The Info List - Mantua

(Italian: Mantova [ˈmantova] ( listen); Emilian and Latin: Mantua) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy, and capital of the province of the same name. In 2016, Mantua
became Italian Capital of Culture. In 2017, Mantua will also be European Capital of Gastronomy, included in the Eastern Lombardy
District (together with the cities of Bergamo, Brescia, and Cremona). In 2007, Mantua's centro storico (old town) and Sabbioneta
were declared by UNESCO
to be a World Heritage Site. Mantua's historic power and influence under the Gonzaga family
Gonzaga family
has made it one of the main artistic, cultural, and especially musical hubs of Northern Italy and the country as a whole. Mantua
is noted for its significant role in the history of opera; the city is also known for its architectural treasures and artifacts, elegant palaces, and the medieval and Renaissance
cityscape. It is the place where the composer Monteverdi premiered his opera L'Orfeo
and where Romeo
was banished in Shakespeare's play Romeo
and Juliet. It is the nearest town to the birthplace of the Roman poet Virgil, who was commemorated by a statue at the lakeside park "Piazza Virgiliana". Mantua
is surrounded on three sides by artificial lakes, created during the 12th century, as the city's defence system. These lakes receive water from the Mincio
River, a tributary of the Po River which descends from Lake
Garda. The three lakes are called Lago Superiore, Lago di Mezzo, and Lago Inferiore ("Upper", "Middle", and "Lower" Lakes, respectively). A fourth lake, Lake
Pajolo, which once served as a defensive water ring around the city, dried up at the end of the 18th century. The area and its environs are important not only in naturalistic terms, but also anthropologically and historically; research has highlighted a number of human settlements scattered between Barche di Solferino
and Bande di Cavriana, Castellaro and Isolone del Mincio. These dated, without interruption, from Neolithic
times (5th–4th millennium BC) to the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(2nd–1st millennium BC) and the Gallic phases (2nd–1st centuries BC), and ended with Roman residential settlements, which could be traced to the 3rd century AD.


1 History

1.1 After the Fall of the Roman Empire

1.1.1 Free Imperial City
Free Imperial City
of Mantua

1.2 House of Gonzaga 1.3 From Gonzaga to Habsburg 1.4 Unification of Italy

2 Main sights 3 Transport 4 Miscellaneous 5 Twin towns – sister cities 6 Famous citizens 7 Fictional characters 8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Mantua
Timeline of Mantua
and Duchy of Mantua Mantua
was an island settlement which was first established about the year 2000 BC on the banks of River Mincio, which flows from Lake
Garda to the Adriatic Sea. In the 6th century BC, Mantua
was an Etruscan village which, in the Etruscan tradition, was re-founded by Ocnus.[1][2] The name may derive from the Etruscan god Mantus. After being conquered by the Cenomani, a Gallic tribe, Mantua
was subsequently fought between the first and second Punic wars
Punic wars
against the Romans, who attributed its name to Manto, a daughter of Tiresias. This territory was later populated by veteran soldiers of Augustus. Mantua's most famous ancient citizen is the poet Virgil, or Publius Vergilius Maro, ( Mantua
me genuit), who was born in the year 70 BC at a village near the city which is now known as Virgilio.[3] After the Fall of the Roman Empire[edit] After the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
at the hands of Odoacer
in 476 AD, Mantua
was, along with the rest of Italy, conquered by the Ostrogoths. It was retaken by the Eastern Roman Empire in the middle of the 6th century following the Gothic war but was subsequently lost again to the Lombards. They were in turn conquered by Charlemagne
in 774, thus incorporating Mantua
into the Frankish Empire. Partitions of the empire (due to the Franks' use of partible inheritance) in the Treaties of Verdun and Prüm led to Mantua
passing to Middle Francia
Middle Francia
in 843, then the Kingdom of Italy
in 855. In 962 Italy
was invaded by King Otto I of Germany, and Mantua
thus became a vassal of the newly formed Holy Roman Empire. In the 11th century, Mantua
became a possession of Boniface of Canossa, marquis of Tuscany. The last ruler of that family was the countess Matilda of Canossa (d. 1115), who, according to legend, ordered the construction of the precious Rotonda di San Lorenzo
Rotonda di San Lorenzo
(or St. Lawrence's Roundchurch) in 1082. The Rotonda still exists today and was renovated in 2013. Free Imperial City
Free Imperial City
of Mantua[edit] After the death of Matilda of Canossa, Mantua
became a free commune and strenuously defended itself from the influence of the Holy Roman Empire during the 12th and 13th centuries. In 1198, Alberto Pitentino altered the course of River Mincio, creating what the Mantuans call "the four lakes" to reinforce the city's natural protection. Three of these lakes still remain today and the fourth one, which ran through the centre of town, was reclaimed during the 18th century. Podesteria Rule From 1215, the city was ruled under the podesteria of the Gallic-Guelph Rambertino Buvalelli.

Expulsion of the Bonacolsi
in 1328, scene of Piazza Sordello, canvas of Domenico Morone.

During the struggle between the Guelphs and the Ghibellines, Pinamonte Bonacolsi
took advantage of the chaotic situation to seize power of the podesteria in 1273. He was declared the Captain General of the People. The Bonacolsi
family ruled Mantua
for the next two generations and made it more prosperous and artistically beautiful. On August 16, 1328, Luigi Gonzaga, an official in Bonacolsi's podesteria, and his family staged a public revolt in Mantua
and forced a coup d'état on the last Bonacolsi
ruler, Rinaldo. House of Gonzaga[edit] Ludovico Gonzaga, who had been Podestà
of Mantua
since 1318, was duly elected Captain General of the People. The Gonzagas built new walls with five gates and renovated the city in the 14th century; however, the political situation did not settle until the third ruler of Gonzaga, Ludovico III Gonzaga, who eliminated his relatives and centralised power to himself. During the Italian Renaissance, the Gonzaga family
Gonzaga family
softened their despotic rule and further raised the level of culture and refinement in Mantua.[4] Mantua
became a significant center of Renaissance
art and humanism. Marquis Gianfrancesco Gonzaga
Gianfrancesco Gonzaga
had brought Vittorino da Feltre
Vittorino da Feltre
to Mantua
in 1423 to open his famous humanist school, the Casa Giocosa. Isabella d'Este, Marchioness of Mantua, married Francesco II Gonzaga, Marquess
of Mantua
in 1490. When she moved to Mantua
from Ferrara
(she was the daughter of Duke Ercole the ruler of Ferrara) she created her famous studiolo firstly in Castello di San Giorgio
Castello di San Giorgio
for which she commissioned paintings from Mantegna, Perugino
and Lorenzo Costa. She later moved her studiolo to the Corte Vecchia and commissioned two paintings from Correggio
to join the five from Castello di San Giorgio. It was unusual for a woman to have a studiolo in 15thC Italy given they were regarded as masculine spaces. Isabella was a vociferous collector and such was her reputation that Niccolò da Corregio called her 'la prima donna del mondo'.

Ludovico Gonzaga receiving the news of his son Francesco being elected cardinal, fresco by Andrea Mantegna
Andrea Mantegna
in the Stanza degli Sposi of Palazzo Ducale.

Palazzo Te.

Through a payment of 120,000 golden florins in 1433, Gianfrancesco I was appointed Marquis of Mantua
by the Emperor Sigismund, whose niece Barbara of Brandenburg
married his son, Ludovico. In 1459, Pope Pius II held the Council of Mantua
to proclaim a crusade against the Turks. Under Ludovico and his heirs, the famous Renaissance
painter Andrea Mantegna worked in Mantua
as court painter, producing some of his most outstanding works. Duchy of Mantua The first Duke of Mantua
was Federico II Gonzaga, who acquired the title from the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
Emperor Charles V
in 1530. Federico commissioned Giulio Romano
Giulio Romano
to build the famous Palazzo Te, on the periphery of the city, and profoundly improved the city. In the late 16th century, Claudio Monteverdi
Claudio Monteverdi
came to Mantua
from his native Cremona. He worked for the court of Vincenzo I Gonzaga, first as a singer and violist, then as music director, marrying the court singer Claudia Cattaneo in 1599. From Gonzaga to Habsburg[edit] In 1627, the direct line of the Gonzaga family
Gonzaga family
came to an end with the vicious and weak Vincenzo II, and Mantua
slowly declined under the new rulers, the Gonzaga-Nevers, a cadet French branch of the family. The War of the Mantuan Succession
War of the Mantuan Succession
broke out, and in 1630 an Imperial army of 36,000 Landsknecht
mercenaries besieged Mantua, bringing the plague with them. Mantua
has never recovered from this disaster. Ferdinand Carlo IV, an inept ruler, whose only interest was in holding parties and theatrical shows, allied with France
in the War of the Spanish Succession. After the French defeat, he took refuge in Venice
and carried with him a thousand pictures. At his death in 1708, the Duke of Mantua
was declared deposed and his family of Gonzaga lost Mantua forever in favour of the Habsburgs of Austria. Under Austrian rule, Mantua
enjoyed a revival and during this period the Royal Academy of Sciences, Letters and Arts, the Scientific Theatre, and numerous palaces were built.

Napoleonic Wars

In 1786, ten years before Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign of Europe, the Austrian Duchy of Mantua
Duchy of Mantua
briefly united with the Duchy of Milan
Duchy of Milan
until 1791. On June 4, 1796, Mantua
was besieged by Napoleon's army as a move against Austria, who had joined the First Coalition
First Coalition
against France. Austrian and Russian attempts to break the siege failed, but they were able to spread the French forces thinly enough that the siege was abandoned on 31 July. After diverting the French forces elsewhere, the French resumed the siege on August 24. In early February 1797, the city surrendered and the region came under French administration. Two years later, in 1799, the city was recaptured by the Austrians after the Siege of Mantua
(1799). Later, the city again passed into Napoleon's control and became a part of the Napoleon's Kingdom of Italy. In 1810 Andreas Hofer
Andreas Hofer
was shot by Porta Giulia, a gate of the town at Borgo di Porto (Cittadella) for leading the insurrection in the County of Tyrol
County of Tyrol
against Napoleon.

Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia

After the brief period of French rule, Mantua
returned to Austria
in 1814, becoming one of the Quadrilatero
fortress cities in northern Italy. Under the Congress of Vienna (1815), Mantua
became a province in the Austrian Empire's Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia. Agitation against Austria, however, culminated in a revolt which lasted from 1851 to 1855, but it was finally suppressed by the Austrian army. One of the most famous episodes of the Italian Risorgimento
took place in the valley of the Belfiore, where a group of rebels was hanged by the Austrians. Unification of Italy[edit] At the Battle of Solferino
(Franco-Austrian War) in 1859, the House of Savoy's Piedmont-Sardinia sided with the French Emperor Napoleon III against the Austrian Empire. Following Austria's defeat, Lombardy
was ceded to France, who transferred Lombardy
to Piedmont-Sardinia in return for Nice
and Savoy. Mantua, although a constituent province of Lombardy, still remained under the Austrian Empire along with Venetia. In 1866, Prussia-led North German Confederation
North German Confederation
sided with the newly established, Piedmont-led Kingdom of Italy
against the Austrian Empire. The quick defeat of Austria
led to its withdrawal of the Kingdom of Venetia (including the capital city, Venice). Mantua
reconnected with the region of Lombardy
and was incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy. Main sights[edit]

Piazza Sordello.


World Heritage Site

Part of Mantua
and Sabbioneta

Criteria Cultural: ii, iii

Reference 1287-001

Inscription 2008 (32nd Session)

Area 175ha

Buffer zone 1,900 ha

Church of Santa Paola.

The Gonzagas protected the arts and culture, and were hosts to several important artists such as Leone Battista Alberti, Andrea Mantegna, Giulio Romano, Donatello, Peter Paul Rubens, Pisanello, Domenico Fetti, Luca Fancelli
Luca Fancelli
and Nicolò Sebregondi. Though many of the masterworks have been dispersed, the cultural value of Mantua
is nonetheless outstanding, with many of Mantua's patrician and ecclesiastical buildings being uniquely important examples of Italian architecture. Main landmarks include:

The Palazzo Te
Palazzo Te
(1525–1535), a creation of Giulio Romano
Giulio Romano
(who lived in Mantua
in his final years) in the mature Renaissance
style, with some hints of a post-Raphaelian mannerism. It was the summer residential villa of Frederick II of Gonzaga. It hosts the Museo Civico (with the donations of Arnoldo Mondadori, one of the most important Italian publishers, and Ugo Sissa, a Mantuan architect who worked in Iraq
from where he brought back important Mesopotamian artworks) The Palazzo Ducale, famous residence of the Gonzaga family, made up of a number of buildings, courtyards and gardens gathered around the Palazzo del Capitano, the Magna Domus and the Castle of St. George with the Camera degli Sposi, a room frescoed by Andrea Mantegna. The Basilica of Sant'Andrea was begun in 1462 according to designs by Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti
but was finished only in the 18th century when was built the massive dome designed by Filippo Juvarra. The Duomo (Cathedral of Saint Peter the Apostle) The Rotonda di San Lorenzo The Bibiena Theater, also known as the Teatro Scientifico, was made by Antonio Bibiena
Antonio Bibiena
in 1767-1769. It was opened officially on 3 December 1769 and on 16 January 1770, thirteen-year-old Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart played a concert. The church of San Sebastiano The Palazzo Vescovile ("Bishops Palace") The Palazzo degli Uberti Palazzo d'Arco, a Neoclassical palace erected by the eponoymous noble family from Trento starting from 1746. It is home to a museum and painting gallery with works by Bernardino Luini, Alessandro Magnasco, Frans Pourbus the Younger, Anthony Van Dyck
Anthony Van Dyck
and a painting cycle by Giuseppe Bazzani. The Torre della Gabbia ("Cage Tower") The Palazzo del Podestà, Mantua The Palazzo della Ragione with the Torre dell'Orologio ("Clock Tower") The Palazzo Bonacolsi The Palazzo Valenti Gonzaga, an example of Baroque architecture and decoration, with frescoes attributed to Flemish painter Frans Geffels. The façade of the palace was designed by Nicolò Sebregondi. Casa del Mercato, a frescoed Renaissance
building designed by Luca Fancelli in 1462 and later used by Andrea Mantegna. House of Mantegna, facing the church of San Sebastiano. It was built by the eponymous artist starting from 1476, and has plan with a circular internal court included within an external square building. It is now used for temporary exhibitions. The church of Santa Paola, built in the early 15th century by the will of Marchioness Paola Malatesta, wife of Francesco I. Architects such as Luca Fancelli
Luca Fancelli
and Giulio Romano
Giulio Romano
collaborated to its construction. It houses the tombs of five members of the Gonzaga family, including those of Paola and of Francesco II. The church of Santa Maria del Gradaro, built starting from 1256 on the site where, according to the tradition, Saint Longinus
Saint Longinus
was buried. In 1772 it became a store, and was reconsecrated only in the 1950s.



By car, Mantova can be reached on the A4 (Milan-Venice) Highway up to Verona, then the A22 (Brennero-Modena) Highway. Alternatively, the city can be reached from Milan
on the State Road 415 (Milan-Cremona) to Cremona
and from there State Road 10 (Cremona-Mantova), or from Verona
on the State Road 62.


Mantova railway station, opened in 1873, lies on the train routes of Milan-Codogno-Cremona- Mantua
and Verona-Mantua-Modena. The station is a terminus of three regional lines, Mantova to Cremona
and Milan, Mantova to Monselice, and Mantova to Verona
Porta Nuova and Modena. In September 2016, Trenitalia
launched a new Rome-Mantova high speed route.[5]


The closest airport is Verona-Villafranca
Airport. The direct shuttle bus service running to and from Mantova railway station
Mantova railway station
was canceled on January 1, 2015. Public connection is now provided by the airport bus running to and from Verona
Porta Nuova railway station, and the Verona-Mantova railway line.


Local bus services, urbano (within the city area and suburbs) and interurbano (within the surrounding towns and villages) are provided by APAM. Miscellaneous[edit]

An annual survey of Legambiente (an ecologist movement of Italy) in 2005 declared Mantua
the most 'liveable' city of the country. The study was based on levels of pollution, quality of life, traffic, and public transport, among other criteria.[6] The body of Saint Longinus, twice recovered and lost, was asserted to have been found once more at Mantua
in 1304, together with the Holy Sponge stained with Christ's blood. In William Shakespeare's Romeo
and Juliet, Romeo
spends his period of exile—his punishment for killing Tybalt—in Mantua. In Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew, the schoolmaster who pretends to be Lucentio's father, Vincentio, is from Mantua. The composer Claudio Monteverdi
Claudio Monteverdi
was employed by Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, ruler of the Duchy of Mantua, when he wrote the Vespers of 1610. Vincenzo's son and successor in 1612, Francesco IV Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, summarily sacked Monteverdi, who went on to a more prestigious position at the Basilica of San Marco, Venice. Giuseppe Verdi's opera Rigoletto
(based on Victor Hugo's play Le roi s'amuse) is set in Mantua. Austro-Hungarian authorities in Venice forced him to move the action from France
to Mantua. A medieval building with portico and 15th-century loggia in Mantua
is said to be "Rigoletto's house". It was actually the house of the cathedral regulars. It was chosen by the Gonzaga family
Gonzaga family
as the residence of the legendary fool who was then used by Verdi in his opera. Since 1997 Mantua
has hosted the Festivaletteratura, one of the most renowned literary events in Europe. In 2007 the remains of two people, known as the Lovers of Valdaro, were discovered during the construction of a factory. The remains are thought to be between 5000 and 6000 years old. It is speculated that the remains are of two young lovers because the two skeletons appear to be embracing. [1] In May 2012, a deadly earthquake struck Northern Italy, causing damage to some historic buildings in Mantua, including the Palazzo Ducale. After months of repair, the Palazzo reopened its doors in September 2012. The composer Antonio Vivaldi
Antonio Vivaldi
was employed by the Governor of Mantua
in the period 1718-1720.

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Azuchi, Japan, 2005 Madison, Wisconsin, United States, 2001 Weingarten, Germany, 1998 Pushkin, Russia, 1993 Charleville-Mézières, France, 1963

Nevers, France, 1963 Hyderabad, India Oradea, Romania Vitória, Brazil

Famous citizens[edit]

Marcus Antonius Antimachus (c. 1473 – 1552), pioneer of Renaissance Greek language teaching Giovanni Battista Bertani
Giovanni Battista Bertani
(1516–1576), architect Giacomo Benefatti (1304 – 1332), Roman Catholic Bishop Constanzo Beschi, (8 November 1680 – 1742), a well known Tamil poet. He is known as Vīramāmunivar in Tamil.

Baldassare Castiglione
Baldassare Castiglione
by Raphael
at Louvre-Lens.

Tazio Nuvolari.

Baldassare Castiglione
Baldassare Castiglione
(Italian pronunciation: [baldasˈsaːre kastiʎˈʎoːne]; December 6, 1478 – February 2, 1529),[7] count of Casatico, was an Italian courtier, diplomat, soldier and a prominent Renaissance
author.[8] Gino Fano
Gino Fano
(1871–1952), mathematician. Leone de' Sommi (c. 1525 – c. 1590), theater director and writer. Pietro Giovanni Guarneri (1655–1720), violin maker of the Guarneri family, left Cremona
in 1679, eventually establishing himself in Mantua. Learco Guerra
Learco Guerra
(1902–1963), professional road racing cyclist, in 1931 won the world cycling championship. Alfredo Guzzoni
Alfredo Guzzoni
(1877–1965), Italian Army General in World War II Alberto Jori, neo-aristotelian philosopher. Lovers of Valdaro Claudio Monteverdi
Claudio Monteverdi
(c. 1567 – 1643), composer. Tazio Nuvolari
Tazio Nuvolari
(1892–1953), motorcycle and racecar driver. Ippolito Nievo
Ippolito Nievo
(1831–1861), writer, journalist and patriot. Giancarlo Pasquini (1963–), musician and singer Pietro Pomponazzi (1462–1525), an Italian philosopher. He is sometimes known by his Latin
name, Petrus Pomponatius. Samuel Romanelli (1757-1814), Jewish
intellectual and travel writer who published the first modern ethnography of Moroccan Jewry Salamone Rossi
Salamone Rossi
(ca. 1570 – 1630), Jewish
violinist and composer who served as concertmaster of the Mantua
court from 1587 until 1628. Giuseppe Sarto
Giuseppe Sarto
(1835–1914), appointed Bishop
in 1884 before he became Pope Pius X in 1903. Stefano Scarampella (1843–1925), violin maker, left Brescia
and moved to Mantua
in 1886. Sordello
or Sordel, a 13th-century Lombard troubadour, born in the municipality of Goito
in the province of Mantua. Franca Sozzani, editor-in-chief at Vogue Italia
Vogue Italia
was born here. Virgil
(70 BCE–19 BCE), a classical Roman poet.

Fictional characters[edit]

Montague was banished here. Giuseppe Verdi's opera, Rigoletto
is set here.

See also[edit]

Roman Catholic Diocese of Mantova Tazio Nuvolari
Tazio Nuvolari
"The flying Mantuan" World-famous racing driver. There is a museum dedicated to his exploits. St. Aloysius Gonzaga
St. Aloysius Gonzaga
Jesuit, native of Mantua
– died in 1591 at the age of 23. Lovers of Valdaro


^ Fagles, Robert, ed.: The Aeneid (2006), 10.242, Penguin Group, ISBN 0-670-03803-2 ^ Lucchini, Daniele: Rise and fall of a capital. The history of Mantua in the words of who wrote about it (2013), ISBN 978-1-291-78388-9 ^ Conte, Gian Biagio. Trans. Joseph B. Solodow Latin
Literature: A History Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994. ^ Henry S. Lucas, The Renaissance
and the Reformation (Harper & Bros. Publishers: New York, 1960) pp. 42-43. ^ http://www.trenitalia.com/tcom/Le-Frecce/Frecciargento-Roma-Mantova ^ http://www.corriere.it/english/articoli/2005/11_Novembre/22/mantova.shtml ^ Dates of birth and death, and cause of the latter, from ‘Baldassarre Castiglione’ Archived 2009-05-27 at WebCite, Italica, Rai International online. ^ MacClintock, Carol (1979). Readings in the History of Music in Performance. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-14495-7. 

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Mantua External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mantua.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Mantua.

Official website Mantova Tourism Palazzo Te
Palazzo Te
(in Italian) Palazzo Ducale (in Italian) A Mantova To know and to see Mantua Mantua
tourist guide Mantua
tourist guide Tourist guide in Mantua
A native guide from Mantua Mantovani Nel Mondo Page dedicated to Mantovani worldwide. Photo gallery made by a UNESCO
photographer Mantua
on The Campanile Project

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· Comuni of the Province of Mantua

Acquanegra sul Chiese Asola Bagnolo San Vito Bigarello Borgo Mantovano Borgo Virgilio Borgofranco sul Po Bozzolo Canneto sull'Oglio Carbonara di Po Casalmoro Casaloldo Casalromano Castel Goffredo Castel d'Ario Castelbelforte Castellucchio Castiglione delle Stiviere Cavriana Ceresara Commessaggio Curtatone Dosolo Gazoldo degli Ippoliti Gazzuolo Goito Gonzaga Guidizzolo Magnacavallo Mantua Marcaria Mariana Mantovana Marmirolo Medole Moglia Monzambano Motteggiana Ostiglia Pegognaga Piubega Poggio Rusco Pomponesco Ponti sul Mincio Porto Mantovano Quingentole Quistello Redondesco Rivarolo Mantovano Rodigo Roncoferraro Roverbella Sabbioneta San Benedetto Po San Giacomo delle Segnate San Giorgio di Mantova San Giovanni del Dosso San Martino dall'Argine Schivenoglia Serravalle a Po Solferino Sustinente Suzzara Viadana Villimpenta Volta Mantovana

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World Heritage Sites in Italy


Crespi d'Adda Genoa Mantua
and Sabbioneta Monte San Giorgio1 Porto Venere, Palmaria, Tino and Tinetto, Cinque Terre

Corniglia Manarola Monterosso al Mare Riomaggiore Vernazza

Residences of the Royal House of Savoy

Castle of Moncalieri Castle of Racconigi Castle of Rivoli Castello del Valentino Royal Palace of Turin Palazzo Carignano Palazzo Madama, Turin Palace of Venaria Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi Villa della Regina

Rhaetian Railway
Rhaetian Railway
in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes1 Rock Drawings in Valcamonica Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan Vineyard Landscape of Piedmont: Langhe- Roero
and Monferrato


Aquileia The Dolomites Ferrara Modena
Cathedral, Torre della Ghirlandina
Torre della Ghirlandina
and Piazza Grande, Modena Orto botanico di Padova Ravenna Venice Verona City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto


Assisi Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi Etruscan Necropolises of Cerveteri
and Tarquinia Florence Hadrian's Villa Medici villas Piazza del Duomo, Pisa Pienza Rome2 San Gimignano Siena Urbino Val d'Orcia Villa d'Este


Alberobello Amalfi Coast Castel del Monte, Apulia Cilento
and Vallo di Diano
Vallo di Diano
National Park, Paestum
and Velia, Certosa di Padula Herculaneum Oplontis
and Villa Poppaea Naples Palace of Caserta, Aqueduct of Vanvitelli
Aqueduct of Vanvitelli
and San Leucio
San Leucio
Complex Pompeii Sassi di Matera


Aeolian Islands Arab-Norman Palermo and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalù and Monreale Archaeological Area of Agrigento Barumini nuraghes Mount Etna Syracuse and Necropolis of Pantalica Val di Noto

Caltagirone Catania Militello in Val di Catania Modica Noto Palazzolo Acreide Ragusa Scicli

Villa Romana del Casale


Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568–774 A.D.)

Brescia Cividale del Friuli Castelseprio Spoleto Temple of Clitumnus
Temple of Clitumnus
located at Campello sul Clitunno Santa Sofia located at Benevento Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo
Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo
located at Monte Sant'Angelo

Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3 Primeval Beech Forests of Europe4 Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries5

Bergamo Palmanova Peschiera del Garda

1 Shared with Switzerland 2 Shared with the Holy See 3 Shared with Austria, France, Germany, Slovenia, and Switzerland 4 Shared with Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain
and Ukraine 5 Shared with Croatia
and Montenegro

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 160027408 GND: 4114978-6 BNF: cb1193