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Mandaeans
Mandaeans
(Arabic: الصابئة المندائيون‎, translit. aṣ-Ṣābi'a al-Mandā'iyūn) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and are followers of Mandaeism, a Gnostic
Gnostic
religion. The Mandaeans
Mandaeans
were originally native speakers of Mandaic, a Semitic language
Semitic language
that evolved from Eastern Middle Aramaic, before many switched to colloquial Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
and Modern Persian. Mandaic is mainly preserved as a liturgical language. In the aftermath of the Iraq
Iraq
War of 2003, the indigenous Mandaic community of Iraq, which used to number 60–70,000 persons, collapsed; most of the community relocated to nearby Iran, Syria
Syria
and Jordan, or formed diaspora communities beyond the Middle East. The other indigenous community of Iranian Mandaeans
Mandaeans
has also been dwindling as a result of religious persecution over that decade.[4]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origin 1.2 Early Persian periods 1.3 Islamic Caliphates 1.4 Late Persian and Ottoman periods 1.5 Modern Iraq
Iraq
and Iran

2 Population

2.1 Mandaeans
Mandaeans
in Iraq 2.2 Iranian Mandaeans 2.3 Other countries in the Middle East 2.4 Diaspora

3 Religion 4 Language 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links

History[edit] Origin[edit] There are several indications of the ultimate origin of the Mandaeans. Early religious concepts and terminologies recur in the Dead Sea Scrolls, and "Jordan" has been the name of every baptismal water in Mandaeism.[13] The Mandaic language is a dialect of southeastern Aramaic
Aramaic
and is closely related to the language of the Babylonian Talmud. There is archaeological evidence that attests to the Mandaean presence in pre-Islamic Iraq.[14][15] The Mandaean religion prohibits the practice of circumcision. Some scholars, including Kurt Rudolph connect the early Mandaeans
Mandaeans
with the Jewish
Jewish
sect of the Nasoraeans.[15] It appears that Mani, the founder of Manichaeism, was partly influenced by the Mandaeans. Early Persian periods[edit] A number of ancient Aramaic
Aramaic
inscriptions dating back to the 2nd century CE were uncovered in Elymais. Although the letters appear quite similar to the Mandaean ones, it is doubtful whether the inhabitants of Elymais
Elymais
were Mandaeans.[16] Under Parthian and early Sasanian rule, foreign religions were tolerated. The situation changed by the ascension of Bahram I
Bahram I
in 273, who under the influence of the zealous Zoroastrian high priest Kartir
Kartir
persecuted all non-Zoroastrian religions. It is thought that this persecution encouraged the consolidation of Mandaean religious literature.[16] The persecutions instigated by Kartir
Kartir
seems to temporarily erase Mandaeans
Mandaeans
from recorded history. Traces of their presence can still however be found in the so-called Mandaean magical bowls and lead strips which were produced from the 3rd to the 7th centuries.[17] Islamic Caliphates[edit] The Mandaeans
Mandaeans
re-appear at the beginning of the Muslim
Muslim
conquest of Mesopotamia, when their "head of the people" Anush son of Danqa appears before Muslim
Muslim
authorities showing them a copy of the Ginza Rabba, the Mandaean holy book, and proclaiming the chief Mandaean prophet to be John the Baptist, who is also mentioned in the Quran. The connection with the Quranic Sabians
Sabians
provided them acknowledgement as People of the Book, a legal minority religion within the Muslim Empire. They appear to have flourished during the early Islamic period, as attested by the voluminous expansion of Mandaic literature and canons. Tib near Wasit
Wasit
is particularly noted as an important scribal centre.[17] Yaqut al-Hamawi describes Tib as a town inhabited by Nabatean
Nabatean
(i.e. Aramaic
Aramaic
speaking) Sabians
Sabians
who consider themselves to be descendants of Seth
Seth
son of Adam.[17] The status of the Mandaeans
Mandaeans
became an issue for the Abbasid
Abbasid
al-Qahir Billah. To avoid further investigation by the authorities, the Mandaeans
Mandaeans
paid a bribe of 50,000 dinars and were left alone. It appears that the Mandaeans
Mandaeans
were even exempt from paying the Jizya, otherwise imposed upon non-Muslims.[17] Late Persian and Ottoman periods[edit] Early contact with Europeans
Europeans
came about in the mid-16th century, when Portuguese missionaries encountered Mandaeans
Mandaeans
in Southern Iraq
Iraq
and controversially designated them "Christians of St. John". In the next centuries Europeans
Europeans
became more acquainted with the Mandaeans
Mandaeans
and their religion.[17] The Mandaeans
Mandaeans
suffered persecution under the Qajar
Qajar
rule in the 1780s. The dwindling community was threatened with complete annihilation, when a cholera epidemic broke out in Shushtar
Shushtar
and half of its inhabitants died. The entire Mandaean priesthood perished and Mandeism was restored due only to the efforts of few learned men such as Yahia Bihram.[18] Another danger threatened the community in 1870, when the local governor of Shushtar
Shushtar
massacred the Mandaeans
Mandaeans
against the will of the Shah.[18] As a result of these events the Mandaeans
Mandaeans
retired to the more inaccessible Central Marshes
Central Marshes
of Iraq. Modern Iraq
Iraq
and Iran[edit] Following the First World War, the Mandaeans
Mandaeans
were still largely living in rural areas in the lower parts of British protected Iraq
Iraq
and Iran. Owing to the rise of Arab nationalism, Mandaeans
Mandaeans
were Arabised at an accelerated rate, especially during the 1950s and '60s. The Mandaeans were also forced to abandon their stands on the cutting of hair and forced military service, which are strictly prohibited in Mandaenism.[19] The 2003 Iraq
Iraq
War brought more troubles to the Mandaeans, as the security situation deteriorated. Many members of the Mandaean community, who were known as goldsmiths, were targeted by criminal gangs for ransoms. The rise of Islamic Extremism
Islamic Extremism
forced thousands to flee the country, after they were given the choice of conversion or death.[20] It is estimated that around 90% of Iraqi Mandaeans
Mandaeans
were either killed or have fled after the American-led invasion.[20] The Mandaeans
Mandaeans
of Iran
Iran
lived chiefly in Ahvaz, Iranian Khuzestan, but have moved as a result of the Iraq- Iran
Iran
War to other cities such as Tehran, Karaj
Karaj
and Shiraz. The Mandaeans, who were traditionally considered as People of the Book (members of a protected religion under Islamic rule) lost this status after the Islamic Revolution. Local authorities in Iranian Islamic Republic are known to encourage harassment and persecution of the Mandaeans.[21] Population[edit]

Mandaean house of worship in Nasiriya, southern Iraq, 2016

Mandaeans
Mandaeans
in Iraq[edit] Further information: Iraqi minorities § Mandaeans Pre- Iraq
Iraq
War, The Iraqi Mandaean community was centered in Baghdad. The Mandeans originate, however, from southern Iraq
Iraq
in cities like Nasiriyah. Many also live across the border in Southwestern Iran
Iran
in the cities of Ahvaz
Ahvaz
and Khorramshahr.[22] Mandaean emigration from Iraq
Iraq
began during Saddam Hussein's rule, but accelerated greatly after the American-led invasion and subsequent occupation.[23] Since the invasion Mandaeans, like other Iraqi ethno-religious minorities (such as Assyrians, Armenians, Yazidi, Roma and Shabaks), have been subjected to violence, including murders, kidnappings, rapes, evictions, and forced conversions.[23][24] Mandaeans, like many other Iraqis, have also been targeted for kidnapping since many worked as goldsmiths.[23] Mandaeism
Mandaeism
is pacifistic and forbids its adherents from carrying weapons.[23][25] Many Iraqi Mandaeans
Mandaeans
have fled the country in the face of this violence, and the Mandaean community in Iraq
Iraq
faces extinction.[26][27] Out of the over 60,000 Mandaeans
Mandaeans
in Iraq
Iraq
in the early 1990s, fewer than 5,000 to 10,000 remain there; as of early 2007, more than 80% of Iraqi Mandaeans
Mandaeans
were refugees in Syria
Syria
and Jordan
Jordan
as a result of the Iraq
Iraq
War. [28] Iranian Mandaeans[edit] See also: Ethnicities in Iran
Iran
§ Iranian Mandaeans The number of Iranian Mandaeans
Mandaeans
is a matter of dispute. In 2009, there were an estimated 5,000 and 10,000 Mandaeans
Mandaeans
in Iran, according to the Associated Press.[4] Whereas Alarabiya has put the number of Iranian Mandaeans
Mandaeans
as high as 60,000 in 2011.[29] Until the Iranian Revolution, Mandaeans
Mandaeans
had mainly been concentrated in the Khuzestan province, where the community used to exist by side with the local Arab population. They had mainly been practising the profession of goldsmith, passing it from generation to generation.[29] After the fall of the shah, its members faced increased religious discrimination, and many sought a new home in Europe and the Americas. In Iran, the Gozinesh Law (passed in 1985) has the effect of prohibiting Mandaeans
Mandaeans
from fully participating in civil life. This law and other gozinesh provisions make access to employment, education, and a range of other areas conditional upon a rigorous ideological screening, the principal prerequisite for which is devotion to the tenets of Islam.[30] These laws are regularly applied to discriminate against religious and ethnic groups that are not officially recognized, such as the Mandaeans, Ahl-e Haq, and Baha'i.[31] In 2002 the US State Department
US State Department
granted Iranian Mandaeans
Mandaeans
protective refugee status; since then roughly 1,000 have emigrated to the US,[4] now residing in cities such as San Antonio, Texas.[32] On the other hand, the Mandaean community in Iran
Iran
has increased over the last decade, because of the exodus from Iraq
Iraq
of the main Mandaean community, which used to be 60,000–70,000 strong. Other countries in the Middle East[edit] Following the Iraq
Iraq
War, the Mandaean community dispersed throughout the Middle East. Living as refugees the Mandaeans
Mandaeans
in Jordan
Jordan
number 49 families,[1] while in Syria
Syria
there are as many as 1,250 families.[1] Diaspora[edit] There are small Mandaean diaspora populations in Sweden
Sweden
(c. 7,000), Australia
Australia
(c. 3,500 as of 2006), the USA (c. 2,500), the UK (c. 1,000), and Canada.[26][33][34][35][36][37] Sweden
Sweden
became a popular destination because a Mandaean community existed there before the war and the Swedish government has a liberal asylum policy toward Iraqis. Of the 7000 Mandaeans
Mandaeans
in Sweden, 1,500 live in Södertälje.[33][38] The scattered nature of the Mandaean diaspora has raised fears among Mandaeans
Mandaeans
for the religion's survival. Mandaeism
Mandaeism
has no provision for conversion, and the religious status of Mandaeans
Mandaeans
who marry outside the faith and their children is disputed.[4][24] The status of the Mandaeans
Mandaeans
has prompted a number of American intellectuals and civil rights activists to call upon the U.S. government to extend refugee status to the community. In 2007, The New York Times ran an op-ed piece in which Swarthmore professor Nathaniel Deutsch called for the Bush administration to take immediate action to preserve the community.[39] Iraqi Mandaeans
Mandaeans
were given refugee status by the US State Department
US State Department
in 2007. Since then more than 2500 have entered the US, many settling in Worcester, Massachusetts.[4][40] Religion[edit]

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Mandaeans
Mandaeans
are a closed ethno-religious community, practicing Mandaeism, which is a Gnostic
Gnostic
religion[41]:4[42]:4 ( Aramaic
Aramaic
manda means "knowledge," as does Greek gnosis) with a strongly dualistic worldview. Its adherents revere Adam, Abel, Seth, Enosh, Noah, Shem, Aram and especially John the Baptist.[43][44] The Mandaeans
Mandaeans
group existence into two main categories: light and dark. They have a dualistic view of life, which encompasses both good and evil; all good is thought to have come from the World of Light (i.e. lightworld) and all evil is considered to be a product of the World of Darkness. In relation to the body–mind dualism coined by Descartes, Mandaeans
Mandaeans
consider the body, and all material, worldly things, to have come from the Dark, while the soul (sometimes referred to as the mind) is a product of the lightworld. Mandaeans
Mandaeans
believe the World of Light is ruled by a heavenly being, known by many names, such as “Life,” “Lord of Greatness,” “Great Mind,” or “King of Light” (Rudolph 1983). This being is so great, vast, and incomprehensible that there are no words to fully depict how awesome Life is. It is believed that an innumerable number of beings, manifested from the light, surround Life and perform cultic acts of worship to praise and honor this great being (1983). They inhabit worlds separate from the lightworld and are commonly referred to as emanations from First Life; their names include Second, Third, and Fourth Life (i.e. Yōšamin, Abathur, and Ptahil ) (1983). The Lord of Darkness is the ruler of the World of Darkness and was formed from dark waters representing chaos (1983). A main defender of the darkworld is a giant monster, or dragon, with the name “Ur;” an evil, female ruler also inhabits the darkworld, known as “Ruha” (1983). The Mandaeans
Mandaeans
believe these malevolent rulers created demonic offspring who consider themselves the owners of the Seven (planets) and Twelve (Zodiac signs) (1983). According to Mandaean beliefs, the world (i.e. Earth) is a mixture of light and dark created by the demiurge (Ptahil) with help from dark powers, such as Ruha, the Seven, and the Twelve (1983). Adam’s body (i.e. believed to be the first human created by God in Christian tradition) was fashioned by these dark beings; however, his “soul” (or mind) was a direct creation from the Light. Therefore, many Mandaeans
Mandaeans
believe the human soul is capable of salvation because it originates from the lightworld. The soul, sometimes referred to as the “inner Adam” or “hidden Adam,” is in dire need of being rescued from the Dark, so it may ascend into the heavenly realm of the lightworld (1983). Baptisms are a central theme in Mandaeanism, believed to be necessary for the redemption of the soul. Mandaeans
Mandaeans
do not perform a single baptism, as in religions such as Christianity; rather, they view baptisms as a ritualistic act capable of bringing the soul closer to salvation (McGrath 2015). Therefore, Mandaeans
Mandaeans
get baptized numerous times during their lives. John the Baptist
John the Baptist
is a key figure for the Mandaeans; they even consider him to have been a Mandaean himself (2015). John is referred to as a “disciple” or “priest,” most known for the countless number of baptisms he performed, which helped close the immense gap between the soul and salvation (Rudolf 1983). Today, many Mandaeans
Mandaeans
are refugees and are not willing to accept converts into their religion (McGrath 2015). Sunday, as in other religious traditions, is their holy day, centered largely on mythical beliefs. Some Mandaeans
Mandaeans
consider Jesus an “apostate Mandaean” (McGrath 2015). Language[edit] Main article: Mandaic language The Mandaic language is an eastern dialect of Aramaic, although its alphabet is unique. It has mainly survived as a liturgical language.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Sabians Zoroastrians

References[edit]

^ a b c d e Who Cares for the MANDAEANS?, Australian Islamist Monitor ^ Iraqi minority group needs U.S. attention, Kai Thaler,Yale Daily News, March 9, 2007. ^ "Disciples of John the Baptist
John the Baptist
also flee ISIS - Inter Press Service".  ^ a b c d e f Contrera, Russell. "Saving the people, killing the faith – Holland, MI". The Holland Sentinel. Archived from the original on 2012-03-06. Retrieved 2011-12-17.  ^ Ekman, Ivar: An exodus to Sweden
Sweden
from Iraq
Iraq
for ethnic Mandaeans ^ Siobhan Hegarty (21 July 2017). "Meet the Mandaeans: Australian followers of John the Baptist
John the Baptist
celebrate new year". ABC. Retrieved 22 July 2017.  ^ a b The Mandaean Associations Union:Mandaean Human Rights Annual Report November 2009 ^ Hinchey, Rebecca: MANDAENS, a unique culture ^ Crawford, Angus: Mandaeans – a threatened religion ^ Verschiedene Gemeinschaften / neuere religiöse Bewegungen, in: Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und InformationsdienstReligionswissenschaftliche Medien- und Informationsdienst e. V. (Abbreviation: REMID), Retrieved 9 October 2016 ^ Schou, Kim and Højland, Marie-Louise: Hvem er mandæerne? (Danish), religion.dk ^ Society for Threatened Peoples:Leader of the world's Mandaeans
Mandaeans
asks for help[permanent dead link] ^ Rudolph 1978, p. 5 ^ Deutsch 1999, p. 4 ^ a b Rudolph 1978, p. 4 ^ a b Buckley 2002, p. 4 ^ a b c d e Buckley 2002, p. 5 ^ a b Buckley 2002, p. 6 ^ Mandaean Human Rights Group 2008, p. 5 ^ a b Zurutuza, Karlos (29 January 2012). "The Ancient Wither in New Iraq". IPS. Retrieved June 5, 2012.  ^ Buckley, Jorunn Jacobsen. "Mandaean Community in Iran". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved June 5, 2012.  ^ "MANDAEANS iv. COMMUNITY IN IRAN". Encyclopaedia Iranica.  ^ a b c d Ekman, Ivar (April 9, 2007). "An exodus to Sweden
Sweden
from Iraq for ethnic Mandaeans". The New York Times. Retrieved May 12, 2010.  ^ a b Newmarker, Chris (February 10, 2007). "Survival of Ancient Faith Threatened by Fighting in Iraq". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 12, 2010.  ^ Lupieri (2002), p. 91. ^ a b Iraq's Mandaeans
Mandaeans
'face extinction', Angus Crawford, BBC, March 4, 2007. ^ Genocide Watch: Mandaeans
Mandaeans
of Iraq
Iraq
Archived May 8, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Deutsch, Nathaniel (October 6, 2007). "Save the Gnostics". The New York Times.  ^ a b " Iran
Iran
Mandaeans
Mandaeans
in exile following persecution". Alarabiya.net. 2011-12-06. Retrieved 2011-12-17.  ^ Ideological Screening (ROOZ :: English) ^ Annual Report for Iran
Iran
Archived 2011-02-18 at the Wayback Machine., 2005, Amnesty International. ^ Updated 33 minutes ago 12/17/2011 8:29:41 AM +00:00 (2009-01-07). "Ancient sect fights to stay alive in U.S. - US news – Faith – msnbc.com". MSNBC. Retrieved 2011-12-17.  ^ a b "Morgondopp som ger gruppen nytt hopp" (in Swedish).  ^ Survival of Ancient Faith Threatened by Fighting in Iraq, Chris Newmarker, Associated Press. February 10, 2007. ^ The Plight of Iraq's Mandeans Archived 2011-06-29 at the Wayback Machine., John Bolender. Counterpunch.org, January 8/9, 2005. ^ An exodus to Sweden
Sweden
from Iraq
Iraq
for ethnic Mandaeans, Ivar Ekman. International Herald Tribune, April 9, 2007. ^ Mandaeans
Mandaeans
persecuted in Iraq. ABC Radio National
ABC Radio National
(Australia), June 7, 2006. ^ Ekman, Ivar (April 9, 2007). "An exodus to Sweden
Sweden
from Iraq
Iraq
for ethnic Mandaeans". The New York Times. Retrieved May 12, 2010.  ^ "Save the Gnostics" by Nathaniel Deutsch, October 6, 2007, New York Times. ^ "These Iraqi immigrants revere John the Baptist, but they're not Christians". Public Radio International. Retrieved 2017-12-15.  ^ Buckley, Jorunn Jacobsen (2002), The Mandaeans: ancient texts and modern people (PDF), Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195153859  ^ Buckley, Jorunn Jacobsen (2002), The Mandaeans: ancient texts and modern people, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195153859  ^ Mandaeism
Mandaeism
– Page 15 Kurt Rudolph – 1978 This tradition can be explained by an anti-Christian concept, which is also found in Mandaeism, but, according to several scholars, it contains scarcely any traditions of historical events. Because of the strong dualism in Mandaeism
Mandaeism
... ^ The Light and the Dark: Dualism in ancient Iran, India, and China Petrus Franciscus Maria Fontaine - 1990 "Although it shows Jewish
Jewish
and Christian influences, Mandaeism
Mandaeism
was hostile to Judaism and Christianity. Mandaeans
Mandaeans
spoke an East- Aramaic
Aramaic
language in which 'manda' means 'knowledge'; this already is sufficient proof of the connection of Mandaeism
Mandaeism
with the Gnosis...

Bibliography[edit]

Jorunn Jacobsen Buckley, The Mandaeans: Ancient Texts and Modern People, New York: Oxford University Press 2002. Jorunn Jacobsen Buckley, The Great Stem of Souls: Reconstruction Mandaean History, Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2005. Nathaniel Deutsch, Guardians of the Gate: Angelic Vice Regency in Late Antiquity, Leiden: Brill 1999. Ethel Stefana Drower, The Mandaeans
Mandaeans
of Iraq
Iraq
and Iran
Iran
(1937), reprint: Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2002. Ethel Stefana Drower, The Secret Adam: A Study of Nasoraean Gnosis, Oxford: Clarendon, 1960. Edmondo Lupieri, The Mandaeans: The Last Gnostics, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2002. Kurt Rudolph, Mandaeism, Volume 21 of "Iconography of religions", Leiden: Brill 1978. Kurt Rudolph, Gnosis: The Nature and History of Gnosticism, San Francisco: Harper, 1987 pp. 343–366. Andrew Phillip Smith, John the Baptist
John the Baptist
and the Last Gnostics: The Secret History of the Mandaeans, London: Watkins Publishing 2016. Edwin M. Yamauchi, Mandaic Incantation Texts (1967), reprint Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2005. Edwin M. Yamauchi, Gnostic
Gnostic
Ethics and Mandaean Origins (1970), reprint Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2004.

External links[edit]

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Mandaeanunion.org – Mandaean Associations Union Mandaic.org – resources of the language of the Mandaeans Mandaean Scriptures and Fragments Mandaean Human Rights Group (2008), Mandaean Human Rights Annual Report (PDF), AINA  James McGrath on The Mandaeans
Mandaeans
and Mandaean Gnosticism (2015)

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History

Ancient

Sumer Akkadian Empire Babylonia Assyria Neo-Assyrian Empire Neo-Babylonian Empire Achaemenid Assyria Seleucid Babylonia Parthian Babylonia Sassanid Asorestan

638–1958

Muslim
Muslim
conquest of Persia Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphate Buyid dynasty Kara Koyunlu Ak Koyunlu Safavids Ottoman Iraq (Mamluk dynasty) Mandatory Iraq Kingdom of Iraq Arab Federation

Republic

1958–68 1968–2003 2003–11 2011–present

Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq
Iraq
Region (National Command) Saddam Hussein Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War Invasion of Kuwait Gulf War Sanctions Iraq
Iraq
War

U.S. invasion Iraqi insurgency U.S. troop withdrawal

Insurgency (2011–2013) Civil War (2014–present)

Mosul liberation

Geography

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Politics

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Human rights

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in ISIL-controlled territory

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