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Manuel L. Quezon
Quezon
(born Manuel Luís Quezon
Quezon
y Molina; August 19, 1878 – August 1, 1944) was a Filipino statesman, soldier, and politician who served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines
Philippines
from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the entire Philippines
Philippines
(as opposed to the government of previous Philippine states), and is considered to have been the second president of the Philippines, after Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
(1899–1901). During his presidency, Quezon
Quezon
tackled the problem of landless peasants in the countryside. His other major decisions include the reorganization of the islands' military defense, approval of a recommendation for government reorganization, the promotion of settlement and development in Mindanao, dealing with the foreign stranglehold on Philippine trade and commerce, proposals for land reform, and opposing graft and corruption within the government. He established a government-in-exile in the U.S. with the outbreak of the war and the threat of Japanese invasion. It was during his exile in the U.S. that he died of tuberculosis at Saranac Lake, New York. He was buried in the Arlington National Cemetery until the end of World War II, when his remains were moved to Manila. His final resting place is the Quezon
Quezon
Memorial Circle. In 2015, the Board of the International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation approved a posthumously bestowal of the Wallenberg Medal upon President Quezon
Quezon
and to the people of the Philippines
Philippines
for having reached-out, between 1937 and 1941, to the victims of the Holocaust. President Benigno Aquino III, and then 94-year-old María Zeneida Quezon
Quezon
Avanceña, who is the daughter of the former President, were duly informed about this recognition.

Contents

1 Early life and careers 2 Congressional career

2.1 House of Representatives 2.2 Senate

3 Personal life 4 Presidency

4.1 First term (1935–1941) 4.2 Administration and cabinet

4.2.1 Appointments 1935–1941

4.3 Supreme Court appointments

4.3.1 Government reorganization 4.3.2 Social justice
Social justice
program 4.3.3 Economy 4.3.4 Agrarian reform 4.3.5 Educational reforms 4.3.6 Women's suffrage 4.3.7 National language 4.3.8 Council of State 4.3.9 1938 midterm election 4.3.10 1939 plebiscite 4.3.11 Third official language 4.3.12 1940 plebiscite 4.3.13 1941 presidential election

4.4 Second term (1941–1944)

4.4.1 War Cabinet 1941–1944 4.4.2 Jewish refugees 4.4.3 Government-in-exile 4.4.4 Talks of post-war Philippines 4.4.5 Quezon-Osmeña Impasse 4.4.6 Death

5 Electoral history 6 Ancestry 7 Honors 8 Legacy 9 In popular culture 10 Recording of speech 11 See also 12 References 13 Notes 14 External links

Early life and careers[edit]

Manuel Luis Quezon
Quezon
y Molina

Quezon, was born in Baler in the district of El Príncipe[1] (now Baler, Aurora). His parents were Lucio Quezon
Quezon
(died 1898) and María Dolores Molina (June 7, 1840 – 1893), both of whom were Spanish mestizo, respectively, with distant ethnic Tagalog origins. His father was a primary grade school teacher from Paco, Manila
Manila
and a retired Sergeant of the Spanish colonial army, while his mother was a primary grade school teacher in their hometown. Although both his parents must have contributed to his education, he received most of his primary education from the public school established by the Spanish government in his village, as part of the establishment of the free public education system in the Philippines, as he himself testified during his speech delivered in the House of Representatives of the United States during the discussion of Jones Bill, in 1914.[2] He later boarded at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran where he completed secondary school. In 1899, Quezon
Quezon
left his law studies at the University of Santo Tomas to join the independence movement. During the Philippine–American War he was an aide-de-camp to Emilio Aguinaldo.[3] He rose to the rank of Major
Major
and fought in the Bataan
Bataan
sector. However, after surrendering in 1900 wherein he made his first break in the American press,[4] Quezon
Quezon
returned to the university and passed the bar examinations in 1903, achieving fourth place. He worked for a time as a clerk and surveyor, entering government service as an appointed fiscal (treasurer) for Mindoro and later Tayabas. He became a councilor and was elected governor of Tayabas in 1906 after a hard-fought election. Congressional career[edit] House of Representatives[edit] In 1907, he was elected to the first Philippine Assembly
Philippine Assembly
– later became the House of Representatives – where he served as majority floor leader and chairman of the committee on rules as well as the chairman also of the committee on appropriations. From 1909 to 1916, he served as one of the Philippines' two resident commissioners to the U.S. House of Representatives, lobbying for the passage of the Philippine Autonomy Act
Philippine Autonomy Act
or Jones Law. Senate[edit] Quezon
Quezon
returned to Manila
Manila
in 1916 to be elected into the Philippine Senate as Senator and later elected by his peers as Senate President, serving continuously until 1935 (19 years), becoming the longest serving. He headed the first Independent Mission to the U.S. Congress in 1919 and secured the passage of the Tydings–McDuffie Act
Tydings–McDuffie Act
in 1934. In 1922, Quezon
Quezon
became the leader of the Nacionalista Party alliance.[5] Personal life[edit] Quezon
Quezon
was married to his first cousin, Aurora Aragón Quezon, on December 17, 1918. The couple had four children: María Aurora "Baby" Quezon
Quezon
(September 23, 1919 – April 28, 1949), María Zeneida "Nini" Quezon-Avancena (born 1922), Luisa Corazón Paz "Nenita" Quezon (February 17, 1924 – December 14, 1924) and Manuel L. "Nonong" Quezon, Jr. (June 23, 1926 – September 18, 1998). His adopted grandson, Manuel L. "Manolo" Quezon
Quezon
III (born May 30, 1970), a prominent writer and current undersecretary of the Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office, was named after him. Presidency[edit]

Presidential styles of Manuel L. Quezon

Reference style His Excellency[6]

Spoken style Your Excellency

Alternative style Mr. President

First term (1935–1941)[edit]

First inauguration of Philippine Commonwealth President Manuel Quezon at the steps of the Legislative Building in Manila
Manila
on November 15, 1935.

Official car of Quezon, a 1937 Chrysler Airflow
Chrysler Airflow
(restored by Alfred Motorworks & Alfred Nobel R. Peres), at Baler, Aurora[1].

In 1935, Quezon
Quezon
won the Philippines' first national presidential election under the banner of the Nacionalista Party. He obtained nearly 68% of the vote against his two main rivals, Emilio Aguinaldo and Gregorio Aglipay. Quezon
Quezon
was inaugurated in November 1935. He is recognized as the second President of the Philippines. However, in January 2008, House Representative Rodolfo Valencia of Oriental Mindoro filed a bill seeking instead to declare General Miguel Malvar as the second Philippine President, having directly succeeded Aguinaldo in 1901.[7] Administration and cabinet[edit] Appointments 1935–1941[edit]

Office Name Term

President Manuel L. Quezon 1935–1941

Vice President Sergio Osmeña 1935–1941

Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce Benigno Aquino 1938–1940

Rafael Alunan, Sr. 1940–1941

Secretary of Public Instruction Sergio Osmeña November 15, 1935 – April 18, 1939

Jorge Bocobo April 19, 1939 – January 22, 1941

Secretary of Finance Elpidio Quirino November 15, 1935 – February 18, 1936

Antonio de las Alas February 18, 1936 – November 15, 1938

Manuel Roxas November 26, 1938 – August 28, 1941

Serafin Marabut August 28, 1941 – December 29, 1941

Secretary of the Interior Elpidio Quirino 1935–1938

Rafael Alunan 1938–1940

Secretary of Justice José Yulo November 15, 1935 – November 1938

José Abad Santos December 5, 1938 – July 16, 1941

Commissioner of Justice Teofilo Sison July 18, 1941 – November 1941

Secretary of Public Works and Communications Mariano Jesús Cuenco

Secretary of National Defense Teofilo Sison 1939–1941

Serafin Marabut 1941

Basilio Valdes December 23, 1941

Secretary of Labor José Avelino 1935–1938

Sotero Baluyut 1938–1941

Secretary to the President Jorge B. Vargas 1935–1941

Auditor-General Jaime Hernández 1935–1941

Commissioner of the Budget Serafin Marabut 1935–1941

Commissioner of Civil Service José Gil 1935–1941

Resident Commissioner of the Philippines to the United States Congress Quintín Paredes 1935–1938

Joaquín Miguel Elizalde 1938–1941

Supreme Court appointments[edit] President Quezon
Quezon
was given the power under the reorganization act, to appoint the first all-Filipino Philippines
Philippines
in 1935. From 1901 to 1935, although a Filipino was always appointed chief justice, the majority of the members of the Supreme Court were Americans. Complete Filipinization was achieved only with the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines
Philippines
in 1935. Claro M. Recto
Claro M. Recto
and José P. Laurel were among Quezon's first appointees to replace the American justices. The membership in the Supreme Court increased to 11: a chief justice and ten associate justices, who sat en banc or in two divisions of five members each.

Ramón Avanceña – 1935 (Chief Justice) – 1935–1941 José Abad Santos – 1935 Claro M. Recto
Claro M. Recto
1935–1936 José P. Laurel – 1935 José Abad Santos
José Abad Santos
(Chief Justice) – 1941–1942

Government reorganization[edit] To meet the demands of the newly established government set-up and in compliance with the provisions of the Tydings-McDuffie Act, as well as the requirements of the Constitution, President Quezon, true to his pledge of "More Government and less politics", initiated a reorganization of the government bodies.[8] To this effect, he established the Government Survey Board to study the existing institutions and in the light of the changed circumstances, make the necessary recommendations.[8] Early results were seen with the revamping of the Executive Department. Offices and bureaus were either merged with one another or outrightly abolished. Some new ones, however, were created.[8] President Quezon
Quezon
ordered the transfer of the Philippine Constabulary from the Department of Interior, to the Department of Finance. Among the changes in the Executive Departments by way of modification in functions or new responsibilities, were those of the National Defense, Agriculture and Commerce, Public Works and Communications, and Health and Public Welfare.[8] In keeping with other exigencies posed by the Constitution, new offices and boards were created either by Executive Order or by appropriate legislative action.[8] Among these were the Council of National Defense, the Board of National Relief, the Mindanao
Mindanao
and Sulu Commission, and the Civil Service Board of Appeals.[8] Social justice
Social justice
program[edit] Pledged to improve the lot of the Philippine working class and seeking the inspiration from the social doctrines of Pope Leo XIII
Pope Leo XIII
and Pope Pius XI, aside from the authoritative treatises of the world's leading sociologists, President Quezon
Quezon
started a vigorous program of social justice, which he traduced into reality through appropriate executive measures and legislation obtained from the National Assembly.[8] Thus, a court of Industrial Relations was established to mediate disputes, under certain conditions, minimizing the inconveniences of the strikes and lockouts. A minimum wage law was enacted, as well as a law providing for an eight-hour work day and a tenancy law for the Filipino farmers. Another measure was the creation of the position of Public Defender to help poor litigants in their court suits.[8] Commonwealth Act No. 20 authorized Quezon
Quezon
to institute expropriation proceedings and/or acquire large landed estates to re-sell them at nominal cost and under easy terms to tenants thereon, thus enabling them to possess a lot and a home of their own. It was by virtue of this law that the Buenavista estate was acquired by the Commonwealth Government. Quezon
Quezon
also launched a cooperative system of agriculture among the owners of the subdivided estates in order to alleviate their situation and to provide them greater earnings.[8] In all these, Quezon
Quezon
showed an earnest desire to follow the constitutional mandate on the promotion of social justice.[8] Economy[edit] Upon the creation of the Commonwealth, the economic condition of the nation was stable and promising.[8] With foreign trade reaching a peak of four hundred million pesos, the upward trend in business was accentuated and assumed the aspect of a boom. Exports crops were generally good and, with the exception of tobacco, they were all in high demand in foreign trade markets. Indeed, the value of the Philippine exports reached an all high of 320,896,000 pesos, the highest since 1929.[8]

Manuel Quezon
Quezon
signing documents.

On the other hand, government revenues amounted to 76,675,000 pesos in 1936, as compared with the 1935 revenue of 65,000,000 pesos. Even the government companies, with the exception of the Manila
Manila
Railroad, managed to earn profits. Gold production increased about 37% and iron nearly 100%, while cement production augmented by some 14%.[8] Notwithstanding this prosperous situation,[8] the government had to meet certain economic problems besetting the country. For this purpose, the National Economic Council was created. This body advised the government in economic and financial questions, including promotion of industries, diversification of crops and enterprises, tariffs, taxation, and formulation of an economic program in the preparation for the future independent Republic of the Philippines.[8] Again, a law reorganized the National Development Company; the National Rice and Corn Company (NARIC) was created and was given a capital of four million pesos.[8] Upon the recommendation of the National Economic Council, agricultural colonies were established in the country, especially in Koronadal, Malig, and other appropriate sites in Mindanao. The government, moreover, offered facilities of every sort to encourage migration and settlement in those places. The Agricultural and Industrial Bank was established to aid small farmers with convenient loans on easy terms. Attention was also devoted to soil survey, as well as to the proper disposition of lands of the public domain. These steps and measures held much promise for improved economic welfare.[8] Agrarian reform[edit] See also: Land reform in the Philippines When the Commonwealth Government was established, President Quezon implemented the Rice Share Tenancy Act of 1933.[9] The purpose of this act was to regulate the share-tenancy contracts by establishing minimum standards.[9] Primarily, the Act provided for better tenant-landlord relationship, a 50–50 sharing of the crop, regulation of interest to 10% per agricultural year, and a safeguard against arbitrary dismissal by the landlord.[9] However, because of one major flaw of this law, no petition for the Rice Share Tenancy Act was ever presented.[9] The major flaw of this law was that it could be used only when the majority of municipal councils in a province petitioned for it.[9] Since landowners usually controlled such councils, no province ever asked that the law be applied. Therefore, Quezon
Quezon
ordered that the act be mandatory in all Central Luzon
Central Luzon
provinces.[9] However, contracts were good for only one year. By simply refusing to renew their contract, landlords were able to eject tenants. As a result, peasant organizations clamored in vain for a law that would make the contract automatically renewable for as long as the tenants fulfilled their obligations.[9] In 1936, this Act was amended to get rid of its loophole, but the landlords made its application relative and not absolute. Consequently, it was never carried out in spite of its good intentions. In fact, by 1939, thousands of peasants in Central Luzon were being threatened with wholesale eviction.[9] The desire of Quezon
Quezon
to placate both landlords and tenants pleased neither. By the early 1940s, thousands of tenants in Central Luzon were ejected from their farmlands and the rural conflict was more acute than ever.[9] Indeed, during the Commonwealth period, agrarian problems persisted.[9] This motivated the government to incorporate a cardinal principle on social justice in the 1935 Constitution. Dictated by the social justice program of the government, expropriation of landed estates and other landholdings commenced. Likewise, the National Land Settlement Administration (NLSA) began an orderly settlement of public agricultural lands. At the outbreak of the Second World War, major settlement areas containing more than 65,000 hectares were already established.[9] Educational reforms[edit] Turning his attention to the matter of education in the country, President Quezon
Quezon
by virtue of Executive Order No. 19, dated February 19, 1936, created the National Council of Education, with Rafael Palma, former President of the University of the Philippines, as its first chairman.[8] Funds retained from the early approved Residence Certificate Law were devoted to the maintenance of the public schools all over the nation and the opening of many more to meet the needs of the young people. Indeed, by this time there were already 6,511 primary schools; 1,039 intermediate schools; 133 secondary and special schools; and five junior colleges. The total number of pupils enrolled was 1,262,353, who were placed under the charge of 28,485 schools teachers. That year's appropriation for public education amounted to 14,566,850 pesos.[8] The private institutions of learning, for their part, accommodated more than ninety seven thousand students, thus considerably aiding the government in solving the annual school crisis. To implement the pertinent constitutional provision, the Office of Adult Education was also created.[8] Women's suffrage[edit] President Quezon
Quezon
initiated women's suffrage in the Philippines
Philippines
during the Commonwealth Era.[10] As a result of the prolonged debate between the proponents of women's suffrage and their opponents, the Constitution finally provided that the issue be resolved by the women themselves in a plebiscite. If no less than 300,000 of them were to affirmatively vote in favor of the grant within two years, it would be deemed granted the country's women. Complying with this mandate, the government ordered a plebiscite to be held for the purpose on April 3, 1937.

Quezon
Quezon
broadcasting to his countrymen in Manila, from Washington, D.C., April 5. For the first 25 minutes on air, Quezon
Quezon
discussed women's suffrage and urged that the 10-year independence program be limited to a shorter period, 4/5/1937.

Following a rather vigorous campaign, on the day of the plebiscite, the turnout of female voters was impressive. The affirmative votes numbered 447,725, as against 44,307 who opposed the grant.[10] National language[edit] Another constitutional provision to be implemented by President Quezon's administration dealt with the question of The Philippines' national language. Following a year's study, the Institute of the National Language – established in 1936 – recommended that Tagalog be adopted as the basis for the national language. The proposal was well received, considering that the Director – the first to be appointed – at the time, Jaime C. de Veyra, was an ethnic Visayan. On December 1937, Quezon
Quezon
issued a proclamation approving the constitution made by the Institute and declaring that the adoption of the national language would take place two years hence. With the presidential approval, the Institute of National Language started to work on a grammar and dictionary of the language.[10] Council of State[edit] In 1938, President Quezon
Quezon
enlarged the composition of the Council of State through Executive Order No. 44.[10] This highest of advisory bodies to the President was henceforth to be composed of the President, the Vice-President, Senate President, House Speaker, Senate President pro tempore, House Speaker pro tempore, Majority Floor leader of both chambers of Congress, former Presidents of the Philippines, and some three to five prominent citizens.[10] 1938 midterm election[edit] Main article: Philippine legislative election, 1938 The Elections for the Second National Assembly were held on November 8, 1938, under a new law that allowed block voting[11] which favored the governing Nacionalista Party. As expected, all the 98 seats of the National Assembly went to the Nacionalistas. José Yulo
José Yulo
who was Quezon's Secretary of Justice from 1934 to 1938 was elected Speaker. The Second National Assembly embarked on passing legislation strengthening the economy. Unfortunately the cloud of the Second World War loomed over the horizon. Certain laws passed by the First National Assembly were modified or repealed to meet existing realities.[12] A controversial immigration law that set an annual limit of 50 immigrants per country which[13] affected mostly Chinese and Japanese nationals escaping the Sino-Japanese War was passed in 1940. Since the law bordered on foreign relations it required the approval of the U.S. President which was nevertheless obtained. When the result of the 1939 census was published, the National Assembly updated the apportionment of legislative districts, which became the basis for the 1941 elections. 1939 plebiscite[edit] On August 7, 1939, the United States Congress
United States Congress
enacted a law embodying the recommendations submitted by the Joint Preparatory Commission on Philippine Affairs. Because the new law required an amendment of the Ordinance appended to the Constitution, a plebiscite was held on August 24, 1939. The amendment was carried by 1,339,453 votes against 49,633.[10] Third official language[edit]

C.A. Dewitt and Manuel Quezon

Quezon
Quezon
established the Institute of National Language (INL) to create a national language for the country. On December 30, 1937, President Quezon, through Executive order No. 134, officially declared Tagalog as the basis of the national language of the Philippines. The national language was compulsorily taught in schools for the 1940-1941 academic year. The National Assembly later enacted Law No. 570 raising the national language elaborated by the institute to the status of official language of the Philippines, at par with English and Spanish, effective July 4, 1946, upon the establishment of the Philippine Republic.[10] 1940 plebiscite[edit] Main article: Philippine constitutional plebiscites, 1940 Coincident with the local elections for the 1940, another plebiscite was held this time to ratify the proposed amendments to the Constitution regarding the restoration of the bicameral legislature, the presidential term, which was to be fixed at four years with one re-election; and the establishment of an independent Commission on Elections. With the Nacionalista Party, which had proposed said amendment in their convention, working hard under the leadership of its party president, Speaker Jose Yulo, the amendments were overwhelmingly ratified by the electorate. Speaker Yulo and Assemblyman Dominador Tan traveled to the United States to obtain President Franklin D. Roosevelt's approval, which was given on December 2, 1940. Two days later President Quezon
Quezon
proclaimed the amendments. 1941 presidential election[edit] Main article: Philippine presidential election, 1941 Quezon
Quezon
had originally been barred by the Philippine constitution from seeking re-election. However, in 1940, constitutional amendments were ratified allowing him to seek re-election for a fresh term ending in 1943. In the 1941 presidential elections, Quezon
Quezon
was re-elected over former Senator Juan Sumulong
Juan Sumulong
with nearly 82% of the vote. Second term (1941–1944)[edit] War Cabinet 1941–1944[edit] The outbreak of World War II and the Japanese invasion resulted in periodic and drastic changes to the government structure. Executive Order 390, December 22, 1941 abolished the Department of the Interior and established a new line of succession. Executive Order 396, December 24, 1941 further reorganized and grouped the cabinet, with the functions of Secretary of Justice assigned to the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines.

Office Name Term

President Manuel L. Quezon 1941–1944 (extended, 1943)

Vice President Sergio Osmeña 1941–1944 (extended, 1943)

Secretary of Finance José Abad Santos December 30, 1941 – March 26, 1942

Secretary of Justice José Abad Santos March 26, 1942– May 2, 1942

Secretary of Finance, Agriculture, and Commerce Andrés Soriano March 26, 1942 – July 31, 1944

Secretary of National Defense, Public Works, Communications and Labor Basilio Valdes December 23, 1941 – August 1, 1944

Secretary of Public Instruction, Health, and Public Welfare Sergio Osmeña December 24, 1941 – August 1, 1944

Secretary to the President Manuel Roxas December 24, 1941– March 26, 1942

Arturo Rotor June 13, 1942– August 1, 1944

Secretary to the Cabinet Manuel Nieto May 19, 1944 – August 1, 1944

Secretary without Portfolio Andrés Soriano March 2–26, 1942

Treasurer of the Philippines Andrés Soriano February 19, 1942 – March 26, 1942

Manuel Roxas March 26, 1942 – May 8, 1942

Auditor-General Jaime Hernández December 30, 1941 – August 1, 1944

Resident Commissioner of the Philippines
Philippines
to the United States Congress Joaquín Miguel Elizalde December 30, 1941 – August 1, 1944 (given cabinet rank, May, 1942)

Secretary of Information and Public Relations Carlos P. Rómulo 1943–1944

Sources: The Sixth Annual Report of the United States High Commission to the Philippine Island to the President and Congress of the United States, Covering the Fiscal Year July 1, 1941 to June 30, 1942 Washington D.C. October 20, 1942 Executive Orders of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, Manila, Bureau of Printing 1945 Jewish refugees[edit] In a notable humanitarian act, Quezon, in cooperation with United States High Commissioner Paul V. McNutt, facilitated the entry into the Philippines
Philippines
of Jewish refugees fleeing fascist regimes in Europe. Quezon
Quezon
was also instrumental in promoting a project to resettle the refugees in Mindanao
Mindanao
while taking on critics who were convinced by fascist propaganda that Jewish settlement is a threat to the country.[14] Government-in-exile[edit]

President Quezon, with some of his family members, are welcomed in Washington, D.C. by President Roosevelt.

After the Japanese invasion of the Philippines
Philippines
during World War II,[15] he evacuated to Corregidor, where he was formally inaugurated for his second term, then the Visayas
Visayas
and Mindanao, and upon the invitation of the US government,[16] was further evacuated to Australia and then to the United States, where he established the Commonwealth government in exile with headquarters in Washington, D.C.. There, he served as a member of the Pacific War Council, signed the declaration of the United Nations against the Axis Powers, and wrote his autobiography (The Good Fight, 1946).[10] To carry on the government duties in exile, President Quezon
Quezon
hired the entire floor of one of the wing of the Shoreham Hotel
Shoreham Hotel
to accommodate his family and his office. On the other hand, the offices of the government were established at the quarters of the Philippine Resident Commissioner, Joaquin Elizalde. The latter was made a member of President's wartime Cabinet. Others likewise appointed were Brigadier-General Carlos P. Romulo, as Secretary of the Department of Information and Public Relations, and Jaime Hernandez as Auditor General.[10] On June 2, 1942, President Quezon
Quezon
addressed the United States House of Representatives, impressing upon them the vital necessity of relieving the Philippine front. Before the Senate, later, the Philippine President reiterated the same message and urged the senators to adopt the slogan "Remember Bataan". Despite his precarious state of health, President Quezon
Quezon
roamed the States to deliver timely and rousing speeches calculated to keep the Philippine war uppermost in the minds of the American nation.[10] Talks of post-war Philippines[edit]

Washington, D.C. Representatives of 26 United Nations at Flag day ceremonies in the White House
White House
to reaffirm their pact. Seated, left to right: Francisco Castillo Najera, Ambassador of Mexico; President Roosevelt; Manuel Quezon, President of the Philippine Islands; and Secretary of State Cordell Hull.

On the occasion of his first birthday celebration in the United States, Manuel Quezon
Quezon
broadcast a radio message to the Philippine residents in Hawaii, who contributed to the celebration by purchasing four million pesos worth of World War II bonds.[10] Further showing the Philippine government's cooperation with the war effort, Quezon officially offered the U.S. Army a Philippine infantry regiment, which was authorized by the U.S. Department of War to train in California. He also had the Philippine government acquire Elizalde's yacht, which, renamed Bataan
Bataan
and totally manned by the Philippine officers and crew, was donated to the United States for use in the war.[10] Early in November 1942, Quezon
Quezon
held conferences with President Roosevelt to work out a plan for the creation of a joint commission to study the economic conditions of post-war Philippines. Eighteen months later, the United States Congress
United States Congress
would pass an Act creating the Philippine Rehabilitation Commission as an outcome of such talks between the two Presidents.[10] Quezon-Osmeña Impasse[edit] By 1943, the Philippine Government-in-exile was faced with a serious crisis.[10] According to the 1935 Constitution, the official term of President Quezon
Quezon
was to expire on December 30, 1943 and Vice-President Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
would automatically succeed him in the Presidency. This eventuality was brought to the attention of President Quezon
Quezon
by Osmeña himself, who wrote the former to this effect. Aside from replying to this letter informing Vice-President Osmeña that it would not be wise and prudent to effect any such change under the circumstances, President Quezon
Quezon
issued a press release along the same line. Osmeña then requested the opinion of U.S. Attorney General Homer Cummings, who upheld Osmeña's view as more in keeping with the law. Quezon, however, remained adamant. He accordingly sought President Roosevelt's decision. The latter choose to remain aloof from the controversy, suggesting instead that the Philippine officials themselves solve the impasse.[10] A cabinet meeting was then convened by President Quezon. Aside from Quezon
Quezon
and Osmeña, others present in this momentous meeting were the resident Commissioner Joaquin Elizalde, Brig. Gen. Carlos P. Romulo, and his cabinet secretaries, Andres Soriano and Jaime Hernandez. Following a spirited discussion, the Cabinet supported Elizalde's opinion favoring the decision, and announced his plan to retire in California.[10] After the meeting, however, Vice-President Osmeña approached the President and broached his plan to ask the American Congress to suspend the constitutional provisions for presidential succession until after the Philippines
Philippines
should have been liberated. This legal way out was agreeable to President Quezon
Quezon
and the members of his Cabinet. Proper steps were taken to carry out the proposal. Sponsored by Senator Tydings and Congressman Bell, the pertinent Resolution was unanimously approved by the Senate on a voice vote and passed the House of Representatives by a vote of 181 to 107 on November 10, 1943.[10] Death[edit] Quezon
Quezon
suffered from tuberculosis and spent his last years in hospitals, such as at a Miami Beach Army hospital in April, 1944.[17] That summer, he was at a "cure cottage" in Saranac Lake, New York, where he died on August 1, 1944. He was initially buried in Arlington National Cemetery. His body was later carried by the USS Princeton and re-interred in Manila
Manila
at the Manila
Manila
North Cemetery on July 17, 1946 before being moved to Quezon
Quezon
City within the monument at the Quezon
Quezon
Memorial Circle on August 19, 1979.[18] Electoral history[edit]

e • d Summary of the September 16, 1935 Philippine presidential election results

Candidates Parties Votes %

Manuel L. Quezon Nacionalista Party
Nacionalista Party
(Nationalist Party) 695,332 67.99%

Emilio Aguinaldo National Socialist Party 179,349 17.54%

Gregorio Aglipay Republican Party 148,010 14.47%

Pascual Racuyal Independent 158 0.00%

Total 1,021,445 100%

Valid votes 1,021,445 ~98.89%

Votes cast 1,022,547 ~63.91%

Registered voters ~1,600,000 100.00%

e • d Summary of the November 11, 1941 Philippine presidential election results

Candidates Parties Votes %

Manuel L. Quezon Nacionalista Party
Nacionalista Party
(Nationalist Party) 1,340,320 81.78%

Juan Sumulong Popular Front 298,608 18.22%

Hilario Moncado Modernist Party 0 0.00%

Total 1,638,928 100%

Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Manuel L. Quezon

2. Lucio Quezon[19]

1. Manuel L. Quezon

24. Cándido Urbina Blázquez[23]

12. Pedro Antonio Hermenegildo Urbina Morales[21]

25. Isabel María Morales Blázquez[24]

6. José Eusebio Urbina de Esparragosa[20]

13. María de los Dolores[22]

3. María Dolores Molina

7. Brígida Molina

Honors[edit]

 France: Officer of the Legion of Honour  Mexico: Collar of the Order of the Aztec Eagle  Belgium: Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown Spain: Grand Cross of the Orden de la República Española  Republic of China: Grand Cordon of the Order of Brilliant Jade

Legacy[edit]

Current (New Generation series) Philippine 20 peso bill with a portrait of Manuel L. Quezon

Quezon
Quezon
City, the Quezon
Quezon
Province, Quezon
Quezon
Bridge in Manila
Manila
and the Manuel L. Quezon
Quezon
University, and many streets are named after him. The highest honor conferred by the Republic of the Philippines
Philippines
is the Quezon
Quezon
Service Cross. He is also memorialized on Philippine currency. He appears on the Philippine twenty peso bill. He also appears on two commemorative one peso coins (1936), one alongside Frank Murphy
Frank Murphy
and another with Franklin Delano Roosevelt.[25] The "Open Doors" is a holocaust memorial in Rishon LeZion, Israel. Its is a 7-meter-high sculpture designed by Filipino artist Luis Lee Jr. and erected in honor and thanks to President Manuel Quezon
Quezon
and the Filipinos who saved over 1,200 Jews from Nazi Germany.[26][27] Municipalities in five different provinces of the Philippines
Philippines
are named after Quezon:Quezon, Quezon; Quezon, Bukidnon; Quezon, Nueva Ecija; Quezon, Palawan; and Quezon, Isabela. The Presidential Papers of Manuel L. Quezon
Quezon
was officially inscribed in the UNESCO
UNESCO
Memory of the World Register
Memory of the World Register
in 2011. The Quezon
Quezon
Island, the most developed island in the Hundred Islands National Park is named after him.[28]

In popular culture[edit]

In 2010 official Music Video GMA Lupang Hinirang was portrayed by Richard Gutierrez Quezon
Quezon
was portrayed by Benjamin Alves in the 2015 film Heneral Luna.

Recording of speech[edit] A sample of Quezon's voice is preserved in the recording of a speech entitled "Message to My People", delivered in English and Spanish. According to Manuel L. Quezon
Quezon
III, his grandfather's speech was recorded when he was President of the Senate "in the 1920s, when he was first diagnosed with tuberculosis and assumed he didn't have much longer to live."[29] See also[edit]

List of Asian Americans and Pacific Islands Americans in the United States Congress List of Hispanic Americans in the United States Congress First inauguration of Manuel L. Quezon

References[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Manuel L. Quezon

McArthur, Douglas
McArthur, Douglas
(1964). Reminiscences.  Quezon, Manuel L. (1946). The Good Fight.  Perret, Geoffrey (1996). Old Soldiers Never Die: The Life of Douglas MacArthur. 

Notes[edit]

^ National Historical Commission of the Philippines. "History of Baler". National Historical Commission of the Philippines. Retrieved 2012-03-09. When military district of El Príncipe was created in 1856, Baler became its capital...On June 12, 1902 a civil government was established, moving the district of El Príncipe away from the administrative jurisdiction of Nueva Ecija...and placing it under the jurisdiction of Tayabas Province.  ^ Quezon, Manuel Luis (1915), "Escuelas públicas durante el régimen español" [Public schools during the Spanish regime], Philippine Assembly, Third Legislature, Third Session, Document No.4042-A 87 Speeches of Honorable Manuel L. Quezon, Philippine resident commissioner, delivered in the House of Representatives of the United States during the discussion of Jones Bill, 26 September-14 October 1914 [Asamblea Filipina, Tercera Legislatura, Tercer Período de Sesiones, Documento N.o 4042-A 87, Discursos del Hon. Manuel L. Quezon, comisionado residente de Filipinas, Pronunciados en la Cámara de representantes de los Estados Unidos con motivo de la discusión del Bill Jones, 26, septiembre-14, octubre, 1914] (in Spanish), Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Printing, p. 35, archived from the original on 18 July 2010, retrieved July 24, 2010, ...there were public schools in the Philippines
Philippines
long before the American occupation, and, in fact, I have been educated in one of these schools, even though my hometown is such a small town, isolated in the mountains of the Northeastern part of the island of Luzon. (Spanish). [...había escuelas públicas en Filipinas mucho antes de la ocupación americana, y que, de hecho, yo me había educado en una de esas escuelas, aunque mi pueblo natal es un pueblo tan pequeño, aislado en las montañas de la parte Noreste de la isla de Luzón.]  ^ Office of History and Preservation, United States Congress. (n.d.). Quezon, Manuel Luis, (1878–1944). Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved September 30, 2010. ^ Reyes, Pedrito (1953). Pictorial History of the Philippines.  ^ ÊáÀěɔ ^ "Official Program Aquino Inaugural (Excerpts)". Archived from the original on 12 February 2015.  ^ Maricel Cruz (January 2, 2008). "Lawmaker: History wrong on Gen. Malvar". Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. Retrieved May 2, 2008.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the centuries. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Print. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Manapat, Carlos, et al. Economics, Taxation, and Agrarian Reform. Quezon
Quezon
City: C&E Pub., 2010.Print. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the centuries. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Print. ^ "Block voting". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2012-09-10. [permanent dead link] ^ Commonweatlh Act (CA) No. 494 amended CA 444 "Eight Hour Law" authorizing the President to suspend the law. ^ Immigration Act of 1940 (CA No. 613), Sec. 13. Accessed on April 13, 2007 ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2005/02/14/us/a-filipinoamerican-effort-to-harbor-jews-is-honored.html?_r=0 ^ Evacuation flights may be identified at the AirForceHistoryIndex.org site by searching for Quezon ^ 1st Lt William Haddock Campbell, USAAF, received the DSC for his role as co-pilot in the evacuation of the Philippine president from the Philippines, as reported in a local Chicago newspaper, The Garfieldian, 1 April 1943 edition[permanent dead link]. ^ "The Miami News – Google News Archive Search". google.com.  ^ Manuel Luis Quezon
Quezon
at Find a Grave ^ Lucio Quezon's parentage is unclear as church records in Paco, Manila
Manila
were destroyed twice; during the Philippine-American War
Philippine-American War
in 1899, and during the Battle of Manila
Manila
in 1945. He was believed to be the son of Estanislao Quezon
Quezon
and Anastacia Vélez y Montes. ^ "Film # 008167279 Image Film # 008167279; ark:/61903/3:1:3Q9M-CS2Z-X751-H — FamilySearch.org". Retrieved October 15, 2017.  ^ "Film # 008167279 Image Film # 008167279; ark:/61903/3:1:3Q9M-CS2Z-X7RL-L — FamilySearch.org". Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ María de los Dolores was a foundling, thus she has no family name. "Film # 008033783 Image Film # 008033783; ark:/61903/3:1:3Q9M-CSXY-29FY-F — FamilySearch.org". Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ "Film # 008033781 Image Film # 008033781; ark:/61903/3:1:3Q9M-CSXY-2WWS — FamilySearch.org". Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ "Film # 008033781 Image Film # 008033781; ark:/61903/3:1:3Q9M-CSXY-24R4 — FamilySearch.org". Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ "Picture of commemorative coin". Retrieved 2012-09-10.  ^ CNN, Madison Park. "How the Philippines
Philippines
saved 1,200 Jews during Holocaust".  ^ "Monument in Israel Honors Filipinos".  ^ http://jacarandatravels.com/31-interesting-facts-hundred-islands-national-park/ ^ "Talumpati: Manuel L. Quezon". Retrieved June 26, 2010. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Manuel L. Quezon.

Bonnie Harris, Cantor Joseph Cysner: From Zbaszyn to Manila. Online E-book of Future of the Philippines : interviews with Manuel Quezon
Quezon
by Edward Price Bell, The Chicago Daily News Co., 1925 Online E-book of Discursos del Hon. Manuel L. Quezon, comissionado residente de Filipinas, pronunciados en la cámara de representantes de la discusión del Bill Jones (26, Septiembre-14, Octubre, 1914), published in Manila, 1915

United States Congress. "Manuel L. Quezon
Quezon
(id: Q000009)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.  Manuel L. Quezon
Quezon
on the Presidential Museum and Library

U.S. House of Representatives

Preceded by Pablo Ocampo Resident Commissioner of the Philippines 1909–1916 Served alongside: Benito Legarda
Benito Legarda
and Manuel Earnshaw Succeeded by Teodoro R. Yangco

Political offices

New office President of the Senate 1916–1935 Succeeded by Gil Montilla as Speaker of the National Assembly

Preceded by Emilio Aguinaldo as president of the Republic of the Philippines President of the Philippines 1935–1944 Succeeded by José P. Laurel as president of the Republic of the Philippines

Articles related to Manuel L. Quezon

v t e

Presidents of the Philippines

List

First Republic

Emilio Aguinaldo

Commonwealth

Manuel L. Quezon Sergio Osmeña Manuel Roxas

Second Republic

José P. Laurel

Third Republic

Manuel Roxas Elpidio Quirino Ramon Magsaysay Carlos P. Garcia Diosdado Macapagal Ferdinand Marcos

Fourth Republic

Ferdinand Marcos Corazon Aquino

Fifth Republic

Corazon Aquino Fidel Ramos Joseph Estrada Gloria Macapagal Arroyo Benigno Aquino III Rodrigo Duterte

v t e

Presidents of the Senate of the Philippines

Manuel L. Quezon Manuel Roxas José Avelino Mariano Jesús Cuenco Quintín Paredes Camilo Osías Eulogio Rodriguez Camilo Osías José Zulueta Eulogio Rodriguez Ferdinand Marcos Arturo Tolentino Gil Puyat Jovito Salonga Neptali A. Gonzales, Sr. Edgardo Angara Neptali A. Gonzales, Sr. Ernesto Maceda Neptali A. Gonzales, Sr. Marcelo Fernan Blas Ople Franklin Drilon Aquilino Pimentel Jr. Franklin Drilon Manuel Villar Juan Ponce Enrile Jinggoy Estrada
Jinggoy Estrada
(Acting) Franklin Drilon Aquilino Pimentel III

v t e

Lists related to the Presidents and Vice Presidents of the Philippines

List of Presidents List of Vice Presidents

Presidents

Birth Longevity Lifespan Time in office Time as former president

Professional careers

Previous executive experience Inaugurations

Personal life

Education Province Religious affiliation

Candidates

Tickets Former presidents who pursued public office

Other

Elections First Ladies and Gentlemen Currency appearances Unofficial Presidents

Vice Presidents

Birth Death Time in office

Personal life

Place of primary affiliation Second Ladies and Gentlemen

Succession

Line of succession

v t e

Candidates in the Philippine presidential election, 1935

Nacionalista Party

President:

Manuel L. Quezon
Quezon
(won)

Vice President:

Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
(won)

National Socialist Party

President:

Emilio Aguinaldo

Vice President:

Raymundo Melliza

Other third party candidates

President:

Gregorio Aglipay Pascual Racuyal

Vice President:

Norberto Nabong

v t e

Candidates in the Philippine presidential election, 1941

Nacionalista Party

President:

Manuel L. Quezon
Quezon
(won)

Vice President:

Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
(won)

Popular Front

President:

Juan Sumulong

Vice President:

Emilio Javier

Other third party candidates

President:

Pedro Abad Santos Hilario Moncado

v t e

Cabinet of President Manuel L. Quezon
Quezon
(1935–1941)

Vice President

Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
(1935-1941)

Secretary of Public Instruction

Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
(1935–1940) Jorge Bocobo (1940–1941)

Secretary of Public Works and Communications

Antonio de las Alas (1935–1936) Mariano Jesús Cuenco (1936–1939) José Avelino
José Avelino
(1939–1941)

Secretary of Justice

José Yulo
José Yulo
(1935–1938 José Abad Santos
José Abad Santos
(1938–1941)

Secretary of National Defense

Teofilo Sison
Teofilo Sison
1939–1941 Manuel L. Quezon
Quezon
(in concurrent capacity as President; 1941) Jorge Vargas (1941) Basilio Valdez (1941)

Secretary of Finance

Elpidio Quirino
Elpidio Quirino
(1935–1936) Antonio de las Alas (1936–1938) Manuel Roxas
Manuel Roxas
(1938–1941) Serafin Marabut (1941)

Secretary of the Interior

Elpidio Quirino
Elpidio Quirino
(1935–1938) Rafael Alunan (1938–1940)

Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce

Benigno S. Aquino (1935–1940) Rafael Alunan (1940–1941)

Secretary of Labor

José Avelino
José Avelino
(1935–1938) Sotero Baluyut (1938–1941)

Secretary to the President

Jorge B. Vargas
Jorge B. Vargas
(1935–1941)

Commissioner of the Budget

Serafin Marabut (1935–1941)

Commissioner of Civil Service

José Gil (1935–1941)

Resident Commissioners from the Philippines

Francisco Afan Delgado
Francisco Afan Delgado
(1935–1936) Quintin Paredes
Quintin Paredes
(1936–1938) Joaquin Elizalde
Joaquin Elizalde
(1938–1941)

v t e

Cabinet of President Manuel L. Quezon
Quezon
(1941–1944)

Vice President

Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
(1941-1944)

Secretary of Finance, Agriculture, and Commerce

Andres Soriano (1942–1944)

Secretary of National Defense, Public Works, Communications and Labor

Basilio Valdes (1941–1944)

Secretary of Public Instruction, Health, and Public Welfare

Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
(1941–1944)

Secretary to the President

Manuel Roxas
Manuel Roxas
(1941–1942) Arturo Rotor (1942–1944)

Auditor-General

Jaime Hernandez (1942–1944)

Resident Commissioners from the Philippines

Joaquin Elizalde
Joaquin Elizalde
(1941–1944)

Secretary of Information and Public Relations

Carlos P. Romulo
Carlos P. Romulo
(1943–1944)

v t e

Presidents of the Philippine Olympic Committee

PAAF Era

Forbes (1911–16) Quezon
Quezon
(1916–35) J. Vargas (1936–55) de las Alas (1956–68) Monserrat (1969–70) Padilla (1970–75)

POC Era

Padilla (1975–76) Andolong (1977–80) Malonso* (1980) Keon (1981–84) Sering (1985–92) Cruz (1993–96) Ramos (1997–99) Dayrit (1999–04) Cojuangco (2004–2018) R. Vargas (2018–)

(*) provisional

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 69727107 LCCN: n50050542 ISNI: 0000 0000 8150 1114 GND: 118866753 SUDOC: 079488706 BNF: cb14555598r (data) NLA: 35491453 US Congress: Q000009 BNE: XX1407599 SN

.