The Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa or Mañjuśrī-mūla-kalpa is a text of the Kriyā-tantra class. It is affiliated with the bodhisattvaMañjuśrī. It contains violent, sensual and sexual tantric rituals.
The Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa is often cited as the earliest example of an extant Indian Buddhist Tantra. Some scholars identify it as a compilation of a core dated circa 6th century with accretions and additions. The Sanskrit version, significantly longer than its corresponding Chinese and Tibetan renderings, is still extant.
The Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa, which later was classified under Kriyatantra, states that mantras taught in the Shaiva, Garuda and Vaishnava tantras will be effective if applied by Buddhists since they were all taught originally by Manjushri. The attribution to Mañjuśrī is an attempt by its author(s) to counter the objection that the teachings in this text are of non-Buddhist origin.
^ abcKeown, Damien (editor) with Hodge, Stephen; Jones, Charles; Tinti, Paola (2003). A Dictionary of Buddhism. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN0-19-860560-9 p.172.
^Sanderson, Alexis. "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo. Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009. Institute of Oriental Culture Special Series, 23, pp. 129-131.