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The Mapuche
Mapuche
are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile
Chile
and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia. The collective term refers to a wide-ranging ethnicity composed of various groups who shared a common social, religious and economic structure, as well as a common linguistic heritage as Mapudungun
Mapudungun
speakers. Their influence once extended from the Aconcagua River to the Chiloé Archipelago
Chiloé Archipelago
and spread later eastward to the Argentine pampa. Today the collective group makes up over 80% of the indigenous peoples in Chile, and about 9% of the total Chilean population.[3] They are particularly concentrated in Araucanía. Many have migrated to the Santiago
Santiago
area for economic opportunities. The Mapuche
Mapuche
is used both to refer collectively to the Picunche
Picunche
(people of the north), Huilliche
Huilliche
(people of the South) and Moluche
Moluche
or Nguluche from Araucanía, or at other times, exclusively to the Moluche
Moluche
or Nguluche from Araucanía. The Mapuche
Mapuche
traditional economy is based on agriculture; their traditional social organisation consists of extended families, under the direction of a lonko or chief. In times of war, they would unite in larger groupings and elect a toki (meaning "axe, axe-bearer") to lead them. They are known for the textiles woven by women, which have been goods for trade for centuries, since before European encounter. The Araucanian Mapuche
Mapuche
inhabited at the time of Spanish arrival the valleys between the Itata and Toltén
Toltén
rivers. South of it, the Huilliche
Huilliche
and the Cunco lived as far south as the Chiloé Archipelago. In the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, Mapuche
Mapuche
groups migrated eastward into the Andes and pampas, fusing and establishing relationships with the Poya and Pehuenche. At about the same time, ethnic groups of the pampa regions, the Puelche, Ranquel
Ranquel
and northern Aonikenk, made contact with Mapuche
Mapuche
groups. The Tehuelche adopted the Mapuche language and some of their culture, in what came to be called Araucanization. Historically the Spanish colonizers of South America referred to the Mapuche
Mapuche
people as Araucanians (araucanos). However, this term is now considered pejorative[4] by some people. The name was likely derived from the placename rag ko (Spanish Arauco), meaning "clayey water".[5][6] The Quechua word awqa, meaning "rebel, enemy", is probably not the root of araucano.[5] Some Mapuche
Mapuche
mingled with Spanish during colonial times, and their descendants make up the large group of mestizos in Chile. But, Mapuche society in Araucanía and Patagonia
Patagonia
remained independent until the Chilean Occupation of Araucanía
Occupation of Araucanía
and the Argentine Conquest of the Desert in the late 19th century. Since then Mapuches have become subjects, and then nationals and citizens of the respective states. Today, many Mapuche
Mapuche
and Mapuche
Mapuche
communities are engaged in the so-called Mapuche conflict
Mapuche conflict
over land and indigenous rights in both Argentina
Argentina
and in Chile.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Pre–Columbian period 1.2 Arauco War 1.3 Incorporation into Chile
Chile
and Argentina

2 Modern conflict 3 Culture

3.1 Mapuche
Mapuche
languages 3.2 Cosmology and beliefs 3.3 Textiles 3.4 Clava hand-club 3.5 Silverwork 3.6 Literature 3.7 Cogender views

4 Mapuche, Chileans
Chileans
and the Chilean state 5 Notes 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 Further reading 9 External links

History[edit] Main article: Mapuche
Mapuche
history

Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture of the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas
Incas
(right)

Pre–Columbian period[edit] See also: Incas
Incas
in Central Chile Archaeological
Archaeological
finds have shown the existence of a Mapuche
Mapuche
culture in Chile
Chile
and Argentina
Argentina
as early as 600 to 500 BC.[7] Genetically Mapuches differ from the adjacent indigenous peoples of Patagonia.[8] This suggests a "different origin or long lasting separation of Mapuche
Mapuche
and Patagonian populations".[8] Troops of the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
are reported to have reached the Maule River and had a battle with the Mapuches between the Maule River
Maule River
and the Itata River
Itata River
there.[9] The southern border of the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
is believed by most modern scholars to have been situated between Santiago
Santiago
and the Maipo River
Maipo River
or somewhere between Santiago
Santiago
and the Maule River.[10] Thus the bulk of the Mapuche
Mapuche
escaped Inca rule. Through their contact with Incan invaders Mapuches would have for the first time met people with state organization. Their contact with the Incas
Incas
gave them a collective awareness distinguishing between them and the invaders and uniting them into loose geo-political units despite their lack of state organization.[11] At the time of the arrival of the first Spaniards
Spaniards
to Chile
Chile
the largest indigenous population concentration was in the area spanning from Itata River
Itata River
to Chiloé Archipelago—that is the Mapuche heartland.[12] The Mapuche
Mapuche
population between Itata River
Itata River
and Reloncaví Sound
Reloncaví Sound
has been estimated at 705,000–900,000 in the mid-16th century by historian José Bengoa.[13][note 1] Arauco War[edit] Main article: Arauco War The Spanish entered Mapuche
Mapuche
territory from Peru. Their expansion into Chile
Chile
was an offshoot of the conquest of Peru.[14] In 1541 Pedro de Valdivia
Valdivia
reached Chile
Chile
from Cuzco
Cuzco
and founded Santiago.[15] The northern Mapuche
Mapuche
tribes, such as the Promaucaes
Promaucaes
and the Picunches, fought unsuccessfully against Spanish conquest. Little is known about their resistance.[16]

Picture El joven Lautaro
Lautaro
of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius and expertise of his people.

In 1550 Pedro de Valdivia, who aimed to control all of Chile
Chile
to the Straits of Magellan, traveled southward to conquer more Mapuche territory.[17] Between 1550 and 1553 the Spanish founded several cities[note 2] in Mapuche
Mapuche
lands including Concepción, Valdivia, Imperial, Villarrica and Angol.[17] The Spanish also established the forts of Arauco, Purén
Purén
and Tucapel.[17] Further efforts by the Spanish to gain more territory engaged them in the Arauco War
Arauco War
against the Mapuche, a sporadic conflict that lasted nearly 350 years. Hostility towards the conquerors was compounded by the lack of a tradition of forced labour akin to the Inca mita among the Mapuche, who largely refused to serve the Spanish.[19] From their establishment in 1550 to 1598, the Mapuche
Mapuche
frequently laid siege to Spanish settlements in Araucanía.[18] The war was mostly a low intensity conflict.[20] Mapuche
Mapuche
numbers decreased significantly following contact with the Spanish invaders; wars and epidemics decimated the population.[16] Others died in Spanish owned gold mines.[19]

Caupolican
Caupolican
by Nicanor Plaza

In 1598 a party of warriors from Purén
Purén
led by Pelantaro, who were returning south from a raid in Chillán
Chillán
area, ambushed Martín García Óñez de Loyola and his troops[21] while they rested without taking any precautions against attack. Almost all the Spaniards
Spaniards
died, save a cleric named Bartolomé Pérez, who was taken prisoner, and a soldier named Bernardo de Pereda. The Mapuche
Mapuche
then initiated a general uprising which destroyed all the cities in their homeland south of the Biobío River. In the years following the Battle of Curalaba a general uprising developed among the Mapuches and Huilliches. The Spanish cities of Angol, Imperial, Osorno, Santa Cruz de Oñez, Valdivia
Valdivia
and Villarrica were either destroyed or abandoned.[22] Only Chillán
Chillán
and Concepción resisted Mapuche
Mapuche
sieges and raids.[23] With the exception of the Chiloé Archipelago, all Chilean territory south of the BíoBío River was freed from Spanish rule.[22] In this period the Mapuche
Mapuche
Nation crossed the Andes Range to conquer the present Argentine provinces of Chubut, Neuquen, La Pampa and Río Negro. Spain never again attempted to retake those territories. Incorporation into Chile
Chile
and Argentina[edit]

Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez
Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez
in meeting with the main lonkos of Araucania in 1869

Further information: Occupation of Araucanía
Occupation of Araucanía
and Conquest of the Desert In the 19th century Chile
Chile
experienced a fast territorial expansion. Chile
Chile
established a colony at the Strait of Magellan
Strait of Magellan
in 1843, settled Valdivia, Osorno and Llanquihue with German immigrants and conquered land from Peru and Bolivia.[24][25] Later Chile
Chile
would also annex Easter Island.[26] In this context Araucanía began to be conquered by Chile
Chile
due to two reasons. First, the Chilean state aimed for territorial continuity[27] and second it remained the sole place for Chilean agriculture to expand.[28] Between 1861 and 1871 Chile
Chile
incorporated several Mapuche
Mapuche
territories in Araucanía. In January 1881, having decisively defeated Peru in the battles of Chorrillos and Miraflores, Chile
Chile
resumed the conquest of Araucanía.[29][30][31] Historian Ward Churchill
Ward Churchill
has claimed that the Mapuche
Mapuche
population dropped from a total of half a million to 25,000 within a generation as result of the occupation and its associated famine and disease.[32] The conquest of Araucanía caused numerous Mapuches to be displaced and forced to roam in search of shelter and food.[33] Scholar Pablo Miramán claims the introduction of state education during the Occupation of Araucanía
Occupation of Araucanía
had detrimental effects on traditional Mapuche
Mapuche
education.[34]

Ancient flag of the Mapuche
Mapuche
on the Arauco War.

In the years following the occupation the economy of Araucanía changed from being based on sheep and cattle herding to one based on agriculture and wood extraction.[35] The loss of land by Mapuches following the occupation caused severe erosion since Mapuches continued to practice a massive livestock herding in limited areas.[36] Modern conflict[edit] Main article: Mapuche
Mapuche
conflict See also: Ralco Hydroelectric Plant Land disputes and violent confrontations continue in some Mapuche areas, particularly in the northern sections of the Araucanía region between and around Traiguén
Traiguén
and Lumaco. In an effort to defuse tensions, the Commission for Historical Truth and New Treatments issued a report in 2003 calling for drastic changes in Chile's treatment of its indigenous people, more than 80% of whom are Mapuche. The recommendations included the formal recognition of political and "territorial" rights for indigenous peoples, as well as efforts to promote their cultural identities.

Mapuche
Mapuche
activists killed in confrontations with the Chilean police in the 2000s.

Though Japanese and Swiss interests are active in the economy of Araucanía (Mapudungun: "Ngulu Mapu"), the two chief forestry companies are Chilean-owned. In the past, the firms have planted hundreds of thousands of acres with non-native species such as Monterey pine, Douglas firs and eucalyptus trees, sometimes replacing native Valdivian forests, although such substitution and replacement is now forgotten. Chile
Chile
exports wood to the United States, almost all of which comes from this southern region, with an annual value of around $600 million. Stand.earth, a conservation group, has led an international campaign for preservation, resulting in the Home Depot
Home Depot
chain and other leading wood importers agreeing to revise their purchasing policies to "provide for the protection of native forests in Chile." Some Mapuche leaders want stronger protections for the forests. In recent years, the delicts committed by Mapuche
Mapuche
activists have been prosecuted under counter-terrorism legislation, originally introduced by the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet
Augusto Pinochet
to control political dissidents. The law allows prosecutors to withhold evidence from the defense for up to six months and to conceal the identity of witnesses, who may give evidence in court behind screens. Violent activist groups, such as the Coordinadora Arauco Malleco, use tactics such as burning of structures and pastures, and death threats against people and their families. Protesters from Mapuche
Mapuche
communities have used these tactics against properties of both multinational forestry corporations and private individuals.[37][38] In 2010 the Mapuche launched a number of hunger strikes in attempts to effect change in the anti-terrorism legislation.[39] Culture[edit]

Flag of the Mapuche

At the time of the arrival of Europeans, the Mapuche
Mapuche
organized and constructed a network of forts and complex defensive buildings. They also built ceremonial constructions such as some earthwork mounds recently discovered near Purén.[40] They quickly adopted iron metal-working (they already worked copper[41]) They learned horseback-riding and the use of cavalry in war from the Spaniards, along with the cultivation of wheat and sheep. In the long 300-year coexistence between the Spanish colonies and the relatively well-delineated autonomous Mapuche
Mapuche
regions, the Mapuche
Mapuche
also developed a strong tradition of trading with Spaniards
Spaniards
and Chileans. Such trade lies at the heart of the Mapuche
Mapuche
silver-working tradition, for they wrought their jewelry from the large and widely dispersed quantity of Spanish and Chilean silver coins. They also made headdresses with coins, which were called trarilonko, etc. Mapuche
Mapuche
languages[edit] Main article: Mapudungun

The daughter of lonko Quilapán

Mapuche
Mapuche
languages are spoken in Chile
Chile
and to a smaller extent in Argentina. The two living branches are Huilliche
Huilliche
and Mapudungun. Although not genetically related, lexical influence has been discerned from Quechua. Linguists estimate that only about 200,000 full-fluency speakers remain in Chile. The language receives only token support in the educational system. In recent years, it has started to be taught in rural schools of Bío-Bío, Araucanía and Los Lagos Regions. Cosmology and beliefs[edit] Main article: Mapuche
Mapuche
religion Central to Mapuche
Mapuche
cosmology is the idea of a creator called ngenechen, who is embodied in four components: an older man (fucha/futra/cha chau), an older woman (kude/kuse), a young man and a young woman. They believe in worlds known as the Wenu Mapu and Minche Mapu. Also, Mapuche
Mapuche
cosmology is informed by complex notions of spirits that coexist with humans and animals in the natural world, and daily circumstances can dictate spiritual practices.[42] The most well-known Mapuche
Mapuche
ritual ceremony is the Ngillatun, which loosely translates "to pray" or "general prayer". These ceremonies are often major communal events that are of extreme spiritual and social importance. Many other ceremonies are practiced, and not all are for public or communal participation but are sometimes limited to family. The main groups of deities and/or spirits in Mapuche mythology
Mapuche mythology
are the Pillan and Wangulen (ancestral spirits), the Ngen (spirits in nature), and the wekufe (evil spirits). Central to Mapuche
Mapuche
belief is the role of the machi (shaman). It is usually filled by a woman, following an apprenticeship with an older machi, and has many of the characteristics typical of shamans. The machi performs ceremonies for curing diseases, warding off evil, influencing weather, harvests, social interactions and dreamwork. Machis often have extensive knowledge of regional medicinal herbs. As biodiversity in the Chilean countryside has declined due to commercial agriculture and forestry, the dissemination of such knowledge has also declined, but the Mapuche
Mapuche
people are reviving it in their communities. Machis have an extensive knowledge of sacred stones and the sacred animals.

Familia Mapuche, by Claudio Gay, 1848.

Like many cultures, the Mapuche
Mapuche
have a deluge myth (epeu) of a major flood in which the world is destroyed and recreated. The myth involves two opposing forces: Kai Kai (water, which brings death through floods) and Tren Tren (dry earth, which brings sunshine). In the deluge almost all humanity is drowned; the few not drowned survive through cannibalism. At last only one couple is left. A machi tells them that they must give their only child to the waters, which they do, and this restores order to the world. Part of Mapuche
Mapuche
ritual is prayer and animal sacrifice, required to maintain the cosmic balance. This belief has continued to current times. In 1960, for example, a machi sacrificed a young boy, throwing him into the water after an earthquake and a tsunami.[43][44][45] The Mapuche
Mapuche
have incorporated the remembered history of their long independence and resistance from 1540 (Spanish and then Chileans), and of the treaty with the Chilean government in the 1870s. Memories, stories, and beliefs, often very local and particularized, are a significant part of the Mapuche
Mapuche
traditional culture. To varying degrees, this history of resistance continues to this day amongst the Mapuche. At the same time, a large majority of Mapuche
Mapuche
in Chile identify with the state as Chilean, similar to a large majority in Argentina
Argentina
identifying as Argentines.[citation needed] Textiles[edit] Main article: Mapuche
Mapuche
textiles

Traditional Mapuche
Mapuche
poncho exhibited in Museo Artesanía Chilena.

Height of a chemamull ( Mapuche
Mapuche
funeral statue) compared to a person.

One of the best-known arts of the Mapuche
Mapuche
is their textiles. The oldest data on textiles in the southernmost areas of the American continent (southern Chile
Chile
and Argentina
Argentina
today) are found in some archaeological excavations, such as those of Pitrén Cemetery near the city of Temuco, and the Alboyanco site in the Biobío Region, both of Chile; and the Rebolledo Arriba Cemetery in Neuquén Province (Argentina). researchers have found evidence of fabrics made with complex techniques and designs, dated to between AD 1300-1350.[46] The Mapuche
Mapuche
women were responsible for spinning and weaving. Knowledge of both weaving techniques and textile patterns particular to the locality were usually transmitted within the family, with mothers, grandmothers, and aunts teaching a girl the skills they had learned from their own elders. Women who excelled in the textile arts were highly honored for their accomplishments and contributed economically and culturally to their kinship group. A measure of the importance of weaving is evident in the expectation that a man give a larger dowry for a bride who was an accomplished weaver.[47] In addition, the Mapuche
Mapuche
used their textiles as an important surplus and an exchange trading good. Numerous 16th-century accounts describe their bartering the textiles with other indigenous peoples, and with colonists in newly developed settlements. Such trading enabled the Mapuche
Mapuche
to obtain those goods that they did not produce or held in high esteem, such as horses. Tissue volumes made by Aboriginal women and marketed in the Araucanía and the north of the Patagonia Argentina
Argentina
were really considerable and constitute a vital economic resource for indigenous families.[48] The production of fabrics in the time before European settlement was clearly intended for uses beyond domestic consumption.[49] At present, the fabrics woven by the Mapuche
Mapuche
continue to be used for domestic purposes, as well as for gift, sale or barter. Most Mapuche women and their families now wear garments with foreign designs and tailored with materials of industrial origin, but they continue to weave ponchos, blankets, bands and belts for regular use. Many of the fabrics are woven for trade, and in many cases, are an important source of income for families.[50] Glazed pots are used to dye the wool.[51] Many Mapuche
Mapuche
women continue to weave fabrics according to the customs of their ancestors and transmit their knowledge in the same way: within domestic life, from mother to daughter, and from grandmothers to granddaughters. This form of learning is based on gestural imitation, and only rarely, and when strictly necessary, the apprentice receives explicit instructions or help from their instructors. Knowledge is transmitted as fabric is woven, the weaving and transmission of knowledge go together.[47] Clava hand-club[edit] Clava is a traditional stone hand-club used by the Mapuche. It has a long flat body. Its full name is clava mere okewa; in Spanish, it's known as clava cefalomorfa. It has some ritual importance as a special sign of distinction carried by tribal chiefs. Many kinds of clavas are known. This is an object associated with masculine power. It consists of a disk with attached handle; the edge of the disc usually has a semicircular recess. In many cases, the face portrayed on the disc carries incised designs. The handle is cylindrical, generally with a larger diameter at its connection to the disk.[52][53] Silverwork[edit] Main article: Mapuche
Mapuche
silverwork

Drawing of a trapelacucha, a silver finery piece.

In the later half of the 18th century Mapuche
Mapuche
silversmithing began to produce large amounts of silver finery.[54] The surge of silversmithing activity may be related to the 1726 parliament of Negrete that decreased hostilities between Spaniards
Spaniards
and Mapuches and allowed trade to increase between colonial Chile
Chile
and the free Mapuches.[54] In this context of increasing trade Mapuches began in the late 18th century to accept payments in silver coins for their products; usually cattle or horses.[54] These coins and silver coins obtained in political negotiations served as raw material for Mapuche metalsmiths (Mapudungun: rüxafe).[54][55][56] Old Mapuche
Mapuche
silver pendants often included unmelted silver coins, something that has helped modern researchers to date the objects.[55] The bulk of the Spanish silver coins originated from mining in Potosí
Potosí
in Upper Peru.[56] The great diversity in silver finery designs is due to the fact that designs were made to be identified with different reynma (families), lof mapu (lands) as well as specific lonkos and machis.[57] Mapuche silver finery was also subject to changes in fashion albeit designs associated with philosophical and spiritual concepts have not undergone major changes.[57] In the late 18th century and early 19th century Mapuche
Mapuche
silversmithing activity and artistic diversity reached it climax.[58] All important Mapuche
Mapuche
chiefs of the 19th century are supposed to have had at least one silversmith.[54] By 1984 Mapuche
Mapuche
scholar Carlos Aldunate noted that there were no silversmiths alive among contemporary Mapuches.[54] Literature[edit] The Mapuche
Mapuche
culture of the 16th century had an oral tradition and lacked a writing system. Since that time, a writing system for Mapudungun
Mapudungun
was developed, and Mapuche
Mapuche
writings in both Spanish and Mapudungun
Mapudungun
have flourished.[59] Contemporary Mapuche
Mapuche
literature can be said to be composed of an oral tradition and Spanish-Mapudungun bilingual writings.[59] Notable Mapuche
Mapuche
poets include Sebastián Queupul, Pedro Alonzo, Elicura Chihuailaf
Elicura Chihuailaf
and Leonel Lienlaf.[59] Cogender views[edit] Among the Mapuche
Mapuche
in La Araucanía, in addition to heterosexual female "machi" shamanesses, there are homosexual male "machi weye" shamans, who wear female clothing.[60][61][62] These machi weye were first described in Spanish in a chronicle of 1673 A.D.[63] Among the Mapuche, "the spirits are interested in machi's gendered discourses and performances, not in the sex under the machi's clothes."[64] In attracting the filew (possessing-spirit), "Both male and female machi become spiritual brides who seduce and call their filew -- at once husband and master -- to possess their heads ... . ... The ritual transvestism of male machi ... draws attention to the relational gender categories of spirit husband and machi wife as a couple (kurewen)."[65] As concerning "co-gendered identities"[66] of "machi as co-gender specialists",[67] it has been speculated that "female berdaches" may have formerly existed among the Mapuche.[68] Mapuche, Chileans
Chileans
and the Chilean state[edit] Following the independence of Chile
Chile
in the 1810s, the Mapuche
Mapuche
began to be perceived as Chilean by other Chileans, contrasting with previous perceptions of them as a separate people or nation.[69] Around the time of the Occupation of Araucanía
Occupation of Araucanía
(1861–1883) Mapuches were seen as "primordial" Chileans
Chileans
contrasting with other indigenous peoples in Chile
Chile
like the Aymara who were perceived in Chile
Chile
as a "foreign element".[70] 19th century Argentine writer and president Domingo Faustino Sarmiento presented his view of the Mapuche- Chile
Chile
relation by stating:[71]

Between two Chilean provinces (Concepción and Valdivia) there is a piece of land that is not a province, its language is different, it is inhabited by other people and it can still be said that it is not part of Chile. Yes, Chile
Chile
is the name of the country over where its flag waves and its laws are obeyed.

There are various recorded instances in the 19th century when Mapuches were the subject of civilizing mission discourses by elements of Chilean government and military. For example, Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez called in 1861 for Mapuches to submit to Chilean state authority and "enter into reduction and civilization".[72] When the Mapuches were finally defeated in 1883 president Domingo Santa María declared:[73]

The country has with satisfaction seen the problem of the reduction of the whole Araucanía solved. This event, so important to our social and political life, and so significant for the future of the republic, has ended, happily and with costly and painful sacrifices. Today the whole Araucanía is subjugated, more than to the material forces, to the moral and civilizing force of the republic...

Contemporary attitudes towards Mapuches from non-indigenous people in Chile
Chile
are highly individual and heterogeneous. Nevertheless, a considerable part of the non-indigenous people in Chile
Chile
have a prejudiced and discriminatory attitude towards Mapuche. In a 2003 study it was found that among the sample 41% of people over 60 years old, 35% of people of low socio-economic standing, 35% of the supporters of right-wing parties, 36% of Protestants and 26% of Catholics were prejudiced against indigenous peoples in Chile. In contrast only 8% of those who attended university, 16% of supporters of left-wing parties and 19% of people aged 18–29 were prejudiced.[74] Sociologist Éric Fassin has called the occurrence of Mapuche
Mapuche
domestic workers (Spanish: nanas mapuches) a continuation of colonial relations of servitude.[75] Historian Gonzalo Vial claims that the Republic of Chile
Chile
owes a "historical debt" to the Mapuche. The Coordinadora Arauco-Malleco
Coordinadora Arauco-Malleco
has the goal of a "national liberation" of Mapuche, with their regaining sovereignty over their own lands.[69]

Indigenous peoples of the Americas
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
portal

Notes[edit]

^ Note that the Chiloé Archipelago
Chiloé Archipelago
with its large population is not included in this estimate. ^ These "cities" were often no more than forts.[18]

References[edit]

^ "2012 census". Censo.cl. Retrieved 2013-09-25.  ^ "Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas 2010: Resultados definitivos: Serie B No 2: Tomo 1" (PDF) (in Spanish). INDEC. p. 281. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 5 December 2015.  ^ Cite error: The named reference 2002census was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ "''AZ Domingo 17 de Febrero de 2008''" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-09-25.  ^ a b Mapuche
Mapuche
o Araucano Archived 2006-11-05 at the Wayback Machine. (in Spanish) ^ Antecedentes históricos del pueblo araucano Archived 2006-11-07 at the Wayback Machine. (in Spanish) ^ Bengoa 2000, pp. 16–19. ^ a b Rey, Diego; Parga-Lozano, Carlos; Moscoso, Juan; Areces, Cristina; Enriquez-de-Salamanca, Mercedes; Fernández-Honrado, Mercedes; Abd-El-Fatah-Khalil, Sedeka; Alonso-Rubio, Javier; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio (2013). "HLA genetic profile of Mapuche (Araucanian) Amerindians from Chile". Molecular Biology Reports. 40: 4257–4267. doi:10.1007/s11033-013-2509-3.  ^ Bengoa 2003, pp. 37–38. ^ Dillehay, T.; Gordon, A. (1988). "La actividad prehispánica y su influencia en la Araucanía". In Dillehay, Tom; Netherly, Patricia. La frontera del estado Inca (in Spanish). pp. 183–196.  ^ Bengoa 2003, p. 40. ^ Otero 2006, p. 36. ^ Bengoa 2003, p. 157. ^ Villalobos et al. 1974, pp. 91−93. ^ Villalobos et al. 1974, pp. 96−97. ^ a b Bengoa 2003, pp. 250–251. ^ a b c Villalobos et al. 1974, pp. 98−99. ^ a b "La Guerra de Arauco (1550-1656)". Memoria chilena (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Retrieved January 30, 2014 inconsistent citations   ^ a b Bengoa 2003, pp. 252–253. ^ Dillehay 2007, p. 335. ^ Bengoa 2003, pp. 320–321. ^ a b Villalobos et al. 1974, p. 109. ^ Bengoa 2003, pp. 324–325. ^ "El fuerte Bulnes". Memoria chilena (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Retrieved January 3, 2014 inconsistent citations   ^ Villalobos R., Sergio; Silva G., Osvaldo; Silva V., Fernando; Estelle M., Patricio (1974). Historia de Chile
Chile
(1995 ed.). Editorial Universitaria. pp. 456–458, 571–575. ISBN 956-11-1163-2.  ^ "Incorporándola al territorio chileno". Memoria chilena (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Retrieved January 3, 2014 inconsistent citations   ^ Pinto 2003, p. 153. ^ Bengoa 2000, p. 156. ^ Bengoa 2000, pp. 275–276. ^ Ferrando 1986, p. 547 ^ Bengoa 2000, pp. 277–278. ^ Ward Churchill, A Little Matter of Genocide, 109. ^ Bengoa 2000, pp. 232–233. ^ Pinto 2003, p. 205. ^ Pinto Rodríguez, Jorge (2011). "Ganadería y empresarios ganaderos de la Araucanía, 1900-1960". Historia. 44 (2): 369–400 inconsistent citations   ^ Bengoa 2000, pp. 262–263. ^ "Redireccionando". Cooperativa.cl. Retrieved 2013-09-25. [permanent dead link] ^ " Mapuche
Mapuche
struggle for autonomy in Chile", Spero Forum ^ " Mapuche
Mapuche
hunger strike in Chile
Chile
highlights the real problem facing President Sebastian Pinera", Sounds and colors website ^ Dillehay, Tom, Monuments, Empires, and Resistance: The Araucanian Polity and Ritual Narratives (Cambridge University Press, Washington, 2007) ^ Pedro Mariño de Lobera, in Crónica del Reino de Chile, Cap. XXXI and XXXIII mentions copper points on the Mapuche
Mapuche
pikes in the Battle of Andalien and Battle of Penco. Copper
Copper
metallurgy was flourishing in South America, particularly in Peru, from around the beginning of the first millennium AD. Possibly the Mapuche
Mapuche
learned copper metal working from their prior interaction with the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
or prior Peruvian cultures, or was a native craft that developed independently in the region (copper being common in Chile). ^ Ngenechen, and Don Armando Marileo ^ Bacigalupo, Ana Mariella (2004). Mariko Namba Walter, Eva Jane Neumann Fridman, ed. Shamanism: an encyclopedia of world beliefs, practices, and culture, Volume. ABC-CLIO. p. 419. ISBN 978-1-57607-645-3. Retrieved 15 July 2011.  ^ Bacigalupo, Ana Mariella (2007). Shamans of the Foye Tree: Gender, Power, and Healing among Chilean Mapuche. University of Texas Press. pp. 46–47. ISBN 978-0-292-71659-9.  ^ Aladama, Arturo J (2003). Violence and the Body: Race, Gender, and the State. Indiana University Press. p. 326. ISBN 978-0-253-21559-8.  ^ Brugnoli y Hoces de la Guardia, 1995; Alvarado, 2002 ^ a b Wilson, 1992; Mendez, 2009a. ^ Garavaglia, 1986; Palermo, 1994; Mendez, 2009b. ^ Méndez, 2009b. ^ Wilson, 1992; Alvarado, 2002; Mendez, 2009a. ^ Jesuitas, Misión Mapuche- (2009-05-28). "Misión Jesuita Mapuche: Noticias de Mayo..." Misión Jesuita Mapuche. Retrieved 2017-04-14.  ^ Several types of clavas Tesauro Regional Patrimonial, Chile ^ Image of clava cefalomorfa Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino ^ a b c d e f Aldunate, Carlos (1984). "Refrexiones acerca de la platería mapuche" (PDF). Cultura-Hombre-Sociedad. 1. doi:10.7770/cuhso-v1n1-art129. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2013.  ^ a b Kangiser Gómez, María Fernanda (2002). "Conservación en platería mapuche: Museo Fonck, Viña del Mar" (PDF). Conserva. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2013.  ^ a b Painecura 2012, pp. 25-26. ^ a b Painecura 2012, pp. 27-28. ^ Painecura 2012, p. 30. ^ a b c Carrasco, I. 2000. Mapuche
Mapuche
poets in Chilean literature, Estudios filológicos, 35, 139-149. ^ Bacigalupo, 2007. pp. 111-114 ^ Bacigalupo, Ana Mariella. "The Struggle for Mapuche
Mapuche
Shamans' Masculinity: Colonial Politics of Gender,Sexuality, and Power in Southern Chile
Chile
(Book)." Ethnohistory, vol. 51, no. 3, Summer 2004, pp. 489-533. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=13945408&site=ehost-live. ^ Vilaça, Aparecida. "The Re-Invention of Mapuche
Mapuche
Male Shamans as Catholic Priests: Legitimizing Indigenous Co-Gender Identities in Modern Chile" in Native Christians : Modes and Effects of Christianity
Christianity
among Indigenous Peoples of the Americas, edited by Robin M. Wright, Taylor and Francis, 2009, pp 89-108. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/cunygc/detail.action?docID=438515. ^ Francisco Núñez de Pineda y Bascuñán : Cautiverio felíz y razón de las guerras dilatadas de Chile. Santiago : Imprenta el Ferrocarril, 1863. ^ http://www.buffalo.edu/ubreporter/archives/vol38/vol38n24/articles/BacigalupoShamens.html ^ Bacigalupo, 2007. p. 87 ^ Bacigalupo, 2007. pp. 131-133 ^ http://www.utexas.edu/utpress/excerpts/exbacsha.html ^ Bacigalupo, 2007. p. 268, n. 5:18 ^ a b Foerster, Rolf 2001. Sociedad mapuche y sociedad chilena: la deuda histórica. Polis, Revista de la Universidad Bolivariana. ^ Vergara, Jorge Iván; Gundermann, Hans (2012). "Constitution and internal dynamics of the regional identitary in Tarapacá and Los Lagos, Chile". Chungara (in Spanish). University of Tarapacá. 44 (1): 115–134. doi:10.4067/s0717-73562012000100009.  ^ Cayuqueo, Pedro (August 14, 2008), "Hernan Curiñir Lincoqueo, historiador mapuche: "Sobre el Bicentenario chileno tenemos mucho que decir"", Azkintuwe.org  ^ Ferrando Kaun, Ricardo (1986). Y así nació La Frontera... (Second ed.). Editorial Antártica. pp. 405–419. ISBN 978-956-7019-83-0.  ^ Ferrando Kaun, Ricardo (1986). Y así nació La Frontera... (in Spanish) (Second ed.). Editorial Antártica. p. 583. ISBN 978-956-7019-83-0.  ^ Aymerich, Jaime; Canales, Manuel; Vivanco, Manuel (2003). "Encuesta Tolerancia y No Discriminación Tercera Medición" (in Spanish). Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Sociología, Fundación Facultad de Ciencias Sociales: 60–74. Retrieved 17 January 2018.  ^ Godoy Valdés, Gloria (September 13, 2012). "Sociólogo francés Éric Fassin reflexionó sobre el abuso y la violencia sexual". uchile.cl (in Spanish). Retrieved June 20, 2015. 

Bibliography[edit]

Alvarado, Margarita (2002) “El esplendor del adorno: El poncho y el chanuntuku” En: Hijos del Viento, Arte de los Pueblos del Sur, Siglo XIX. Buenos Aires: Fundación PROA. Bengoa, José (2000). Historia del pueblo mapuche: Siglos XIX y XX (Seventh ed.). LOM Ediciones. ISBN 956-282-232-X.  Brugnoli, Paulina y Hoces de la Guardia, Soledad (1995). “Estudio de fragmentos del sitio Alboyanco”. En: Hombre y Desierto, una perspectiva cultural, 9: 375–381. Corcuera, Ruth (1987). Herencia textil andina. Buenos Aires: Impresores SCA. Corcuera, Ruth (1998). Ponchos de las Tierras del Plata. Buenos Aires: Fondo Nacional de las Artes. Chertudi, Susana y Nardi, Ricardo (1961). "Tejidos Araucanos de la Argentina". En: Cuadernos del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Folklóricas, 2: 97-182. Garavaglia, Juan Carlos (1986). “Los textiles de la tierra en el contexto colonial rioplatense: ¿una revolución industrial fallida?”. En: Anuario IEHS, 1:45-87. Joseph, Claude (1931). Los tejidos Araucanos. Santiago
Santiago
de Chile: Imprenta San Francisco, Padre Las Casas. Kradolfer, Sabine, Quand la parenté impose, le don dispose. Organisation sociale, don et identité dans les communautés mapuche de la province de Neuquén (Argentine) (Bern etc., Peter Lang, 2011) (Publications Universitaires Européennes. Série 19 B: Ethnologie-générale, 71). Mendez, Patricia (2009a). “Herencia textil, identidad indígena y recursos económicos en la Patagonia
Patagonia
Argentina”. En: Revista de la Asociación de Antropólogos Iberoamericanos en Red, 4, 1:11-53. Méndez, Patricia (2009b). “Los tejidos indígenas en la Patagonia Argentina: cuatro siglos de comercio textilI”. En: Anuario INDIANA, 26: 233-265. Millán de Palavecino, María Delia (1960). “Vestimenta Argentina”. En: Cuadernos del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Folklóricas, 1: 95-127. Murra, John (1975). Formaciones económicas y políticas del mundo andino. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos. Nardi, Ricardo y Rolandi, Diana (1978). 1000 años de tejido en la Argentina. Buenos Aires: Ministerio de Cultura y Educación, Secretaría de Estado de Cultura, Instituto Nacional de Antropología. Painecura Antinao, Juan (2012). Charu. Sociedad y cosmovisión en la platería mapuche.  Palermo, Miguel Angel (1994). “Economía y mujer en el sur argentino”. En: Memoria Americana 3: 63-90. Wilson, Angélica (1992). Arte de Mujeres. Santiago
Santiago
de Chile: Ed. CEDEM, Colección Artes y Oficios Nº 3.

Further reading[edit]

'Nicholas Jose Reviews Speaking the Earth’s Languages: A Theory for Australian-Chilean Postcolonial Poetics': Cordite Poetry Review, 2014 'Fogarty & Garrido: A Bilingual Conversation between Four Poems': Cordite Poetry Review, 2012 'Trilingual Visibility in Our Transpacific: Three Mapuche
Mapuche
Poets': Cordite Poetry Review, 2012 Language of the Land : The Mapuche
Mapuche
in Argentina
Argentina
and Chile: http://www.iwgia.org/sw21526.asp, 2007, ISBN 978-87-91563-37-9 When a flower is reborn : The Life and Times of a Mapuche Feminist, 2002, ISBN 0-8223-2934-4 Courage Tastes of Blood : The Mapuche
Mapuche
Community of Nicolás Ailío and the Chilean State, 1906-2001, 2005, ISBN 0-8223-3585-9 Neoliberal Economics, Democratic Transition, and Mapuche
Mapuche
Demands for Rights in Chile, 2006, ISBN 0-8130-2938-4 Shamans of the Foye Tree : Gender, Power, and Healing among Chilean Mapuche, 2007, ISBN 978-0-292-71658-2 A Grammar of Mapuche, 2007, ISBN 978-3-11-019558-3 " Mapuche
Mapuche
Dreamwork". Clas.berkeley.edu. Archived from the original on 2007-06-10.  Bandelier, Adolph Francis (1907). "The Catholic Encyclopedia". 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company inconsistent citations   contribution= ignored (help) Eim, Stefan (2010). The Conceptualisation of Mapuche
Mapuche
Religion in Colonial Chile
Chile
(1545–1787)’’: http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/volltextserver/volltexte/2010/10717/pdf/Eim_Conceptualisation_of_Mapuche_Religion.pdf. Faron, Louis (1961). Mapuche
Mapuche
Social Structure, Illinois Studies in Anthropology (Urbana: University of Illinois Press).

External links[edit]

Mapuche
Mapuche
test of at Wikimedia Incubator

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mapuche.

Mapuche
Mapuche
International Link official website Mapuche-nation.org Rehue
Rehue
Foundation in Netherland Mapulink website Mapuche
Mapuche
Health Website of the Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia Trannie Mystics

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