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Manitoulin Island
Manitoulin Island
/ˌmænɪˈtuːlɪn/ is a Canadian lake island in Lake Huron, in the province of Ontario. In addition to the historic Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
and European settlement of the island, archeological discoveries at Sheguiandah have demonstrated Paleo-Indian
Paleo-Indian
and Archaic cultures dating from 10,000 BC to 2000 BC.[2] The current name of the island is the English version, via French, of the historic Odawa name Manidoowaaling,[3] which means "cave of the spirit". It was named for an underwater cave where a powerful spirit was said to live.[4] By the 19th century, the Odawa "l" was pronounced as "n". The same word with a newer pronunciation is used for the town Manitowaning (19th-century Odawa "Manidoowaaning"), which is located on Manitoulin Island
Manitoulin Island
near the underwater cave where legend has it that the spirit dwells. The modern Odawa name for Manitoulin Island
Manitoulin Island
is Mnidoo Mnis, meaning "Spirit Island".[5] Manitoulin Island
Manitoulin Island
contains a number of lakes of its own. In order of size, its three most prominent lakes are Lake Manitou, Lake Kagawong and Lake Mindemoya. Each of these three lakes in turn have islands within them, the largest of these being Lake Mindemoya's 82-acre Treasure Island, located in the centre of Manitoulin. The island is the site of the administrative office of the Sheshegwaning First Nations
First Nations
band government.[6]

Contents

1 Geography and geology 2 Culture 3 Demographics 4 History 5 Notable residents 6 Places to Visit 7 References 8 External links

Geography and geology[edit]

Manitoulin Island
Manitoulin Island
location in the Great Lakes

The island has an area of 2,766 km2 (1,068 sq mi), making it the largest freshwater island in the world, the 174th largest island in the world and Canada's 31st largest island. The island separates the larger part of Lake Huron
Lake Huron
to its south and west from Georgian Bay
Georgian Bay
to its east and the North Channel to the north. Manitoulin Island
Manitoulin Island
itself has 108 freshwater lakes, some of which have their own islands; in turn several of these "islands within islands" have their own ponds. Lake Manitou, at 104 km2 (40 sq mi), is the largest lake in a freshwater island in the world,[7] and Treasure Island in Lake Mindemoya is the largest island in a lake on an island in a lake in the world.[7] Motors are prohibited on boats on Nameless Lake. The island also has four major rivers: the Kagawong, Manitou River, Blue Jay Creek in Michael's Bay and Mindemoya rivers, which provide spawning grounds for salmon and trout. The Manitoulin Streams Improvement Association was formed in 2000 and incorporated in 2007. The organization rehabilitates streams, rivers and creeks on Manitoulin Island
Manitoulin Island
to improve water quality and the fisheries resource. The Manitoulin Streams Improvement Association has conducted enhancement strategies for the Manitou River and Blue Jay Creek. The association has rehabilitated 17 major sites on the Manitou River and three major sites on Blue Jay Creek; it has completed work on Bass Lake Creek and Norton's Creek. The organization plans to start work on the Mindemoya River
Mindemoya River
in 2010. Although culturally and politically considered part of Northern Ontario, the island is physiographically part of Southern Ontario, an "eastward extension of the Interior Plains, a region characterized by low relief and sedimentary underpinnings". The island consists mainly of dolomite as it is a continuation of the Bruce Peninsula
Bruce Peninsula
and Niagara Escarpment. This geological rock formation runs south into Niagara Falls and continues into New York. The "Cup and Saucer Trail", which climbs the escarpment, provides a lookout over the island. Culture[edit] The island has two incorporated towns (Northeastern Manitoulin and the Islands and Gore Bay), eight townships (Assiginack, Billings, Burpee and Mills, Central Manitoulin, Dawson, Gordon/Barrie Island, Robinson and Tehkummah) and six Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
reserves (M'Chigeeng, Sheguiandah, Sheshegwaning, Aundeck Omni Kaning, Wikwemikong
Wikwemikong
and Zhiibaahaasing.)

View from the Cup and Saucer Hiking Trail

During the summer, the population (12,600 permanent residents) on the island grows by more than a quarter due to tourists coming for boating and other activities in scenic surroundings. The island, along with several smaller neighbouring islands, constitutes the Manitoulin District
District
census division of Ontario. Year-round motor-vehicle access to the island is available via the one-lane Little Current Swing Bridge, which crosses the North Channel at Little Current. From late May to early October, a daily passenger-vehicle ferry, the MS Chi-Cheemaun ( Ojibwe
Ojibwe
for "Big Canoe"), travels between Tobermory on the tip of the Bruce Peninsula and South Baymouth. Winter ice prevents ferry service during that season.

MS Chi-Cheemaun
MS Chi-Cheemaun
passenger-vehicle ferry at South Baymouth

Manitoulin Island's soil is relatively alkaline, which precludes the growth of common Northern Ontario
Ontario
flora such as blueberries, but allows for the island's trademark hawberries. These berries are so distinctive that people born on the island are referred to as "Haweaters". Each year on the August long weekend, the island hosts the Haweater Festival. The festival attracts numerous tourists; it features parades, firework shows, craft shows, and rural competitions such as horse pulls. Demographics[edit] As of 2016[update], the population is 13,255.[8] Ethnic groups

59% White (European-Canadian)[9] 40.6% Aboriginal (First Nations)[10] 0.4% Black (African-Canadian)[11]

Religious groups

42.3% Protestant 37.3% Roman Catholic 2.7% other Christian 17.7% other/none

The most common first languages on Manitoulin Island
Manitoulin Island
in 2016 were English (80.8%), Ojibwe
Ojibwe
(11.2%), French (2.8%), German (0.8%), and Odawa (0.8%). [12]

History[edit] See also: History of Northern Michigan In 1952 archeologist Thomas E. Lee
Thomas E. Lee
discovered Sheguiandah on the island, a prehistoric site. During excavation, he found artifacts of the Paleo-Indian
Paleo-Indian
and Archaic periods, dating at least to 10,000 BC and possibly to 30,000 years ago.[2] Additional studies were undertaken by a team he led from the National Museum of Canada in succeeding years.[13] Popular interest in the finds was so high that it contributed to Ontario's passing legislation in 1953 to protect its archeological sites.[14] A team performed excavations again in the early 1990s, applying new methods of analysis from botany and other scientific disciplines. They concluded the site was at least 9500 years old, making it one of the most significant in Ontario.[15] Manitoulin means spirit island in Anishinaabemowin ( Ojibwe
Ojibwe
language). The island is considered sacred by the Native Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
people, who identify as the "People of the Three Fires." This loose confederation is made up of the Ojibwe, Odawa and Potawatomi
Potawatomi
tribes. The North Channel was part of the route used by the French colonial voyageurs and coureurs des bois to reach Lake Superior. The first known European to settle on the island was Father Joseph Poncet, a French Jesuit, who set up a mission near Wikwemikong
Wikwemikong
in 1648. The Jesuits
Jesuits
called the island "Isle de Ste-Marie". The endemic Eurasian infectious diseases carried by the visitors had a devastating effect on the island's population,[citation needed] as most Natives had no natural immunity to the new diseases. They suffered so many deaths in the ensuing epidemics of smallpox, measles and other diseases, that their societies were disrupted. In addition, the Five Nations of the Iroquois
Iroquois
began raiding the island and area to try to control the fur trade with the French. As part of what was called the Beaver Wars, the Iroquois
Iroquois
drove the Anishinaabe people from the island by 1650. According to Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
oral tradition, to purify the island from disease, the people burned their settlements as they left. The island was mostly uninhabited for nearly 150 years. Native people (Odawa, Ojibwe, Potawatomi) began to return to the island following the War of 1812
War of 1812
between Britain and the United States. They ceded the island to the British Crown in 1836; the government set aside the land as a refuge for Natives. In 1838 Jean-Baptiste Proulx re-established a Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
mission. The Jesuits
Jesuits
took over the mission in 1845. In 1862, the government opened up the island to settlement by non-Native people by the Manitoulin Island
Manitoulin Island
treaty. As the Wikwemikong chief did not accept this treaty, his people's reserve was held back from being offered for development. That reserve remains unceded. On August 7, 1975 the Wikwemikong Unceded Indian Reserve
Wikwemikong Unceded Indian Reserve
reasserted their sovereignty over the islands off the east end of Manitoulin Island, declaring, " Wikwemikong
Wikwemikong
Band has jurisdiction over its reservation lands and surrounding waters."[16] The province erected an Ontario
Ontario
Historical Plaque on the grounds of the Assiginack Museum to commemorate the Manitoulin Treaties' role in Ontario's history.[17] Notable residents[edit]

Daphne Odjig, artist, born and raised on the Wikwemikong
Wikwemikong
Unceded Indian Reserve. Kevin Closs, independent rock recording artist raised in Manitowaning. Crystal Shawanda, country music artist from Wikwemikong. Isabel Paterson, writer born on Manitoulin Island. Carl Beam, Canadian artist of Native ancestry.

Places to Visit[edit]

Bridal Veil Falls Providence Bay Beach Mishibinijima Private Art Gallery 10 Mile Point Lookout Cup and Saucer Trail Little Current Harbour and Boardwalk Great Spirit Circle Trail Little Current Iron Swing Bridge

References[edit]

^ http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CD&Code1=3551&Geo2=PR&Code2=35&Data=Count&SearchText=Manitoulin&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&TABID=1 ^ a b Lee, Thomas E. (1954). "The First Sheguiandah Expedition, Manitoulin Island, Ontario", American Antiquity 20:2, p. 101, accessed 13 Apr 2010 ^ Pentland, David (1978). Cowan, W., ed. Papers of the Ninth Algonquian Conference. Ottawa: Carleton University.  ^ Smith, Theresa (1995). The Island of the Anishnaabeg: Thunderers and Water Monsters in the Traditional Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Life-World. University of Idaho Press. pp. 135, 185 inter alia. ISBN 9780893011710.  ^ Valentine, Randolph. A Nishnaabemwin Reference Grammar. University of Toronto Press.  ^ "Sheshegwaning First Nation". sheshegwaning.org.  ^ a b "The Island and Lake Combination". Retrieved 2010-03-01.  ^ http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CD&Code1=3551&Geo2=PR&Code2=35&Data=Count&SearchText=Manitoulin&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&TABID=1 ^ http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CD&Code1=3551&Geo2=PR&Code2=35&Data=Count&SearchText=Manitoulin&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&TABID=1 ^ http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CD&Code1=3551&Geo2=PR&Code2=35&Data=Count&SearchText=Manitoulin&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&TABID=1 ^ http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CD&Code1=3551&Geo2=PR&Code2=35&Data=Count&SearchText=Manitoulin&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&TABID=1 ^ http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CD&Code1=3551&Geo2=PR&Code2=35&Data=Count&SearchText=Manitoulin&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&TABID=1 ^ Lee, Robert E. Chapter 2, The Sheguiandah Site: Archaeological, Geological and Paleobotanical Studies at a Paleoindian Site on Manitoulin Island, Ontario, ed. Patrick Julig (2002), Toronto: Canadian Museum of Civilization, 2002. ISBN 0-660-18755-8 ^ Lee, Thomas E. (1955). "The Second Sheguiandah Expedition, Manitoulin Island, Ontario", American Antiquity 21:1, p. 63, accessed 13 Apr 2010 ^ Julig, Patrick and Peter Storck. Chapters 4 and 5, The Sheguiandah Site, ed. Patrick Julig (2002), Toronto: Canadian Museum of Civilization. ISBN 0-660-18755-8 ^ " Wikwemikong
Wikwemikong
History". Manitoulin Island. Manitoulin Island. 1975-08-07. Retrieved 2013-11-26.  ^ "Manitoulin Treaties Historical Plaque". Ontario's Historical Plaques. Archived from the original on 2013-12-02. Retrieved 2013-11-26. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Manitoulin at Wikimedia Commons Manitoulin Island
Manitoulin Island
travel guide from Wikivoyage Geographic data related to Manitoulin Island
Manitoulin Island
at OpenStreetMap Manitoulin Tourism Information Manitoulin Tourism Association Manitoulin Streams Improvement Association Manitoulin, an essay about Ojibway Indians and Lumbermen by Harold Nelson Burden (1895) Ontario
Ontario
photos. Manitoulin Island Explore Manitoulin Island

v t e

Great Lakes
Great Lakes
of North America

Main lakes

Erie Huron Michigan Ontario Superior

Secondary lakes

Nipigon Nipissing St. Clair Simcoe Winnebago

Bays and Waterways

Detroit River Erie Canal French River Georgian Bay Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Waterway Green Bay Lake George Lake Kagawong Lake Manitou Lake Nicolet Manitou Passage Lake Mindemoya Munuscong Lake Niagara River Nipigon River North Channel Potagannissing Bay St. Clair River Saint Lawrence River Saint Lawrence Seaway St. Marys River Sault Ste. Marie Canal Soo Locks Straits of Mackinac Trent–Severn Waterway Welland Canal

Islands

Detroit River Michigan (state) (in Lake Huron, part of Isle Royale National Park) Ontario

Historic geology

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Great Lakes
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