital city of Ma'rib) - was so famous that it remained sacred even after the collapse of the Sabean civilisation in the sixth century BC - caused by the rerouting of the spice trail. By that point the dam, now in a poor state of repair, was finally breached. The irrigation system was lost, the people abandoned the site within a year or so, and the temple fell into disrepair and was eventually covered by sand. Saba was known by the Hebrews
Hebrews
as Sheba
Sheba
[Note that the collapse of the dam was actually in 575 C.E., as shown in the timeline in the same article in the History Files, and attested by MacCulloch (2009)].  ^ Symmes, P. (2013-04-25). "Anwar al-Awlaki: The Next Bin Laden". GQ.  ^ Christianity, p.245 ^ Age of Faith, p. 156 ^ Chris Scarre, The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient
Ancient
Rome (London: Penguin Books, 1995), 9 (also Augustus' Res Getae 26) ^ Naylor, H. (2015-02-14). "Houthi rebels in Yemen
Yemen
eye oil-rich province, sparking fears of all-out civil war". The Washington Post.  ^ Almasmari, H. (2015-09-07). "Why Marib province is crucial to coalition victory in Yemen". The National.  ^ http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-35091675.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/10/arab-coalition-mops-houthi-pockets-yemen-marib-151012115424934.html.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ "الشركة اليمنية لتكرير النفط توقع اتفاقا مع شركة شينهان الكورية الجنوبية لتوسعة وتحديث مصفاة مأرب". CNBC عربية. Retrieved 2011-04-05.  ^ " Middle East
Middle East
Pipelines map - Crude Oil (petroleum) pipelines - Natural Gas pipelines - Products pipelines". Theodora.com/pipelines. Retrieved 2011-04-06.  ^ "Climate: Ma'rib
Ma'rib
- Climate-Data.org". Retrieved 28 October 2017. 

Durant, Will (1950). The Age of Faith: A History of Medieval Civilization -- Christian, Islamic, and Judaic -- from Constantine to Dante: A.D. 325-1300, The Story of Civilization, volume IV. Simon and Schuster. Korotayev, Andrey (1994). Apologia for "The Sabaean
Sabaean
Cultural-Political Area" // Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 57: 469-474. MacCulloch, Diarmaid (2009). Christianity: the First Three Thousand Years, Viking Penguin.

External links[edit]

German Archaeological Institute (in German) World66

v t e

Ma'rib
Ma'rib
Governorate

Capital: Ma'rib

Districts

Al Abdiyah District Al Jubah District Bidbadah District Harib District Harib Al Qaramish District Jabal Murad District Mahliyah District Majzar District Marib District Marib City
City
District Medghal District Raghwan District Rahabah District Sirwah
Sirwah
District

v t e

Yemeni cities and towns by population

1,000,000 and more

Sana'a

100,000-999,999

Aden Dhamar Al Hudaydah Ibb Mukalla Taiz

10,000-99,999

Abs 'Amran Ataq Bajil Bayt al-Faqih Al Bayda' Beihan Dimnat Chadir Al Ghaydah Hais Hajjah Al Houta Khamir Al-Mahabischa Al Mahwit Al-Marawi'a Ma'rib Mocha Mudiyah Rada'a Sayyan Seiyun Ash Shihr Socotra Tarim Thula Yarim Zabid Zinjibar

<9,999

Dammaj Habban Al Hajjarah Hutayb Jaʿār Jibla Kawkaban Manakhah Mukayras Sa'dah Shaharah Shibam At Tawilah Wadi Dawan

v t e

Tourist attractions in Yemen

World Heritage Sites

Listed

Historic Town of Zabid Old City
City
of Sana'a Old Walled City
City
of Shibam Socotra
Socotra
Archipelago

Tentative list

Archaeological Site of Marib Historic City
City
of Saada The Historic City
City
of Thula The Madrasa Amiriya of Rada Jibla and its surroundings Jabal Haraz Jabal Bura Balhaf/Burum coastal area The Hawf Area Sharma/Jethmun coastal area

Archaeological sites

Al Hajjarah Awwam Baraqish Baynun Cisterns of Tawila Haram Kaminahu Ma'rib Marib Dam Maṣna'at Māriya Nahom Nashan Nashaq Sana'a Shabwa Shaharah Shibam Sirwah Timna Zabid Zafar

Museums

House of Folklore National Museum of Yemen Yemen
Yemen
Military Museum

Palaces Castles

Aljabowbi Castle Cairo Castle Dar al-Bashair Dar al-Hajar Dar al-Shukr Dar as-Sa'd Fort Al-Ghwayzi Ghumdan Palace Palace of Queen Arwa Citadel of Rada'a Seiyun
Seiyun
Palace Sheba
Sheba
Palace

Places of worship

Aidrus Mosque Al-Asha'ir Mosque Al-Bakiriyya Mosque Al-Hadi Mosque Al-Mahdi Mosque Al-Muhdhar Mosque Al-Qalis Church Al Shohada Mosque Al Tawheed Mosque Alansar Mosque Albolaily Mosque Alemaan Mosque Ashrafiya Mosque Barran Temple Great Mosque of Sana'a Grand Synagogue of Aden Hanthel Mosque Jennad Mosque Mudhaffar Mosque Queen Arwa Mosque Saleh Mosque St. Francis of Assisi Church St. Mary Help of Christians Church Tahla Mosque Temple
Temple
of Awwam

Protected area

Bura Community Protected Area Dhamar Montane Plains Mahjur Traditional Reserve Jabal Bura
Jabal Bura
Valley Forest National Park Ras Isa Marine Park Socotra
Socotra
Island Protected Area Zuqur Islands Marine National Park

Others

Amiriya Madrasa Bab al-Yaman Big Ben Aden Sana'a
Sana'a
Turkish Memorial Cemetery Shaharah
Shaharah
Bridge Sira Fortress

Authority control

GN