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The March of the Living (Hebrew: מצעד החיים‬ Mits'ad HaKhayim) is an annual educational program which brings students from around the world to Poland, where they explore the remnants of the Holocaust. On Holocaust Memorial Day (Yom HaShoah), thousands of participants march silently from Auschwitz to Birkenau, the largest Nazi concentration camp complex built during World War II. The program was established in 1988 and takes place annually for two weeks around April and May, immediately following Passover.[1] Marchers have come from over 50 countries, as diverse as United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Estonia, Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Hungary, and Turkey.[2] The Israeli founders of the March of the Living were Avraham Hirschson and Dr. Shmuel Rosenman. They were assisted in the early years by Jewish communal leaders and philanthropists from the United States (Alvin Schiff, Gene Greenzweig and Joseph Wilf, the first North American Chair of the March of the Living), and Canada (Walter Hess, Shlomo Shimon, Rabbi Irwin Witty, and Eli Rubenstein).

Contents

1 Commemoration of World War II death marches 2 Educational value 3 Exhibit 4 Supplementary programs 5 Cultural impact 6 Further reading 7 Notes and references 8 External links

Commemoration of World War II death marches[edit] The climax of the program is the March, which is designed to contrast with the death marches which occurred towards the end of World War II. When Nazi Germany withdrew its soldiers from forced-labour camps, inmates – most already starving and stricken by oppressive work – were forced to march hundreds of miles further west, while those who lagged behind or fell were shot or left to freeze to death in the winter climate. The March of the Living, in contrast to the death marches, serves to illustrate the continued existence of world Jewry despite Nazi Germany's attempts at their obliteration. After spending a week in Poland visiting other sites of Nazi Germany's persecution, such as Majdanek, Treblinka, and the Warsaw Ghetto, and former sites of Jewish life and culture, various Synagogues, many of the participants in the March also travel on to Israel where they observe Yom Hazikaron (Israel's Remembrance Day) and celebrate Yom Haatzmaut (Israel's Independence Day).[3] Educational value[edit] The March of the Living is mainly aimed at Jewish high school students and its goals are both universal (fighting indifference, racism and injustice) and particular (opposing anti-semitism, and strengthening their sense of Jewish identity).[4] A key element of the program is the participation of Holocaust survivors who share the memory of their war-time experiences with the students, while they are still well enough to participate in this challenging two week trip of the young. Though the vast majority of participants in the March of the Living are Jewish high school students from different countries including Israel, there are many non-Jewish groups in attendance, along with adult groups such as the Polish Friends of Israel, Japan's Bridges for Peace and others. Exhibit[edit] In mid January 2014 a new exhibit on the March of the Living opened at the United Nations, which housed the exhibit until the end of March 2014.[5] Titled "When you Listen to a Witness, You Become a Witness", the exhibit includes photographs, documents and writings devoted to the 25-year history of the March of the Living. The exhibit tells the stories of the aging survivors and their young students who, hand in hand, embark on a life-changing journey and return profoundly transformed. It also contains archival photos of deportation and mass murder from the Holocaust period.[6] An interactive component of the exhibition allows visitors to fill out their own pledge of tolerance and compassion which may be taken on the March of the Living and planted alongside thousands of other plaques of tolerance and compassion on the very grounds of Auschwitz-Birkenau.[7] The title of the exhibit is taken from the words of Judy Weissenberg Cohen in a speech given to students on the 1997 March of the Living describing the last time she saw her mother during the selection of Hungarian Jewry in Auschwitz-Birkenau in the spring of 1944.[8][9][10]

I never had a chance to say goodbye to my mother. We didn’t know we had to say goodbye... I am an old woman today and I never made peace with the fact I never had that last hug and kiss. They say “when you listen to a witness, you become a witness too.” I am only asking you to work for a world... where nobody will ever have to live memories like mine ever again. Please work for Tikkun Olam [translation: heal the world]. — Judy Weissenberg Cohen, "The Last Time I Saw my Mother"

When You Listen to a Witness - poster for UN exhibit, 2014

Seventy Years - poster for UN exhibit

On March 10, 2014, a group of students from New York's Pine Bush High School[11] – part of a district where there have been press reports alleging widespread anti-Semitism – visited the UN Exhibit. They were addressed by Holocaust survivors Judy Weissenberg Cohen and Fanya Heller, as well as by Rick Carrier, a World War II Liberator.[12][13] In November 2015, the Exhibit was mounted at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum.[14] The UN Exhibit became the basis of a book published in the fall of 2015, titled, Witness: Passing the Torch of Holocaust Memory to New Generations. The book has a unique interactive feature where the survivors, World War II liberators, and Righteous Among the Nations featured in the book, include an invisible link embedded on their image. When their image is accessed with a smart phone or other device, the reader is taken to an excerpt of their video testimony on USC Shoah Foundation Institute for Visual History and Education (created by Steven Spielberg) or March of the Living Digital Archive Project websites.[15] Translations in several other languages are already in the works.[16] Supplementary programs[edit] In recent years the March of the Living (MOTL) has attempted to broaden its focus from only concentrating on the Holocaust, and include other program content in the Poland portion of the trip. These elements include: celebrating Jewish life before the war, establishing dialogue with Polish students, meeting with Polish Righteous among the Nations, and connecting with the contemporary Polish Jewish community. The March of Remembrance and Hope (MRH) is a program designed for university/college students of all religions and backgrounds. This program, founded in 2001, takes place in May, and in recent years, has included a 2-day trip to Germany, before the 5 day Poland portion of the trip. The purpose of the March of Remembrance and Hope is to teach students of various religious and ethnic backgrounds about the dangers of intolerance through the study of the Holocaust and other World War II genocides, and to promote better relations among people of diverse cultures. Holocaust survivors also participate in the March of Remembrance and Hope program. Since its inception, students of a wide variety of religions and ethnicities have taken part. Cultural impact[edit] In 2009 two different documentaries featured March of the Living participants or students on similar experiences during their time on the trip. The documentary Defamation, by filmmaker Yoav Shamir, includes a group of Israeli students during their time at Poland sites, including the stop at Auschwitz.[17] Director Jessica Sanders made a documentary titled March of the Living, which focuses entirely on the program and participants.[18] Late 2015 saw the release of Blind Love, a documentary film about blind Israelis traveling to Poland with the help of their guide dogs on the March of the Living to learn about the Holocaust. The film, Blind Love: A Holocaust Journey Through Poland with Man’s Best Friend, premiered during Holocaust Education Week in Toronto, with the co-sponsorship of the Toronto Jewish Film Festival. It was also broadcast on the CBC's Canadian speciality channel Documentary in late 2015 and then again in 2017 on Holocaust Remembrance Day, as well as in Israel on its main station Channel 10 (Israel) on the same day. Further reading[edit]

Rubenstein, Eli (1993). For You Who Died I Must Live On: Reflections on the March of the Living. Oakville, Ontario: Mosaic Press. ISBN 0889625107.  Shevelev, Raphael; Schomer, Karine (1997). Liberating the Ghosts: Photographs and Text from the March of the Living. Anacortes, Washington: Lenswork Publishing. ISBN 1888803002.  Berlfein Burns, Jan, ed. (2014). March of the Living: Our Stories: A Collection from the Holocaust Survivors of the Los Angeles Delegation of BJE. Los Angeles, California: Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust. ISBN 9780985835439. OCLC 940568018.  Rubenstein, Eli (2015). Witness: Passing the Torch of Holocaust Memory to New Generations. Toronto, Ontario: Second Story Press. ISBN 1927583667. 

Notes and references[edit]

^ "March of the Living International". motl.org.  ^ "March of the Living Canada". motl.org.  ^ "BBYO Passport: March of the Living". Passport.bbyo.org. Retrieved 2017-11-06.  ^ 12 Goals of the March of the Living ^ March of the Living Exhibit Opening at the United Nations videos. ^ UN Exhibit to Honor March of the Living “When You Listen to a Witness, You Become a Witness” March of the Living Canada 2011-2012. ^ March of the Living. CBC Radio: Metro Morning audio recording. ^ UN to host March of the Living exhibit The Canadian Jewish News, January 20, 2014. ^ New exhibit at UN dedicated to preserving Holocaust memory Jewish World - Jerusalem Post 2014. ^ Holocaust exhibit at UN stresses memory and hope The Times of Israel 2014. ^ Weiserjan, Benjamin (January 25, 2014). "U.S. Cites Evidence of Anti-Semitism in School District". The New York Times. Retrieved April 24, 2017.  ^ Brown, Kathryn (March 10, 2014). "CBS 2 Exclusive: Students From District Plagued By Anti-Semitism Meet Holocaust Survivors". CBS New York (WCBS-TV). Retrieved April 24, 2017.  ^ Verikaitis, Vac (October 3, 2014). "Auschwitz: "It's Not the Sights so Much as the Sounds"". The Huffington Post (Canada). Retrieved April 24, 2017.  ^ "March of The Living Exhibit is open to the visitors of Auschwitz Museum". March of the Living International. Retrieved 23 December 2015.  ^ "Watch Testimony Clips in New Book from the March of the Living". USC Shoah Foundation. 18 December 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2015.  ^ Lungen, Paul (13 November 2015). "Book Passes the Torch of Holocaust Memory". The Canadian Jewish News. Retrieved 23 December 2015.  ^ "Israeli Documentary Challenges Jewish Responses to Anti-Semitism Film". Jewish Journal. Retrieved 2015-11-19.  ^ "Jessica Sanders - Documentary". jessicasandersfilm.com. Archived from the original on 2015-12-01. Retrieved 2015-11-19. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for March of the living.

March of the Living International http://www.marchoftheliving.org Canadian organization http://www.marchadelavida.com.mx Marcha de la Vida México http://www.remembranceandhope.com http://www.viaje.co.il/marcha Marcha da Vida - Brasil BBC article about the March of Living, 2005 Comment by Tad Taube in The Forward, May 5, 2006 http://www.cjnews.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=11803&Itemid=86 https://web.archive.org/web/20080819192906/http://www.cse.edu/blog/index.php/2007/02/09/college-of-saint-elizabeth-student-promotes-prejudice-reduction-at-the-united-nations-annual-holocaust-day#more-99 View March of the Living Exhibit at Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum.

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The Holocaust in Poland

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Mass shootings

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Ghettos

List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland (1939–1942) Będzin Białystok Brest Częstochowa Grodno Kielce Kraków Lwów Łódź Lubartów Lublin Międzyrzec Podlaski Mizocz Nowy Sącz Pińsk Radom Siedlce Sambor Słonim Sosnowiec Stanisławów Tarnopol Wilno Warsaw

Other atrocities

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Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

Major perpetrators

Organizers

Josef Bühler Eichmann Eicke Ludwig Fischer Hans Frank Globocnik Glücks Greiser Himmler Hermann Höfle Fritz Katzmann Wilhelm Koppe Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger Kutschera Erwin Lambert Ernst Lerch Oswald Pohl Reinefarth Scherner Seyss-Inquart Sporrenberg Streckenbach Thomalla Otto Wächter Wisliceny

Camp command

Aumeier Baer Boger Braunsteiner Eberl Eupen Kurt Franz Karl Frenzel Karl Fritzsch Göth Grabner Hartjenstein Hering Höss Hössler Josef Kramer Liebehenschel Mandel Matthes Michel Möckel Mulka Johann Niemann Oberhauser Reichleitner Heinrich Schwarz Stangl Gustav Wagner Christian Wirth

Gas chamber executioners

Erich Bauer Bolender Hackenholt Klehr Hans Koch Herbert Lange Theuer

Physicians

von Bodmann Clauberg Gebhardt Fritz Klein Mengele Horst Schumann Trzebinski Eduard Wirths

Ghetto command

Auerswald Biebow Blösche Bürkl Konrad Palfinger von Sammern-Frankenegg Stroop

Einsatzgruppen

Wolfgang Birkner Blobel Felix Landau Schaper Schöngarth von Woyrsch

Personnel

Camp guards

Juana Bormann Danz Demjanjuk Margot Dreschel Kurt Gerstein Grese Höcker Kaduk Kollmer Muhsfeldt Orlowski Volkenrath

By camp

Sobibór Treblinka

Organizations

Einsatzgruppen (SS) Ordnungspolizei (Orpo battalions) WVHA RKFDV VoMi General Government Hotel Polski

Collaboration

Belarusian

Belarusian Auxiliary Police BKA battalions Brigade Siegling Black Cats Central Rada

Jewish

Jewish Ghetto Police Żagiew ("Torch Guard") Group 13 Kapos Judenräte

Russian

Waffen-SS "RONA" Waffen-SS "Russland" Ostlegionen, Bataillone (Cossack Division, Russian "ROA")

Ukrainian

Ukrainian Auxiliary Police SS Galizien Ukrainian Liberation Army Schutzmannschaft (Battalion 118, Brigade Siegling, 30. Waffen SS Grenadier Division) Trawnikimänner

Other nationalities

Estonian Auxiliary Police Latvian Auxiliary Police (Arajs Kommando) Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions (Schutzmannschaft, Ypatingasis būrys) Pieter Menten (Nederlandsche SS)

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Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

Organizations

AK AOB Bund GL PKB ŻOB ŻZA

Uprisings

Ghetto uprisings Białystok Częstochowa Sobibór Treblinka Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

Leaders

Mordechai Anielewicz Icchak Cukierman Mordechai Tenenbaum Marek Edelman Leon Feldhendler Paweł Frenkiel Henryk Iwański Itzhak Katzenelson Michał Klepfisz Miles Lerman Alexander Pechersky Witold Pilecki Frumka Płotnicka Roza Robota Szmul Zygielbojm

Judenrat

Jewish Ghetto Police Adam Czerniaków Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

Victim lists

Ghettos

Kraków Łódź Lvov (Lwów) Warsaw

Camps

Auschwitz Bełżec Gross-Rosen Izbica Majdanek Sobibór Soldau Stutthof Trawniki Treblinka

Documentation

Nazi sources

Auschwitz Album Frank Memorandum Höcker Album Höfle Telegram Katzmann Report Korherr Report Nisko Plan Posen speeches Special Prosecution Book-Poland Stroop Report Wannsee Conference

Witness accounts

Graebe affidavit Gerstein Report Vrba–Wetzler report Witold's Report Sonderkommando photographs

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

Technical and logistics

Identification in camps Gas chamber Gas van Holocaust train Human medical experimentation Zyklon B

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Aftermath, trials and commemoration

Aftermath

Holocaust survivors Polish population transfers (1944–1946) Bricha Kielce pogrom Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 Ministry of Public Security

Trials

West German trials

Frankfurt Auschwitz trials Treblinka trials

Polish, East German, and Soviet trials

Auschwitz trial (Poland) Stutthof trials Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Memorials

Museum of the History of Polish Jews Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum Majdanek State Museum Sobibór Museum International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz March of the Living

Righteous Among the Nations

Polish Righteous Among the Nations Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust Garde

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