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THE MARCH OF THE LIVING (Hebrew : מצעד החיים‎ Mits'ad HaKhayim) is an annual educational program which brings students from around the world to Poland
Poland
, where they explore the remnants of the Holocaust
Holocaust
. On Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Day ( Yom HaShoah
Yom HaShoah
), thousands of participants march silently from Auschwitz to Birkenau , the largest Nazi concentration camp
Nazi concentration camp
complex built during World War II
World War II
.

The program was established in 1988 and takes place annually for two weeks around April and May, immediately following Passover
Passover
. Marchers have come from over 50 countries, as diverse as United States
United States
, Canada , Australia
Australia
, New Zealand
New Zealand
, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
, Estonia
Estonia
, Panama
Panama
, Mexico
Mexico
, Argentina
Argentina
, Brazil
Brazil
, Hungary
Hungary
, and Turkey
Turkey
.

The Israeli founders of the March of the Living
March of the Living
were Avraham Hirschson and Dr. Shmuel Rosenman. They were assisted in the early years by Jewish communal leaders and philanthropists from the United States (Alvin Schiff, Gene Greenzweig and Joseph Wilf, the first North American Chair of the March of the Living), and Canada
Canada
(Walter Hess, Shlomo Shimon, Rabbi Irwin Witty, and Eli Rubenstein ).

CONTENTS

* 1 Commemoration of World War II
World War II
death marches * 2 Educational value * 3 Exhibit * 4 Supplementary programs * 5 Cultural impact * 6 Further reading * 7 Notes and references * 8 External links

COMMEMORATION OF WORLD WAR II DEATH MARCHES

The climax of the program is the March, which is designed to contrast with the death marches which occurred towards the end of World War II . When Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
withdrew its soldiers from forced-labour camps , inmates – most already starving and stricken by oppressive work – were forced to march hundreds of miles further west, while those who lagged behind or fell were shot or left to freeze to death in the winter climate. The March of the Living, in contrast to the death marches, serves to illustrate the continued existence of world Jewry despite Nazi
Nazi
Germany's attempts at their obliteration.

After spending a week in Poland
Poland
visiting other sites of Nazi Germany's persecution, such as Majdanek, Treblinka, and the Warsaw Ghetto, and former sites of Jewish life and culture, various Synagogues, many of the participants in the March also travel on to Israel where they observe Yom Hazikaron (Israel's Remembrance Day) and celebrate Yom Haatzmaut (Israel's Independence Day).

EDUCATIONAL VALUE

The March of the Living
March of the Living
is mainly aimed at Jewish high school students and its goals are both universal (fighting indifference, racism and injustice) and particular (opposing anti-semitism, and strengthening their sense of Jewish identity).

A key element of the program is the participation of Holocaust survivors who share the memory of their war-time experiences with the students, while they are still well enough to participate in this challenging two week trip of the young.

Though the vast majority of participants in the March of the Living are Jewish high school students from different countries including Israel, there are many non-Jewish groups in attendance, along with adult groups such as the Polish Friends of Israel, Japan's Bridges for Peace and others.

EXHIBIT

In mid January 2014 a new exhibit on the March of the Living
March of the Living
opened at the United Nations
United Nations
, which housed the exhibit until the end of March 2014. Titled "When you Listen to a Witness, You Become a Witness", the exhibit includes photographs, documents and writings devoted to the 25-year history of the March of the Living. The exhibit tells the stories of the aging survivors and their young students who, hand in hand, embark on a life-changing journey and return profoundly transformed. It also contains archival photos of deportation and mass murder from the Holocaust
Holocaust
period.

An interactive component of the exhibition allows visitors to fill out their own pledge of tolerance and compassion which may be taken on the March of the Living
March of the Living
and planted alongside thousands of other plaques of tolerance and compassion on the very grounds of Auschwitz-Birkenau.

The title of the exhibit is taken from the words of Judy Weissenberg Cohen in a speech given to students on the 1997 March of the Living describing the last time she saw her mother during the selection of Hungarian Jewry in Auschwitz-Birkenau in the spring of 1944.

I never had a chance to say goodbye to my mother. We didn’t know we had to say goodbye... I am an old woman today and I never made peace with the fact I never had that last hug and kiss. They say “when you listen to a witness, you become a witness too.” I am only asking you to work for a world... where nobody will ever have to live memories like mine ever again. Please work for Tikkun Olam . — Judy Weissenberg Cohen, "The Last Time I Saw my Mother"

When You Listen to a Witness
Witness
- poster for UN exhibit, 2014

Seventy Years - poster for UN exhibit

On March 10, 2014, a group of students from New York's Pine Bush High School – part of a district where there have been press reports alleging widespread anti-Semitism – visited the UN Exhibit. They were addressed by Holocaust
Holocaust
survivors Judy Weissenberg Cohen and Fanya Heller , as well as by Rick Carrier, a World War II
World War II
Liberator.

In November 2015, the Exhibit was mounted at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum .

The UN Exhibit became the basis of a book published in the fall of 2015, titled, Witness: Passing the Torch of Holocaust
Holocaust
Memory to New Generations . The book has a unique interactive feature where the survivors, World War II
World War II
liberators, and Righteous Among the Nations featured in the book, include an invisible link embedded on their image. When their image is accessed with a smart phone or other device, the reader is taken to an excerpt of their video testimony on USC Shoah Foundation Institute for Visual History and Education (created by Steven Spielberg ) or March of the Living
March of the Living
Digital Archive Project websites. Translations in several other languages are already in the works.

SUPPLEMENTARY PROGRAMS

In recent years the March of the Living
March of the Living
(MOTL) has attempted to broaden its focus from only concentrating on the Holocaust, and include other program content in the Poland
Poland
portion of the trip. These elements include: celebrating Jewish life before the war, establishing dialogue with Polish students, meeting with Polish Righteous among the Nations , and connecting with the contemporary Polish Jewish community.

The March of Remembrance and Hope (MRH) is a program designed for university/college students of all religions and backgrounds. This program, founded in 2001, takes place in May, and in recent years, has included a 2-day trip to Germany, before the 5 day Poland
Poland
portion of the trip. The purpose of the March of Remembrance and Hope is to teach students of various religious and ethnic backgrounds about the dangers of intolerance through the study of the Holocaust
Holocaust
and other World War II genocides, and to promote better relations among people of diverse cultures. Holocaust
Holocaust
survivors also participate in the March of Remembrance and Hope program. Since its inception, students of a wide variety of religions and ethnicities have taken part.

CULTURAL IMPACT

In 2009 two different documentaries featured March of the Living participants or students on similar experiences during their time on the trip. The documentary Defamation , by filmmaker Yoav Shamir , includes a group of Israeli students during their time at Poland sites, including the stop at Auschwitz. Director Jessica Sanders made a documentary titled March of the Living, which focuses entirely on the program and participants.

Late 2015 saw the release of Blind Love , a documentary film about blind Israelis traveling to Poland
Poland
with the help of their guide dogs on the March of the Living
March of the Living
to learn about the Holocaust. The film, Blind Love: A Holocaust
Holocaust
Journey Through Poland
Poland
with Man’s Best Friend, premiered during Holocaust
Holocaust
Education Week in Toronto, with the co-sponsorship of the Toronto Jewish Film Festival . It was also broadcast on the CBC's Canadian speciality channel Documentary in late 2015 and then again in 2017 on Holocaust
Holocaust
Remembrance Day, as well as in Israel on its main station Channel 10 (Israel) on the same day.

FURTHER READING

* Rubenstein, Eli (1993). For You Who Died I Must Live On: Reflections on the March of the Living. Oakville, Ontario: Mosaic Press. ISBN 0889625107 . * Shevelev, Raphael; Schomer, Karine (1997). Liberating the Ghosts: Photographs and Text from the March of the Living. Anacortes, Washington: Lenswork Publishing. ISBN 1888803002 . * Berlfein Burns, Jan, ed. (2014). March of the Living: Our Stories: A Collection from the Holocaust
Holocaust
Survivors of the Los Angeles Delegation of BJE. Los Angeles, California: Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust. ISBN 9780985835439 . OCLC 940568018 . * Rubenstein, Eli (2015). Witness: Passing the Torch of Holocaust Memory to New Generations. Toronto, Ontario: Second Story Press. ISBN 1927583667 .

NOTES AND REFERENCES

* ^ " March of the Living
March of the Living
International". motl.org. * ^ " March of the Living
March of the Living
Canada". motl.org. * ^ 12 Goals of the March of the Living * ^ March of the Living
March of the Living
Exhibit Opening at the United Nations videos. * ^ UN Exhibit to Honor March of the Living
March of the Living
“When You Listen to a Witness, You Become a Witness” March of the Living
March of the Living
Canada
Canada
2011-2012. * ^ March of the Living. CBC Radio: Metro Morning audio recording. * ^ UN to host March of the Living
March of the Living
exhibit The Canadian Jewish News, January 20, 2014. * ^ New exhibit at UN dedicated to preserving Holocaust