Marcus Licinius Crassus
Marcus Licinius Crassus (/ˈkræsəs/; c. 115–53 BC) was a Roman
general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of
Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Crassus began his public career as a military commander under Lucius
Sulla during his civil war. Following Sulla's assumption of
the dictatorship, Crassus amassed an enormous fortune through real
estate speculation. Crassus rose to political prominence following his
victory over the slave revolt led by Spartacus, sharing the consulship
with his rival
Pompey the Great.
A political and financial patron of Julius Caesar, Crassus joined
Pompey in the unofficial political alliance known as the
First Triumvirate. Together the three men dominated the Roman
political system. The alliance did not last long, due to the
ambitions, egos, and jealousies of the three men. While Caesar and
Crassus were lifelong allies, Crassus and
Pompey disliked each other
Pompey grew increasingly envious of Caesar's spectacular successes
in the Gallic Wars. The alliance was re-stabilized at the Lucca
Conference in 56 BC, after which Crassus and
Pompey again served
jointly as consuls. Following his second consulship, Crassus was
appointed as the Governor of Roman Syria. Crassus used
Syria as the
launchpad for a military campaign against the Parthian Empire, Rome's
long-time Eastern enemy. Crassus' campaign was a disastrous failure,
ending in his defeat and death at the Battle of Carrhae.
Crassus' death permanently unraveled the alliance between Caesar and
Pompey. Within four years of Crassus' death, Caesar would cross the
Rubicon and begin a civil war against
Pompey and the optimates.
1 Family and background
2.1 Youth and the First Civil War
2.2 Rise to power and wealth
2.3 Crassus and Spartacus
2.4 Alliance with
Pompey and Caesar
2.5 Syrian governorship and death
4 Artistic representations
4.5 Video games
5 See also
7.1 Primary sources
7.2 Modern works
8 External links
Family and background
Marcus Licinius Crassus
Marcus Licinius Crassus was the second of three sons born to the
eminent senator and vir triumphalis Publius Licinius Crassus Dives
(consul 97, censor 89 BC). This line was not descended from the Crassi
Divites, although often assumed to be. The eldest brother Publius
(born c. 116 BC) died shortly before the Italic War and Marcus took
the brother's wife as his own. His father and the youngest brother
Gaius took their own lives in
Rome in winter 87–86 BC to avoid
capture when he was being hunted down by the Marians following their
victory in the bellum Octavianum.
There were three main branches of the house of the Licinii Crassi in
the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, and many mistakes in identifications
and lines have arisen owing to the uniformity of Roman nomenclature,
erroneous modern suppositions, and the unevenness of information
across the generations. In addition the Dives cognomen of the Crassi
Divites means rich or wealthy, and since Marcus Crassus, the subject
here, was renowned for his enormous wealth, this has contributed to
hasty assumptions that his family belonged to the Divites. But no
ancient source accords him or his father the Dives cognomen; in fact,
we are explicitly informed that his great wealth was acquired rather
than inherited, and that he was raised in modest circumstances.
Crassus' grandfather of the same name, Marcus Licinius
Crassus (praetor c.126 BC), was facetiously given the
Greek nickname Agelastus (the unlaughing or grim) by his contemporary
Gaius Lucilius, the famous inventor of Roman satire, who asserted that
he smiled once in his whole life. This grandfather was son of Publius
Licinius Crassus (consul 171 BC). The latter's brother Gaius Licinius
Crassus (consul 168 BC) produced the third line of Licinii Crassi of
the period, the most famous of whom was Lucius Licinius Crassus, the
greatest Roman orator before
Cicero and the latter's childhood hero
and model. Marcus Crassus was also a talented orator and one of the
most energetic and active advocates of his time.
Youth and the First Civil War
After the Marian purges and the sudden death subsequently of Gaius
Marius, the surviving consul
Lucius Cornelius Cinna
Lucius Cornelius Cinna (father-in-law of
Julius Caesar) imposed proscriptions on those surviving Roman senators
and equestrians who had supported Lucius Cornelius
Sulla in his 88 BC
Rome and overthrow of the traditional Roman political
Cinna's proscription forced Crassus to flee to Hispania. After
Cinna's death in 84 BC, Crassus went to the Roman province of Africa
and joined Metellus Pius, one of Sulla's closest allies. He did not
stay there long because of disagreements with Metellus and joined
Sulla "with whom he stood in a position of special honour".  During
Sulla's second civil war, Crassus and Gnaeus
Pompey fought a battle in
the plain of Spoletium (Spoleto), killed some 3000 of the men of
Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, the leader of the Marian forces, and besieged
Carinas, a Marian commander.
Rise to power and wealth
Roman bust of Crassus in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen
Marcus Licinius Crassus' next concern was to rebuild the fortunes of
his family, which had been confiscated during the Marian-Cinnan
proscriptions. Sulla's proscriptions, in which the property of his
victims was cheaply auctioned off, found one of the greatest acquirers
of this type of property in Crassus: indeed,
Sulla was especially
supportive of this because he wished to spread around the blame as
much as possible, among those unscrupulous enough to do so. Sulla's
proscriptions ensured that his survivors would recoup their lost
fortunes from the fortunes of wealthy adherents to
Gaius Marius or
Lucius Cornelius Cinna. Proscriptions meant that their political
enemies lost their fortunes and their lives; that their female
relatives (notably, widows and widowed daughters) were forbidden to
remarry; and that in some cases, their families' hopes of rebuilding
their fortunes and political significance were destroyed. Crassus is
said to have made part of his money from proscriptions, notably the
proscription of one man whose name was not initially on the list of
those proscribed but was added by Crassus who coveted the man's
fortune. Crassus's wealth is estimated by Pliny at approximately
200 million sestertii. Plutarch, in his "Life of Crassus," says the
wealth of Crassus increased from less than 300 talents at first to
7,100 talents. This represented 229 tonnes of gold, or about 7.4
million troy ounces, worth about $9 billion US dollars today,
accounted right before his Parthian expedition, most of which Plutarch
declares Crassus got "by fire and war, making the public calamities
his greatest source of revenue.".
Some of Crassus' wealth was acquired conventionally, through traffic
in slaves, production from silver mines, and speculative real estate
purchases. Crassus bought property which was confiscated in
proscriptions. He notoriously purchased burnt and collapsed buildings.
Plutarch wrote that observing how frequent such occurrences were, he
bought slaves 'who were architects and builders.' When he had over 500
slaves he bought houses which had burnt and the adjacent 'ones because
their owners would let go at a trifling price.' He bought 'the largest
part of Rome' in this way. He bought them on the cheap and rebuilt
them with slave labour.
Crassus assiduously befriended Licinia, a Vestal Virgin, whose
valuable property he coveted.
Plutarch says: "And yet when he was
further on in years, he was accused of criminal intimacy with Licinia,
one of the vestal virgins and Licinia was formally prosecuted by a
certain Plotius. Now Licinia was the owner of a pleasant villa in the
suburbs which Crassus wished to get at a low price, and it was for
this reason that he was forever hovering about the woman and paying
his court to her, until he fell under the abominable suspicion. And in
a way it was his avarice that absolved him from the charge of
corrupting the vestal, and he was acquitted by the judges. But he did
not let Licinia go until he had acquired her property." 
After rebuilding his fortune, Crassus' next concern was his political
career. As a wealthy man in Rome, an adherent of Sulla, and a man who
hailed from a line of consuls and praetors, Crassus' political future
was apparently assured. His problem was that despite his military
successes, he was eclipsed by his contemporary
Pompey the Great
Pompey the Great who
blackmailed the dictator
Sulla into granting him a triumph for victory
in Africa over a rag-tag group of dissident Romans; a first in Roman
history on a couple of counts. First,
Pompey was not even a praetor,
on which grounds a triumph had been denied in 206 BC to the great
Scipio Africanus, who had just defeated Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal
in Spain and brought
Rome the entire province of Hispania. Second,
Pompey had defeated fellow Romans, rather than a foreign enemy;
however, a quasi-precedent had been set when the consul Lucius Julius
Caesar (a relative of Gaius Julius Caesar) had been granted a triumph
for a small victory over Italian (non-Roman) peoples in the Social
War. Pompey's triumph was the first granted to any Roman for defeating
another Roman army. Crassus' rivalry with
Pompey and his envy of
Pompey's triumph would influence his subsequent career.
Crassus and Spartacus
Crassus was rising steadily up the cursus honorum, the sequence of
offices held by Roman citizens seeking political power, when ordinary
Roman politics were interrupted by two events – first, the Third
Mithridatic War, and second, the Third Servile War, which was the
two-year rebellion of slaves under the leadership of
the Summer of 73 BC to the Spring, 71 BC). In response to the
first threat, Rome's best general, Lucius Licinius
Lucullus (consul in
74 BC), was sent to defeat Mithridates, followed shortly by his
Lucullus (consul in 73 BC, whose daughter Tertulla later
became Crassus' wife). Meanwhile,
Pompey was fighting in Hispania
against Quintus Sertorius, the last effective Marian general, without
Pompey succeeded only when Sertorius was
assassinated by one of his own commanders. The only source to mention
Crassus holding the office of praetor is Appian, and the date appears
to be in 73 or possibly 72 BC.
The Senate did not initially take the slave rebellion seriously, until
Rome itself was under threat. Crassus offered to equip,
train, and lead new troops, at his own expense, after several legions
had been defeated and their commanders killed in battle or taken
prisoner. Eventually, Crassus was sent into battle against Spartacus
by the Senate. At first he had trouble both in anticipating Spartacus'
moves and in inspiring his army and strengthening their morale. When a
segment of his army fled from battle, abandoning their weapons,
Crassus revived the ancient practice of decimation – i.e., executing
one out of every ten men, with the victims selected by drawing lots.
Plutarch reports that "many things horrible and dreadful to see"
occurred during the infliction of punishment, which was witnessed by
the rest of Crassus' army. Nevertheless, according to Appian, the
troops' fighting spirit improved dramatically thereafter, since
Crassus had demonstrated that "he was more dangerous to them than the
Spartacus retreated to the
Bruttium peninsula in the
southwest of Italy, Crassus tried to pen up his armies by building
a ditch and a rampart across the peninsula of Rhegium in Bruttium,
"from sea to sea." Despite this remarkable feat,
Spartacus and part of
his army still managed to break out. On the night of a heavy
snowstorm, they sneaked through Crassus' lines and made a bridge of
dirt and tree branches over the ditch, thus escaping.
Some time later, when the Roman armies led by
Pompey and Varro
Lucullus were recalled to Italy in support of Crassus, Spartacus
decided to fight rather than find himself and his followers trapped
between three armies, two of them returning from overseas action. In
this last battle, the Battle of the Silarius River, Crassus gained a
decisive victory, and captured six thousand slaves alive. During the
Spartacus attempted to kill Crassus personally, slaughtering
his way toward the general's position, but he succeeded only in
killing two of the centurions guarding Crassus.
is believed to have been killed in the battle, although his body was
never recovered. The six thousand captured slaves were crucified along
Via Appia by Crassus' orders. At his command, their bodies were
not taken down afterwards but remained rotting along Rome's principal
route to the South. This was intended as an object lesson to anyone
who might think of rebelling against
Rome in the future, particularly
of slave insurrections against their owners and masters, the Roman
Crassus effectively ended the
Third Servile War
Third Servile War in 71 BC. In
Plutarch's account, Crassus "had written to the senate that they must
Lucullus from Thrace and
Pompey from Spain, but he was sorry
now that he had done so, and was eager to bring the war to an end
before those generals came. He knew that the success would be ascribed
to the one who came up with assistance, and not to himself."  He
decided to attack a splinter group of rebels. After this Spartacus
withdrew to the mountains.
Pompey had arrived from
Hispania with his
veterans and was sent to provide reinforcements. Crassus hurried to
seek the final battle, which he won.
Pompey arrived in time merely for
a mop-up operation against the disorganized and defeated fugitives.
Pompey wrote to the Senate that "indeed, Crassus had conquered the
slaves, but that he himself had extirpated the war". "Crassus, for
all his self-approval, did not venture to ask for the major triumph,
and it was thought ignoble and mean in him to celebrate even the minor
triumph on foot, called the ovation. " 
In Plutarch's account
Pompey was asked to stand for the consulship.
Crassus wanted to become his colleague and asked
Pompey for his
Pompey received his request gladly (for he was desirous
of having Crassus, in some way or other, always in debt to him for
some favour), and eagerly promoted his candidature, and finally said
in a speech to the assembly that he should be no less grateful to them
for the colleague than for the office which he desired."  However,
in office they did not remain friendly. They "differed on almost every
measure, and by their contentiousness rendered their consulship barren
politically and without achievement."  Crassus displayed his
wealth by public sacrifices to
Hercules and entertained the populace
at 10,000 tables and distributing sufficient grain to last each family
three months, an act which had the additional ends of performing a
previously made religious vow of a tithe to the demigod
also to gain support among the members of the popular party.
In Appian's account, Crassus ended the rebellion and there was a
contention over honours between him and Pompey. Neither men dismissed
their armies. Both were candidates for the consulship. Crassus had
been praetor as the law of
Pompey had been neither
praetor nor quaestor, and was only thirty-four years old, but he had
promised the plebeian tribunes to restore much of their power which
had been taken away by Sulla's constitutional reforms. Even when they
were both chosen consuls, they did not dismiss their armies stationed
near the city.
Pompey said that he was awaiting the return of Metellus
for his Spanish triumph; Crassus said that
Pompey ought to dismiss his
army first. In the end Crassus yielded first, offering
Pompey and Caesar
From left to right: Julius Caesar, Marcus Licinius Crassus, and Pompey
In 65 BC, Crassus was elected censor with another conservative,
Quintus Lutatius Catulus (Capitolinus), himself son of a consul.
During that decade, Crassus was Julius Caesar's patron in all but
name, financing Caesar's successful election to become Pontifex
Maximus. Caesar had formerly been the priest of Jupiter or flamen
dialis, but had been deprived of office by Sulla. Crassus also
supported Caesar's efforts to win command of military campaigns.
Caesar's mediation between Crassus and
Pompey led to the creation of
First Triumvirate in 60/59 BC, consisting of Crassus, Pompey, and
Caesar (who became consul in 59). This coalition would last until
Crassus' own death.
Denarius minted by Publius Licinius Crassus, son of the triumvir
Marcus, as monetalis in 55 BC; on the obverse is a laureate bust of
Venus, perhaps in honor of his commanding officer Julius Caesar; on
the reverse is an unidentified female figure perhaps representing Gaul
In 55 BC, after the Triumvirate met at the
Lucca Conference, Crassus
was again consul with Pompey, and a law was passed assigning the
provinces of the two Hispanias and
Pompey and Crassus
respectively for five years.
Syrian governorship and death
Syria as his province, which promised to be an
inexhaustible source of wealth. It may have been, had he not also
sought military glory and crossed the
Euphrates in an attempt to
conquer Parthia. Crassus attacked Parthia not only because of its
great source of riches, but because of a desire to match the military
victories of his two major rivals,
Pompey the Great
Pompey the Great and Julius Caesar.
The king of Armenia, Artavazdes II, offered Crassus the aid of nearly
forty thousand troops (ten thousand cataphracts and thirty thousand
infantrymen) on the condition that Crassus invaded through
that the king could not only maintain the upkeep of his own troops but
also provide a safer route for his men and Crassus'. Crassus
refused, and chose the more direct route by crossing the Euphrates.
His legions were defeated at Carrhae (modern
Harran in Turkey) in 53
BC by a numerically inferior Parthian force. Crassus' legions were
mainly infantry men and were not prepared for the type of swift,
cavalry-and-arrow attack that the Parthian troops were particularly
adept at. The
Parthians would get within shooting range, rain a
barrage of arrows down upon Crassus's troops, turn, fall back, and
charge forth with another attack in the same vein. They were even able
to shoot as well backwards as they could forwards, increasing the
deadliness of their onslaught. Crassus refused his quaestor Gaius
Cassius Longinus's plans to reconstitute the Roman battle line, and
remained in the testudo formation, thinking that the
eventually run out of arrows.
Subsequently Crassus' men, being near mutiny, demanded he parley with
the Parthians, who had offered to meet with him. Crassus, despondent
at the death of his son Publius in the battle, finally agreed to meet
the Parthian general; however, when Crassus mounted a horse to ride to
the Parthian camp for a peace negotiation, his junior officer Octavius
suspected a Parthian trap and grabbed Crassus' horse by the bridle,
instigating a sudden fight with the
Parthians that left the Roman
party dead, including Crassus. A story later emerged to the effect
that after Crassus' death, the
Parthians poured molten gold into his
mouth as a symbol of his thirst for wealth.
The account given in Plutarch's biography of Crassus also mentions
that, during the feasting and revelry in the wedding ceremony of
Artavazdes's sister to the Parthian king Orodes II's son and heir
Pacorus in the Armenian capital of Artashat, Crassus' head was brought
to Orodes II. Both kings were enjoying a performance of Euripides'
The Bacchae when a certain actor of the royal court,
named Jason of Tralles, took the head and sang the following verses
(also from the Bacchae):
We bring from the mountain
A tendril fresh-cut to the palace
A wonderful prey.
Crassus' head was thus used in place of a prop head representing
Pentheus and carried by the heroine of the play, Agave.
Also according to Plutarch, a final mockery was made ridiculing the
memory of Crassus, by dressing up a Roman prisoner, Caius Paccianus,
who resembled him in appearance, in women's clothing, calling him
"Crassus" and "Imperator", and leading him in a spectacular show of a
final, mock "triumphal procession", putting to ridiculous use the
traditional symbols of Roman triumph and authority.
c. 115 BC – Crassus born, second of three sons of Publius Licinius
Crassus (cos.97, cens.89)
97 BC – Father is consul of Rome
87 BC – Crassus flees to
Hispania from Marian forces
84 BC – Joins
Sulla against Marians
82 BC – Commanded the victorious right wing of Sulla's army at the
Colline Gate, the decisive battle of the civil war, fought Kalends of
78 BC –
Sulla dies in the spring
73 BC – Revolt of Spartacus, probable year Crassus was praetor (75,
74, 73 all possible)
72 BC – Crassus given special command of the war against Spartacus
following the ignominious defeats of both consuls
71 BC – Crassus destroys the remaining slave armies in the spring,
elected consul in the summer
70 BC – Consulship of Crassus and Pompey
65 BC – Crassus Censor with Quintus Lutatius Catulus
63 BC – Catiline Conspiracy
59 BC –
First Triumvirate formed. Caesar is Consul
56 BC – Conference at Luca
55 BC – Second consulship of Crassus and Pompey. In November,
Crassus leaves for Syria
54 BC – Campaign against the Parthians
53 BC – Crassus dies in the Battle of Carrhae
Crassus is a major character in Howard Fast's 1951 novel Spartacus.
Crassus is a major character in the 1956
Alfred Duggan novel Winter
Quarters. The novel follows two fictional Gallic nobles who join
Julius Caesar's cavalry and then find their way into the service of
Marcus' son, Publius Licinius Crassus, in Gaul. The characters
eventually become clients of Publius Crassus, and, by extension, his
father Marcus. The second half of the novel is related by its Gallic
narrator from within the ranks of Crassus' doomed army en route to do
battle with Parthia. The book depicts an overconfident and militarily
incompetent Crassus up to the moment of his death.
Crassus is a major character in the 1992 novel Arms of Nemesis by
Steven Saylor. He is portrayed as the cousin and patron of Lucius
Licinius, the investigation of whose murder forms the basis of the
novel. He also has minor appearances in
Roman Blood and Catalina's
In David Drake's Ranks of Bronze (1986), the Lost Legion is the major
participant, although Crassus himself has been killed before the book
Crassus is a major character in Conn Iggulden's Emperor series
The story of the
Battle of Carrhae
Battle of Carrhae is the centrepiece of Ben Kane's
novel The Forgotten Legion (2008). Crassus is depicted as a vain man
with poor military judgement.
Crassus is a major character in Robert Harris's novel Lustrum
(published as Conspirata in the USA), the sequel to Imperium, which
both chronicle the career of Marcus Tullius Cicero.
Crassus is a major character in the novels Fortune's Favourites and
Caesar's Women by Colleen McCullough. He is portrayed as a brave but
mediocre general, a brilliant financier, and a true friend of Caesar.
Crassus (Russian: Красс) has a principal role in Aram
Khachaturian's 1956 ballet Spartacus.
Crassus is a principal character in the 1960 film Spartacus, played by
actor Laurence Olivier. The film is based on Howard Fast's 1951
novel of the same name.
A highly fictionalised version of Crassus called "Marcus Crassius" is
an enemy figure in the film
Amazons and Gladiators (2001), and is
played by Patrick Bergin. They mention his defeating
that Caesar exiles him due to his popularity to a poor province, where
he's very cruel to the populace; he conquers the Amazons, under Queen
Zenobia (who apparently rules a tribe of Amazons in the same province,
Pannae [Pannonia, one assumes]). In this film, he is killed by a young
girl whose family he killed.
Crassus is a principal character in the 2004 TV film Spartacus, played
by actor Angus Macfadyen.
Crassus appears in a 3rd season episode of Xena: Warrior Princess,
where he is beheaded in the Colosseum.
He is portrayed by
Simon Merrells in Spartacus: War of the Damned as
the main antagonist. Unlike in Alfred Duggan's novel, he is portrayed
as a brilliant military tactician.
Crassus was also mentioned in the fifth series of Horrible Histories,
with a song dedicated to his life.
Crassus, along with Palene, is one of the two narrators in Jeff
Wayne's Musical Version of Spartacus. He is played by Anthony Hopkins.
Crassus appears as one of the villains in the video game Spartan:
Crassus makes an appearance as a Great Merchant in the video game Sid
Meier's Civilization V.
List of wealthiest historical figures
^ a b Smith, William (1870). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography
and Mythology. 2. , p. 831
^ M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS In English: "Marcus Licinius
Crassus, son of Publius, grandson of Publius"
^ Plutarch,Parallel Lives, The Life of Crassus, 4.1; also Cic.Scaur.
fragment at Ascon.27G=23C, with Asconius' comment on the passage.
^ deducible from their common gentilicium and cognomen, while
Cic.Scaur. fragment at Ascon.27G=23C explicitly states that the
homonymous consulars who both took their own lives, P. Crassus Dives
Mucianus (cos.131) and P. Crassus (cos.97), belonged to the same
^ Plutarch. Parallel Lives, The Life of Crassus, 1.1; 2.2
^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Crassus, 4.1
^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Crassus, 6.2
^ Appian, The Civil Wars, 1.90.1
^ (Plutarch, The Life of Crassus, 6.6-7 (trans. Perrin, 1916). "It is
said that in
Bruttium he actually proscribed a man without Sulla's
orders, merely to get his property, and that for this reason Sulla,
who disapproved of his conduct, never employed him again on public
Plutarch (1916). Parallel Lives, "Life of Crassus", 2.2. Loeb
Classical Library. III. Translated by Perrin, Bernadotte.
Plutarch (1916). Parallel Lives, "Life of Crassus", 2.3. Loeb
Classical Library. III. Translated by Perrin, Bernadotte.
^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Crassus 2.3–4
^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Crassus, 1
^ a b Shaw, Brent D.
Spartacus and the Slave Wars. New York:
Bedford/St. Martins, 2001. pp. 178–79.
^ Liv. Per. 97.1; Appian, Bellum Civile 1.121. This obscure passage is
important because although Crassus was likely named pro-praetor
Spartacus in 72, the mystery of Crassus' true praetorship has
baffled many scholars. For example in a 1993 graduate seminar Hist
275A at UC Berkeley, Prof. Gruen documented for students that Pompey
and maybe Crassus were the only two politicians not to abide by
Sulla's laws for holding office in the proper sequence and at the
proper age (Gruen, Last Generation of the Roman Republic, 509, his
praetorship is listed as c. 73). The
Appian passage was found years
after the seminar by Gaius Stern and appears in an upcoming paper.
Livy implies, probably incorrectly, that Crassus was praetor in 72
against Spartacus, rather than fighting under a special authorization
as a pro-praetor. Were he praetor in 72, his consulship 366 days later
in 70 would be illegal according to Sulla's constitution. Eutrop. 6.7;
call Crassus a pro-consul. See also the Penguin translator Rex Warner,
Plut. Cras. 10, n. 26 citing Broughton MRR calling him a pro-consul.
^ Plutarch, Life of Crassus, 10.2–3
^ Appian, The Civil Wars, I.18–19. Loeb Classics Edition, 1913.
^ Plutarch-Crassus, 10.4–6
^ Plutarch, Life of Crassus, Chapter XI. Translated by Aubrey Stewart
& George Long. London: George Bell & Sons, 1892.
^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Crassus, 11.2
^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Crassus, 11.7
^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Crassus, 11.8
^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Crassus, 12.1
^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Crassus, 12.2
^ Appian, the Civil Wars, 1.121
^ Plutarch. Life of Crassus. 19.1–3.
^ Richard Bulliet, Professor of Middle Eastern History, Columbia
^ Bivar (1983), p. 55.
^ Cassius Dio 40.27
^ Payaslian, Simon (2007). The history of Armenia : from the
origins to the present (1st ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
p. 24. ISBN 1403974675.
^ Plutarch. Life of Crassus, 33.2–3.
^ Bivar (1983), p. 56.
^ Plutarch, 'Life Of Crassus,' p418: "That one of his captives who
bore the greatest likeness to Crassus, Caius Paccianus, put on a
woman's royal robe, and under instructions to answer to the name of
Crassus and the title of Imperator when so addressed, was conducted
along on horseback."
^ "Spartacus". 17 November 1960 – via www.imdb.com.
^ "BBC - CBBC - Page not found".
Plutarch. "Life of Crassus". Parallel Lives. trans. Bernadotte Perrin
(Loeb Classical Library ed.).
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Plutarch. Plutarch's Lives Volume III at Project Gutenberg
Cicero. Letters of
Marcus Tullius Cicero
Marcus Tullius Cicero at Project Gutenberg
Dio Cassius Book 40, Stanza 26 
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Arsacids," in The Cambridge History of Iran (Vol 3:1), 21–99. Edited
by Ehsan Yarshater. London, New York, New Rochelle, Melbourne, and
Sydney: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-20092-X.
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Ward, Allen Mason: Marcus Crassus and the Late Roman Republic
(University of Missouri Press, 1977)
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Marcus Licinius Crassus
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Marcus Licinius Crassus.
Crassus entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith
Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura and Gnaeus Aufidius Orestes
Consul of the Roman Republic
with Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Creticus and Quintus Hortensius
Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus and Lucius Marcius Philippus
Consul of the Roman Republic
with Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus
Appius Claudius Pulcher and Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus
The works of Plutarch
Alcibiades and Coriolanus1
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar
Aratus of Sicyon
Aratus of Sicyon / Artaxerxes and
Galba / Otho2
Aristides and Cato the Elder1
Crassus and Nicias1
Demetrius and Antony1
Demosthenes and Cicero1
Dion and Brutus1
Fabius and Pericles1
Lucullus and Cimon1
Lysander and Sulla1
Numa and Lycurgus1
Pelopidas and Marcellus1
Philopoemen and Flamininus1
Phocion and Cato the Younger
Pompey and Agesilaus1
Poplicola and Solon1
Pyrrhus and Gaius Marius
Romulus and Theseus1
Sertorius and Eumenes1
Agis / Cleomenes1 and
Tiberius Gracchus / Gaius Gracchus
Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus1
Themistocles and Camillus
Translators and editors
Arthur Hugh Clough
1 Comparison extant
2 Four unpaired Lives
ISNI: 0000 0001 1932 453X