Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central
Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day
Patagonia. The collective term refers to a wide-ranging ethnicity
composed of various groups who shared a common social, religious and
economic structure, as well as a common linguistic heritage as
Mapudungun speakers. Their influence once extended from the Aconcagua
River to the
Chiloé Archipelago and spread later eastward to the
Argentine pampa. Today the collective group makes up over 80% of the
indigenous peoples in Chile, and about 9% of the total Chilean
population. They are particularly concentrated in Araucanía. Many
have migrated to the
Santiago area for economic opportunities.
Mapuche is used both to refer collectively to the
of the north),
Huilliche (people of the South) and
Moluche or Nguluche
from Araucanía, or at other times, exclusively to the
Nguluche from Araucanía. The
Mapuche traditional economy is based on
agriculture; their traditional social organisation consists of
extended families, under the direction of a lonko or chief. In times
of war, they would unite in larger groupings and elect a toki (meaning
"axe, axe-bearer") to lead them. They are known for the textiles woven
by women, which have been goods for trade for centuries, since before
Mapuche inhabited at the time of Spanish arrival the
valleys between the Itata and
Toltén rivers. South of it, the
Huilliche and the Cunco lived as far south as the Chiloé Archipelago.
In the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries,
Mapuche groups migrated eastward
into the Andes and pampas, fusing and establishing relationships with
the Poya and Pehuenche. At about the same time, ethnic groups of the
pampa regions, the Puelche,
Ranquel and northern Aonikenk, made
Mapuche groups. The Tehuelche adopted the Mapuche
language and some of their culture, in what came to be called
Historically the Spanish colonizers of South America referred to the
Mapuche people as Araucanians (araucanos). However, this term is now
considered pejorative by some people. The name was likely derived
from the placename rag ko (Spanish Arauco), meaning "clayey
water". The Quechua word awqa, meaning "rebel, enemy", is
probably not the root of araucano.
Mapuche mingled with Spanish during colonial times, and their
descendants make up the large group of mestizos in Chile. But, Mapuche
society in Araucanía and
Patagonia remained independent until the
Occupation of Araucanía
Occupation of Araucanía and the Argentine Conquest of the
Desert in the late 19th century. Since then Mapuches have become
subjects, and then nationals and citizens of the respective states.
Mapuche communities are engaged in the
Mapuche conflict over land and indigenous rights in both
Argentina and in Chile.
1.1 Pre–Columbian period
1.2 Arauco War
1.3 Incorporation into
Chile and Argentina
2 Modern conflict
3.2 Cosmology and beliefs
3.4 Clava hand-club
3.7 Cogender views
Chileans and the Chilean state
8 Further reading
9 External links
Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture of the confrontation between the
Mapuches (left) and the
Incas in Central Chile
Archaeological finds have shown the existence of a
Mapuche culture in
Argentina as early as 600 to 500 BC. Genetically Mapuches
differ from the adjacent indigenous peoples of Patagonia. This
suggests a "different origin or long lasting separation of
Troops of the
Inca Empire are reported to have reached the Maule River
and had a battle with the Mapuches between the
Maule River and the
Itata River there. The southern border of the
Inca Empire is
believed by most modern scholars to have been situated between
Santiago and the
Maipo River or somewhere between
Santiago and the
Maule River. Thus the bulk of the
Mapuche escaped Inca rule.
Through their contact with Incan invaders Mapuches would have for the
first time met people with state organization. Their contact with the
Incas gave them a collective awareness distinguishing between them and
the invaders and uniting them into loose geo-political units despite
their lack of state organization.
At the time of the arrival of the first
Chile the largest
indigenous population concentration was in the area spanning from
Itata River to Chiloé Archipelago—that is the Mapuche
Mapuche population between
Itata River and
Reloncaví Sound has been estimated at 705,000–900,000 in the
mid-16th century by historian José Bengoa.[note 1]
Main article: Arauco War
The Spanish entered
Mapuche territory from Peru. Their expansion into
Chile was an offshoot of the conquest of Peru. In 1541 Pedro de
Cuzco and founded Santiago. The
Mapuche tribes, such as the
Promaucaes and the Picunches,
fought unsuccessfully against Spanish conquest. Little is known about
Picture El joven
Lautaro of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius
and expertise of his people.
In 1550 Pedro de Valdivia, who aimed to control all of
Chile to the
Straits of Magellan, traveled southward to conquer more Mapuche
territory. Between 1550 and 1553 the Spanish founded several
cities[note 2] in
Mapuche lands including Concepción, Valdivia,
Imperial, Villarrica and Angol. The Spanish also established the
forts of Arauco,
Purén and Tucapel. Further efforts by the
Spanish to gain more territory engaged them in the
Arauco War against
the Mapuche, a sporadic conflict that lasted nearly 350 years.
Hostility towards the conquerors was compounded by the lack of a
tradition of forced labour akin to the Inca mita among the Mapuche,
who largely refused to serve the Spanish.
From their establishment in 1550 to 1598, the
Mapuche frequently laid
siege to Spanish settlements in Araucanía. The war was mostly a
low intensity conflict.
Mapuche numbers decreased significantly
following contact with the Spanish invaders; wars and epidemics
decimated the population. Others died in Spanish owned gold
Caupolican by Nicanor Plaza
In 1598 a party of warriors from
Purén led by Pelantaro, who were
returning south from a raid in
Chillán area, ambushed Martín García
Óñez de Loyola and his troops while they rested without taking
any precautions against attack. Almost all the
Spaniards died, save a
cleric named Bartolomé Pérez, who was taken prisoner, and a soldier
named Bernardo de Pereda. The
Mapuche then initiated a general
uprising which destroyed all the cities in their homeland south of the
In the years following the Battle of Curalaba a general uprising
developed among the Mapuches and Huilliches. The Spanish cities of
Angol, Imperial, Osorno, Santa Cruz de Oñez,
Valdivia and Villarrica
were either destroyed or abandoned. Only
Chillán and Concepción
Mapuche sieges and raids. With the exception of the
Chiloé Archipelago, all Chilean territory south of the BíoBío River
was freed from Spanish rule. In this period the
crossed the Andes Range to conquer the present Argentine provinces of
Chubut, Neuquen, La Pampa and Río Negro. Spain never again attempted
to retake those territories.
Chile and Argentina
Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez
Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez in meeting with the main lonkos of
Araucania in 1869
Occupation of Araucanía
Occupation of Araucanía and Conquest of the
In the 19th century
Chile experienced a fast territorial expansion.
Chile established a colony at the
Strait of Magellan
Strait of Magellan in 1843, settled
Valdivia, Osorno and Llanquihue with German immigrants and conquered
land from Peru and Bolivia. Later
Chile would also annex
Easter Island. In this context Araucanía began to be conquered by
Chile due to two reasons. First, the Chilean state aimed for
territorial continuity and second it remained the sole place for
Chilean agriculture to expand.
Between 1861 and 1871
Chile incorporated several
in Araucanía. In January 1881, having decisively defeated Peru in the
battles of Chorrillos and Miraflores,
Chile resumed the conquest of
Ward Churchill has claimed that the
dropped from a total of half a million to 25,000 within a generation
as result of the occupation and its associated famine and disease.
The conquest of Araucanía caused numerous Mapuches to be displaced
and forced to roam in search of shelter and food. Scholar Pablo
Miramán claims the introduction of state education during the
Occupation of Araucanía
Occupation of Araucanía had detrimental effects on traditional
Ancient flag of the
Mapuche on the Arauco War.
In the years following the occupation the economy of Araucanía
changed from being based on sheep and cattle herding to one based on
agriculture and wood extraction. The loss of land by Mapuches
following the occupation caused severe erosion since Mapuches
continued to practice a massive livestock herding in limited
See also: Ralco Hydroelectric Plant
Land disputes and violent confrontations continue in some Mapuche
areas, particularly in the northern sections of the Araucanía region
between and around
Traiguén and Lumaco. In an effort to defuse
tensions, the Commission for Historical Truth and New Treatments
issued a report in 2003 calling for drastic changes in Chile's
treatment of its indigenous people, more than 80% of whom are Mapuche.
The recommendations included the formal recognition of political and
"territorial" rights for indigenous peoples, as well as efforts to
promote their cultural identities.
Mapuche activists killed in confrontations with the Chilean police in
Though Japanese and Swiss interests are active in the economy of
Araucanía (Mapudungun: "Ngulu Mapu"), the two chief forestry
companies are Chilean-owned. In the past, the firms have planted
hundreds of thousands of acres with non-native species such as
Monterey pine, Douglas firs and eucalyptus trees, sometimes replacing
native Valdivian forests, although such substitution and replacement
is now forgotten.
Chile exports wood to the United States, almost all of which comes
from this southern region, with an annual value of around $600
million. Stand.earth, a conservation group, has led an international
campaign for preservation, resulting in the
Home Depot chain and other
leading wood importers agreeing to revise their purchasing policies to
"provide for the protection of native forests in Chile." Some Mapuche
leaders want stronger protections for the forests.
In recent years, the delicts committed by
Mapuche activists have been
prosecuted under counter-terrorism legislation, originally introduced
by the military dictatorship of
Augusto Pinochet to control political
dissidents. The law allows prosecutors to withhold evidence from the
defense for up to six months and to conceal the identity of witnesses,
who may give evidence in court behind screens. Violent activist
groups, such as the Coordinadora Arauco Malleco, use tactics such as
burning of structures and pastures, and death threats against people
and their families. Protesters from
Mapuche communities have used
these tactics against properties of both multinational forestry
corporations and private individuals. In 2010 the Mapuche
launched a number of hunger strikes in attempts to effect change in
the anti-terrorism legislation.
Flag of the Mapuche
At the time of the arrival of Europeans, the
Mapuche organized and
constructed a network of forts and complex defensive buildings. They
also built ceremonial constructions such as some earthwork mounds
recently discovered near Purén. They quickly adopted iron
metal-working (they already worked copper) They learned
horseback-riding and the use of cavalry in war from the Spaniards,
along with the cultivation of wheat and sheep. In the long 300-year
coexistence between the Spanish colonies and the relatively
Mapuche regions, the
Mapuche also developed
a strong tradition of trading with
Spaniards and Chileans. Such trade
lies at the heart of the
Mapuche silver-working tradition, for they
wrought their jewelry from the large and widely dispersed quantity of
Spanish and Chilean silver coins. They also made headdresses with
coins, which were called trarilonko, etc.
Main article: Mapudungun
The daughter of lonko Quilapán
Mapuche languages are spoken in
Chile and to a smaller extent in
Argentina. The two living branches are
Huilliche and Mapudungun.
Although not genetically related, lexical influence has been discerned
from Quechua. Linguists estimate that only about 200,000 full-fluency
speakers remain in Chile. The language receives only token support in
the educational system. In recent years, it has started to be taught
in rural schools of Bío-Bío, Araucanía and Los Lagos Regions.
Cosmology and beliefs
Mapuche cosmology is the idea of a creator called
ngenechen, who is embodied in four components: an older man
(fucha/futra/cha chau), an older woman (kude/kuse), a young man and a
young woman. They believe in worlds known as the Wenu Mapu and Minche
Mapuche cosmology is informed by complex notions of
spirits that coexist with humans and animals in the natural world, and
daily circumstances can dictate spiritual practices.
The most well-known
Mapuche ritual ceremony is the Ngillatun, which
loosely translates "to pray" or "general prayer". These ceremonies are
often major communal events that are of extreme spiritual and social
importance. Many other ceremonies are practiced, and not all are for
public or communal participation but are sometimes limited to family.
The main groups of deities and/or spirits in
Mapuche mythology are the
Pillan and Wangulen (ancestral spirits), the
Ngen (spirits in nature),
and the wekufe (evil spirits).
Mapuche belief is the role of the machi (shaman). It is
usually filled by a woman, following an apprenticeship with an older
machi, and has many of the characteristics typical of shamans. The
machi performs ceremonies for curing diseases, warding off evil,
influencing weather, harvests, social interactions and dreamwork.
Machis often have extensive knowledge of regional medicinal herbs. As
biodiversity in the Chilean countryside has declined due to commercial
agriculture and forestry, the dissemination of such knowledge has also
declined, but the
Mapuche people are reviving it in their communities.
Machis have an extensive knowledge of sacred stones and the sacred
Familia Mapuche, by Claudio Gay, 1848.
Like many cultures, the
Mapuche have a deluge myth (epeu) of a major
flood in which the world is destroyed and recreated. The myth involves
two opposing forces: Kai Kai (water, which brings death through
floods) and Tren Tren (dry earth, which brings sunshine). In the
deluge almost all humanity is drowned; the few not drowned survive
through cannibalism. At last only one couple is left. A machi tells
them that they must give their only child to the waters, which they
do, and this restores order to the world.
Mapuche ritual is prayer and animal sacrifice, required to
maintain the cosmic balance. This belief has continued to current
times. In 1960, for example, a machi sacrificed a young boy, throwing
him into the water after an earthquake and a tsunami.
Mapuche have incorporated the remembered history of their long
independence and resistance from 1540 (Spanish and then Chileans), and
of the treaty with the Chilean government in the 1870s. Memories,
stories, and beliefs, often very local and particularized, are a
significant part of the
Mapuche traditional culture. To varying
degrees, this history of resistance continues to this day amongst the
Mapuche. At the same time, a large majority of
Mapuche in Chile
identify with the state as Chilean, similar to a large majority in
Argentina identifying as Argentines.
Mapuche poncho exhibited in Museo Artesanía Chilena.
Height of a chemamull (
Mapuche funeral statue) compared to a person.
One of the best-known arts of the
Mapuche is their textiles. The
oldest data on textiles in the southernmost areas of the American
Argentina today) are found in some
archaeological excavations, such as those of Pitrén Cemetery near the
city of Temuco, and the Alboyanco site in the Biobío Region, both of
Chile; and the Rebolledo Arriba Cemetery in Neuquén Province
(Argentina). researchers have found evidence of fabrics made with
complex techniques and designs, dated to between AD 1300-1350.
Mapuche women were responsible for spinning and weaving. Knowledge
of both weaving techniques and textile patterns particular to the
locality were usually transmitted within the family, with mothers,
grandmothers, and aunts teaching a girl the skills they had learned
from their own elders. Women who excelled in the textile arts were
highly honored for their accomplishments and contributed economically
and culturally to their kinship group. A measure of the importance of
weaving is evident in the expectation that a man give a larger dowry
for a bride who was an accomplished weaver.
In addition, the
Mapuche used their textiles as an important surplus
and an exchange trading good. Numerous 16th-century accounts describe
their bartering the textiles with other indigenous peoples, and with
colonists in newly developed settlements. Such trading enabled the
Mapuche to obtain those goods that they did not produce or held in
high esteem, such as horses. Tissue volumes made by Aboriginal women
and marketed in the Araucanía and the north of the Patagonia
Argentina were really considerable and constitute a vital economic
resource for indigenous families. The production of fabrics in the
time before European settlement was clearly intended for uses beyond
At present, the fabrics woven by the
Mapuche continue to be used for
domestic purposes, as well as for gift, sale or barter. Most Mapuche
women and their families now wear garments with foreign designs and
tailored with materials of industrial origin, but they continue to
weave ponchos, blankets, bands and belts for regular use. Many of the
fabrics are woven for trade, and in many cases, are an important
source of income for families. Glazed pots are used to dye the
Mapuche women continue to weave fabrics according to
the customs of their ancestors and transmit their knowledge in the
same way: within domestic life, from mother to daughter, and from
grandmothers to granddaughters. This form of learning is based on
gestural imitation, and only rarely, and when strictly necessary, the
apprentice receives explicit instructions or help from their
instructors. Knowledge is transmitted as fabric is woven, the weaving
and transmission of knowledge go together.
Clava is a traditional stone hand-club used by the Mapuche. It has a
long flat body. Its full name is clava mere okewa; in Spanish, it's
known as clava cefalomorfa. It has some ritual importance as a special
sign of distinction carried by tribal chiefs. Many kinds of clavas are
This is an object associated with masculine power. It consists of a
disk with attached handle; the edge of the disc usually has a
semicircular recess. In many cases, the face portrayed on the disc
carries incised designs. The handle is cylindrical, generally with a
larger diameter at its connection to the disk.
Drawing of a trapelacucha, a silver finery piece.
In the later half of the 18th century
Mapuche silversmithing began to
produce large amounts of silver finery. The surge of
silversmithing activity may be related to the 1726 parliament of
Negrete that decreased hostilities between
Spaniards and Mapuches and
allowed trade to increase between colonial
Chile and the free
Mapuches. In this context of increasing trade Mapuches began in
the late 18th century to accept payments in silver coins for their
products; usually cattle or horses. These coins and silver coins
obtained in political negotiations served as raw material for Mapuche
metalsmiths (Mapudungun: rüxafe). Old
pendants often included unmelted silver coins, something that has
helped modern researchers to date the objects. The bulk of the
Spanish silver coins originated from mining in
Potosí in Upper
The great diversity in silver finery designs is due to the fact that
designs were made to be identified with different reynma (families),
lof mapu (lands) as well as specific lonkos and machis. Mapuche
silver finery was also subject to changes in fashion albeit designs
associated with philosophical and spiritual concepts have not
undergone major changes.
In the late 18th century and early 19th century
activity and artistic diversity reached it climax. All important
Mapuche chiefs of the 19th century are supposed to have had at least
one silversmith. By 1984
Mapuche scholar Carlos Aldunate noted
that there were no silversmiths alive among contemporary Mapuches.
Mapuche culture of the 16th century had an oral tradition and
lacked a writing system. Since that time, a writing system for
Mapudungun was developed, and
Mapuche writings in both Spanish and
Mapudungun have flourished. Contemporary
Mapuche literature can be
said to be composed of an oral tradition and Spanish-Mapudungun
bilingual writings. Notable
Mapuche poets include Sebastián
Queupul, Pedro Alonzo,
Elicura Chihuailaf and Leonel Lienlaf.
Mapuche in La Araucanía, in addition to heterosexual female
"machi" shamanesses, there are homosexual male "machi weye" shamans,
who wear female clothing. These machi weye were first
described in Spanish in a chronicle of 1673 A.D. Among the
Mapuche, "the spirits are interested in machi's gendered discourses
and performances, not in the sex under the machi's clothes." In
attracting the filew (possessing-spirit), "Both male and female machi
become spiritual brides who seduce and call their filew -- at once
husband and master -- to possess their heads ... . ... The ritual
transvestism of male machi ... draws attention to the relational
gender categories of spirit husband and machi wife as a couple
(kurewen)." As concerning "co-gendered identities" of "machi
as co-gender specialists", it has been speculated that "female
berdaches" may have formerly existed among the Mapuche.
Chileans and the Chilean state
Following the independence of
Chile in the 1810s, the
Mapuche began to
be perceived as Chilean by other Chileans, contrasting with previous
perceptions of them as a separate people or nation. Around the
time of the
Occupation of Araucanía
Occupation of Araucanía (1861–1883) Mapuches were seen
Chileans contrasting with other indigenous peoples in
Chile like the Aymara who were perceived in
Chile as a "foreign
element". 19th century Argentine writer and president Domingo
Faustino Sarmiento presented his view of the Mapuche-
Chile relation by
Between two Chilean provinces (Concepción and Valdivia) there is a
piece of land that is not a province, its language is different, it is
inhabited by other people and it can still be said that it is not part
of Chile. Yes,
Chile is the name of the country over where its flag
waves and its laws are obeyed.
There are various recorded instances in the 19th century when Mapuches
were the subject of civilizing mission discourses by elements of
Chilean government and military. For example, Cornelio Saavedra
Rodríguez called in 1861 for Mapuches to submit to Chilean state
authority and "enter into reduction and civilization". When the
Mapuches were finally defeated in 1883 president Domingo Santa María
The country has with satisfaction seen the problem of the reduction of
the whole Araucanía solved. This event, so important to our social
and political life, and so significant for the future of the republic,
has ended, happily and with costly and painful sacrifices. Today the
whole Araucanía is subjugated, more than to the material forces, to
the moral and civilizing force of the republic...
Contemporary attitudes towards Mapuches from non-indigenous people in
Chile are highly individual and heterogeneous. Nevertheless, a
considerable part of the non-indigenous people in
Chile have a
prejudiced and discriminatory attitude towards Mapuche. In a 2003
study it was found that among the sample 41% of people over 60 years
old, 35% of people of low socio-economic standing, 35% of the
supporters of right-wing parties, 36% of Protestants and 26% of
Catholics were prejudiced against indigenous peoples in Chile. In
contrast only 8% of those who attended university, 16% of supporters
of left-wing parties and 19% of people aged 18–29 were
Éric Fassin has called the occurrence of
Mapuche domestic workers (Spanish: nanas mapuches) a continuation of
colonial relations of servitude.
Historian Gonzalo Vial claims that the Republic of
Chile owes a
"historical debt" to the Mapuche. The
Coordinadora Arauco-Malleco has
the goal of a "national liberation" of Mapuche, with their regaining
sovereignty over their own lands.
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
Indigenous peoples of the Americas portal
^ Note that the
Chiloé Archipelago with its large population is not
included in this estimate.
^ These "cities" were often no more than forts.
^ "2012 census". Censo.cl. Retrieved 2013-09-25.
^ "Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas 2010: Resultados
definitivos: Serie B No 2: Tomo 1" (PDF) (in Spanish). INDEC.
p. 281. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 December 2015.
Retrieved 5 December 2015.
^ Cite error: The named reference 2002census was invoked but never
defined (see the help page).
^ "''AZ Domingo 17 de Febrero de 2008''" (PDF). Retrieved
^ a b
Mapuche o Araucano Archived 2006-11-05 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Antecedentes históricos del pueblo araucano Archived 2006-11-07 at
the Wayback Machine. (in Spanish)
^ Bengoa 2000, pp. 16–19.
^ a b Rey, Diego; Parga-Lozano, Carlos; Moscoso, Juan; Areces,
Cristina; Enriquez-de-Salamanca, Mercedes; Fernández-Honrado,
Mercedes; Abd-El-Fatah-Khalil, Sedeka; Alonso-Rubio, Javier;
Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio (2013). "HLA genetic profile of Mapuche
(Araucanian) Amerindians from Chile". Molecular Biology Reports. 40:
^ Bengoa 2003, pp. 37–38.
^ Dillehay, T.; Gordon, A. (1988). "La actividad prehispánica y su
influencia en la Araucanía". In Dillehay, Tom; Netherly, Patricia. La
frontera del estado Inca (in Spanish). pp. 183–196.
^ Bengoa 2003, p. 40.
^ Otero 2006, p. 36.
^ Bengoa 2003, p. 157.
^ Villalobos et al. 1974, pp. 91−93.
^ Villalobos et al. 1974, pp. 96−97.
^ a b Bengoa 2003, pp. 250–251.
^ a b c Villalobos et al. 1974, pp. 98−99.
^ a b "La Guerra de Arauco (1550-1656)". Memoria chilena (in Spanish).
Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Retrieved January 30, 2014 inconsistent
^ a b Bengoa 2003, pp. 252–253.
^ Dillehay 2007, p. 335.
^ Bengoa 2003, pp. 320–321.
^ a b Villalobos et al. 1974, p. 109.
^ Bengoa 2003, pp. 324–325.
^ "El fuerte Bulnes". Memoria chilena (in Spanish). Biblioteca
Nacional de Chile. Retrieved January 3, 2014 inconsistent citations
^ Villalobos R., Sergio; Silva G., Osvaldo; Silva V., Fernando;
Estelle M., Patricio (1974). Historia de
Chile (1995 ed.). Editorial
Universitaria. pp. 456–458, 571–575.
^ "Incorporándola al territorio chileno". Memoria chilena (in
Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Retrieved January 3, 2014
^ Pinto 2003, p. 153.
^ Bengoa 2000, p. 156.
^ Bengoa 2000, pp. 275–276.
^ Ferrando 1986, p. 547
^ Bengoa 2000, pp. 277–278.
^ Ward Churchill, A Little Matter of Genocide, 109.
^ Bengoa 2000, pp. 232–233.
^ Pinto 2003, p. 205.
^ Pinto Rodríguez, Jorge (2011). "Ganadería y empresarios ganaderos
de la Araucanía, 1900-1960". Historia. 44 (2): 369–400
^ Bengoa 2000, pp. 262–263.
^ "Redireccionando". Cooperativa.cl. Retrieved
2013-09-25. [permanent dead link]
Mapuche struggle for autonomy in Chile", Spero Forum
Mapuche hunger strike in
Chile highlights the real problem facing
President Sebastian Pinera", Sounds and colors website
^ Dillehay, Tom, Monuments, Empires, and Resistance: The Araucanian
Polity and Ritual Narratives (Cambridge University Press, Washington,
^ Pedro Mariño de Lobera, in Crónica del Reino de Chile, Cap. XXXI
and XXXIII mentions copper points on the
Mapuche pikes in the Battle
of Andalien and Battle of Penco.
Copper metallurgy was flourishing in
South America, particularly in Peru, from around the beginning of the
first millennium AD. Possibly the
Mapuche learned copper metal working
from their prior interaction with the
Inca Empire or prior Peruvian
cultures, or was a native craft that developed independently in the
region (copper being common in Chile).
^ Ngenechen, and Don Armando Marileo
^ Bacigalupo, Ana Mariella (2004). Mariko Namba Walter, Eva Jane
Neumann Fridman, ed. Shamanism: an encyclopedia of world beliefs,
practices, and culture, Volume. ABC-CLIO. p. 419.
ISBN 978-1-57607-645-3. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
^ Bacigalupo, Ana Mariella (2007). Shamans of the Foye Tree: Gender,
Power, and Healing among Chilean Mapuche. University of Texas Press.
pp. 46–47. ISBN 978-0-292-71659-9.
^ Aladama, Arturo J (2003). Violence and the Body: Race, Gender, and
the State. Indiana University Press. p. 326.
^ Brugnoli y Hoces de la Guardia, 1995; Alvarado, 2002
^ a b Wilson, 1992; Mendez, 2009a.
^ Garavaglia, 1986; Palermo, 1994; Mendez, 2009b.
^ Méndez, 2009b.
^ Wilson, 1992; Alvarado, 2002; Mendez, 2009a.
^ Jesuitas, Misión Mapuche- (2009-05-28). "Misión Jesuita Mapuche:
Noticias de Mayo..." Misión Jesuita Mapuche. Retrieved
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