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The Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
or the Moluccas (/məˈlʌkəz/) are an archipelago in eastern Indonesia. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera Plate within the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. Geographically they are located east of Sulawesi, west of New Guinea, and north and east of Timor. The islands were known as the Spice Islands because of the nutmeg, mace and cloves that were exclusively found there, the presence of which sparked colonial interest from Europe in the sixteenth century.[2] The Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
formed a single province from Indonesian independence until 1999, when it was split into two provinces. A new province, North Maluku, incorporates the area between Morotai
Morotai
and Sula, with the arc of islands from Buru
Buru
and Seram
Seram
to Wetar
Wetar
remaining within the existing Maluku Province. North Maluku
North Maluku
is predominantly Muslim, and its capital is Sofifi
Sofifi
on Halmahera
Halmahera
island. Maluku province has a larger Christian population, and its capital is Ambon. Though originally Melanesian,[3] many island populations, especially in the Banda Islands, were massacred in the seventeenth century during the spice wars. A second influx of immigrants primarily from Java began in the early twentieth century under the Dutch and continues in the Indonesian era. Between 1999 and 2002, conflict between Muslims and Christians killed thousands and displaced half a million people.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Administrative divisions 3 History

3.1 Early history 3.2 Portuguese 3.3 Dutch 3.4 After Indonesian independence 3.5 1999–2003 inter-communal conflict

4 Geology and geography 5 Biota and environment 6 Climate 7 Demographics 8 Economy 9 See also 10 References

10.1 Notes 10.2 General

11 Further reading 12 External links

Etymology[edit] The name Maluku is thought to have been derived from the term used by Arab traders for the region, Jazirat al-Muluk ("the island of the kings"), from the word malik (pl. moluk).[4] However, since the name itself has been mentioned in a fourteenth-century Majapahit eulogy, Nagarakretagama, that predates the arrival of Islam
Islam
in Maluku at the late fifteenth century, other sources claim that the name comes from a local language with the meaning "the head of a bull" or "the head of something large".[5]

Administrative divisions[edit] The Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
were a single province from Indonesian independence until 1999 when they were split into North Maluku
North Maluku
and Maluku. North Maluku
North Maluku
province includes Ternate
Ternate
(the former site of the provincial capital), Tidore, Bacan
Bacan
and Halmahera
Halmahera
(the largest of the Maluku Islands).[6]

History[edit] Map by Willem Blaeu
Willem Blaeu
(1630) Early history[edit] Arab merchants began to arrive in the fourteenth century, bringing Islam. The conversion to Islam
Islam
occurred in many islands[citation needed], especially in the centres of trade, while aboriginal animism persisted in the hinterlands and more isolated islands. Archaeological
Archaeological
evidence here relies largely on the occurrence of pigs' teeth, as evidence of pork eating or abstinence therefrom.[7]

Portuguese[edit] Drawing of Ternate
Ternate
by a presumably Dutch artist. Inset shows Saint John Baptist Portuguese-built fort on the island The most significant lasting effects of the Portuguese presence was the disruption and reorganization of the Southeast Asian trade, and in eastern Indonesia—including Maluku—the introduction of Christianity.[8] The Portuguese had conquered the city-state of Malacca
Malacca
in the early sixteenth century and their influence was most strongly felt in Maluku and other parts of eastern Indonesia.[4] After the Portuguese annexed Malacca
Malacca
in August 1511, one Portuguese diary noted 'it is thirty years since they became Moors'.[9] Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
learned of the route to the Banda Islands
Banda Islands
and other 'Spice Islands', and sent an exploratory expedition of three vessels under the command of António de Abreu, Simão Afonso Bisigudo and Francisco Serrão.[10] On the return trip, Francisco Serrão was shipwrecked at Hitu island (northern Ambon) in 1512. There he established ties with the local ruler who was impressed with his martial skills. The rulers of the competing island states of Ternate and Tidore
Tidore
also sought Portuguese assistance and the newcomers were welcomed in the area as buyers of supplies and spices during a lull in the regional trade due to the temporary disruption of Javanese and Malay sailings to the area following the 1511 conflict in Malacca. The spice trade soon revived but the Portuguese would not be able to fully monopolize nor disrupt this trade.[4] Allying himself with Ternate's ruler, Serrão constructed a fortress on that tiny island and served as the head of a mercenary band of Portuguese seamen under the service of one of the two local feuding sultans who controlled most of the spice trade. Both Serrão and Ferdinand Magellan, however, perished before they could meet one another.[4] The Portuguese first landed in Ambon in 1513, but it only became the new centre for their activities in Maluku following the expulsion from Ternate. European power in the region was weak and Ternate
Ternate
became an expanding, fiercely Islamic and anti-European state under the rule of Sultan Baab Ullah (r. 1570–1583) and his son Sultan Said.[11] Following Portuguese missionary work, there have been large Christian communities in eastern Indonesia
Indonesia
through to contemporary times, which has contributed to a sense of shared interest with Europeans, particularly among the Ambonese.[11]

Fort Duurstede
Fort Duurstede
in Saparua, 1846 Dutch[edit] Main articles: Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
and Dutch East Indies The Dutch arrived in 1599 and competed with the Portuguese in the area for trade.[12]

Tanimbar
Tanimbar
warriors After Indonesian independence[edit] With the declaration of a single republic of Indonesia
Indonesia
in 1950 to replace the federal state, a Republic of South Maluku
Republic of South Maluku
(Republik Maluku Selatan, RMS) was declared and attempted to secede.[citation needed] and led by Chris Soumokil (former Supreme Prosecutor of the Eastern Indonesia
Indonesia
state) and supported by the Moluccan members of the Netherlands
Netherlands
special troops. This movement was defeated by the Indonesian army and by special agreement with the Netherlands
Netherlands
the troops were transferred to the Netherlands.[citation needed] Maluku is one of the first provinces of Indonesia, proclaimed in 1945 until 1999, when the Maluku Utara and Halmahera
Halmahera
Tengah Regencies were split off as a separate province of North Maluku. Its capital used to be Ternate, on a small island to the west of the large island of Halmahera, but has been moved to Sofifi
Sofifi
on Halmahera
Halmahera
itself. The capital of the remaining part of Maluku province remains at Ambon.[citation needed]

1999–2003 inter-communal conflict[edit] Main article: Maluku sectarian conflict Religious conflict erupted across the islands in January 1999. The subsequent 18 months were characterized by fighting between largely local groups of Muslims and Christians, the destruction of thousands of houses, the displacement of approximately 500,000 people, the loss of thousands of lives, and the segregation of Muslims and Christians.[13]

Geology and geography[edit] Map of Wallacea; upper right corner facing North. The red line denotes the western border of Wallacea. The eastern border corresponds to the light Australia- New Guinea
New Guinea
shelf. The Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
have a total area of 850,000 km2, 90% of which is sea.[14] There are an estimated 1027 islands.[15] The largest two islands, Halmahera
Halmahera
and Seram
Seram
are sparsely populated, while the most developed, Ambon and Ternate
Ternate
are small.[15] The majority of the islands are forested and mountainous. The Tanimbar Islands are dry and hilly, while the Aru Islands are flat and swampy. Mount Binaya
Mount Binaya
(3027 m) on Seram
Seram
is the highest mountain. A number of islands, such as Ternate
Ternate
(1721 m) and the TNS islands, are volcanoes emerging from the sea with villages sited around their coasts. There have been over 70 serious volcanic eruptions in the last 500 years and earthquakes are common.[15]

Ternate
Ternate
Island, as seen from Halmahera The geology of the Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
share much similar history, characteristics and processes with the neighbouring Nusa Tenggara region. There is a long history of geological study of these regions since Indonesian colonial times; however, the geological formation and progression is not fully understood, and theories of the island's geological evolution have changed extensively in recent decades.[16] The Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
comprise some of the most geologically complex and active regions in the world,[17] resulting from their position at the meeting point of four geological plates and two continental blocks.

Biota and environment[edit] Biogeographically, all of the islands apart from the Aru group lie in Wallacea, the region between the Sunda Shelf
Sunda Shelf
(part of the Asia block), and the Arafura Shelf (part of the Australian block). More specifically, they lie between Weber's Line and Lydekker's Line, and thus have a fauna that is rather more Australasian than Asian. Malukan biodiversity and its distribution are affected by various tectonic activities; most of the islands are geologically young, being from 1 million to 15 million years old, and have never been attached to the larger landmasses. The Maluku islands differ from other areas in Indonesia; they contain some of the country's smallest islands, coral island reefs scattered through some of the deepest seas in the world, and no large islands such as Java
Java
or Sumatra. Flora and fauna immigration between islands is thus restricted, leading to a high rate of endemic biota evolving.[16] The ecology of the Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
has fascinated naturalists for centuries; Alfred Wallace's book, The Malay Archipelago
Archipelago
was the first significant study of the area's natural history, and remains an important resource for studying Indonesian biodiversity. Maluku is the subject of two major historical works of natural history by Georg Eberhard Rumphius: the Herbarium Amboinense and the Amboinsche Rariteitkamer.[18] Rainforest covered most of northern and central Maluku, which, on the smaller islands has been replaced by plantations, including the region's endemic cloves and nutmeg. The Tanimbar
Tanimbar
Islands and other southeastern islands are arid and sparsely vegetated, much like nearby Timor.[15] In 1997 the Manusela National Park, and in 2004, the Aketajawe-Lolobata National Park, were established, for the protection of endangered species.[citation needed]

The Malay Archipelago
Archipelago
by Alfred Wallace
Alfred Wallace
(1869), king and twelve-wired birds-of paradise. Nocturnal marsupials, such as cuscus and bandicoots, make up the majority of the mammal species, and introduced mammals include Malayan civets and wild pigs.[15] Bird species include approximately 100 endemics with the greatest variety on the large islands of Halmahera
Halmahera
and Seram. North Maluku
North Maluku
has two species of endemic birds of paradise.[15] Uniquely among the Maluku Islands, the Aru Islands have a purely Papuan fauna including kangaroos, cassowaries, and birds of paradise.[15] While many ecological problems affect both small islands and large landmasses, small islands suffer their particular problems. Development pressures on small islands are increasing, although their effects are not always anticipated. Although Indonesia
Indonesia
is richly endowed with natural resources, the resources of the small islands of Maluku are limited and specialised; furthermore, human resources in particular are limited.[19] General observations[20] about small islands that can be applied to the Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
include:[19]

a higher proportion of the landmass will be affected by volcanic activity, earthquakes, landslips, and cyclone damage; Climates are more likely to be maritime influenced; Catchment areas are smaller and degree of erosion higher; A higher proportion of the landmass is made up of coastal areas; A higher degree of environmental specialisation, including a higher proportion of endemic species in an overall depauperate community; Societies may retain a strong sense of culture having developed in relative isolation; Small island populations are more likely to be affected by economic migration. Climate[edit] Central and southern Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
experience the dry monsoon between October to March and the wet monsoon from May to August, which is the reverse of the rest of Indonesia. The dry monsoon's average maximum temperature is 30 °C while the wet's average maximum is 23 °C. Northern Maluku has its wet monsoon from December to March in line with the rest of Indonesia. Each island group have their own climatic variations, and the larger islands tend to have drier coastal lowlands and their mountainous hinterlands are wetter.[15]

Demographics[edit] Main article: Moluccans People of Tidore
Tidore
during visit by hospital ship USNS Mercy (T-AH-19) Maluku's population is about 2 million, less than 1% of Indonesia's population.[15] Over 130 languages were once spoken across the islands; however many have now switched to the creoles of Ternate
Ternate
Malay and Ambonese Malay, the lingua franca of northern and southern Maluku respectively.[15] A long history of trade and seafaring has resulted in a high degree of mixed ancestry in Malukans.[15] Austronesian peoples
Austronesian peoples
added to the native Melanesian
Melanesian
population around 2000 BCE.[21] Melanesian
Melanesian
features are strongest in the islands of Kei and Aru and amongst the interior people of the islands Seram
Seram
and Buru. Later added to this Austronesian- Melanesian
Melanesian
mix were some Indian and Arab strain. More recent arrivals include Bugis
Bugis
trader settlers from Sulawesi
Sulawesi
and Javanese transmigrants.[15]

Economy[edit] Cloves
Cloves
and nutmeg are still cultivated, as are cocoa, coffee and fruit. Fishing is a big industry across the islands but particularly around Halmahera
Halmahera
and Bacan. The Aru Islands produce pearls, and Seram exports lobsters. Logging is a significant industry on the larger islands with Seram
Seram
producing ironwood and teak and ebony are produced on Buru.[15]

See also[edit] Maluku culture List of Maluku Governors

Indonesia
Indonesia
portal References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ Statistics Indonesia
Indonesia
(November 2015). "Result of the 2015 Intercensal Population Census" (PDF). Retrieved 10 June 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ "Welcome to Maluku". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 11 April 2017.

^ IRJA.org Archived 14 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine

^ a b c d Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia
Indonesia
Since c.1300, second edition. London: MacMillan. p. 24. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.

^ Andaya, Leonard Y. (1993). The World of Maluku: Eastern Indonesia
Indonesia
in the Early Modern Period. Honolulu: Univ. of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1490-8.

^ Monk, K.A.; Fretes, Y.; Reksodiharjo-Lilley, G. (1996). The Ecology of Nusa Tenggara and Maluku. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. p. 7. ISBN 962-593-076-0.

^ Lape, PV. (2000). Contact and Colonialism in the Banda Islands, Maluku, Indonesia; Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin 20 (Melaka Papers, Vol.4); "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 September 2009. Retrieved 23 February 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link), p. 2–3

^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia
Indonesia
Since c.1300, second edition. London: MacMillan. p. 26. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.

^ Lach, DF. (1994) Asia in the Making of Europe: The Century of Discovery (Vol 1), Chicago University Press

^ E. C. Abendanon and E. Heawood (December 1919). "Missing Links in the Development of the Ancient Portuguese Cartography of the Netherlands
Netherlands
East Indian Archipelago". The Geographical Journal. Blackwell Publishing. 54 (6): 347–355. doi:10.2307/1779411. JSTOR 1779411.

^ a b Ricklefs, M. C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia
Indonesia
Since c.1300, second edition. London: MacMillan. p. 25. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.

^ "Moluccas islands, Indonesia". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 19 December 2018.

^ "Troubled history of the Moluccas". BBC News. 26 June 2000. Retrieved 17 May 2007.

^ Monk, K.A.; Fretes, Y.; Reksodiharjo-Lilley, G. (1996). The Ecology of Nusa Tenggara and Maluku. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. p. 9. ISBN 962-593-076-0.

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Witton, Patrick (2003). Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely Planet. p. 818. ISBN 1-74059-154-2.

^ a b Monk (1996), page 9

^ Monk, K.A.; Fretes, Y.; Reksodiharjo-Lilley, G. (1996). The Ecology of Nusa Tenggara and Maluku. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. p. 9. ISBN 962-593-076-0.

^ Monk, K.A.; Fretes, Y.; Reksodiharjo-Lilley, G. (1996). The Ecology of Nusa Tenggara and Maluku. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. p. 4. ISBN 962-593-076-0.

^ a b Monk, K.A.; Fretes, Y.; Reksodiharjo-Lilley, G. (1996). The Ecology of Nusa Tenggara and Maluku. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. p. 1. ISBN 962-593-076-0.

^ Beller, W., P. d'Ayala, and P. Hein. 1990. Sustainable development and environmental management of small islands. Paris and New Jersey: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation and Parthenon Publishing Group Inc.; Hess, A, 1990. Overview: sustainable development and environmental management of small islands. In Sustainable development and environmental management of small islands. eds W. Beller, P. d'Ayala, and P. Hein, Paris and New Jersey: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation and Parthenon Publishing Group Inc. (both cited in Monk)

^ Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. pp. 5–7. ISBN 0-300-10518-5.

General[edit] Andaya, Leonard Y. (1993). The World of Maluku: Eastern Indonesia
Indonesia
in the Early Modern Period. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 0-8248-1490-8. Bellwood, Peter (1997). Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian archipelago. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 0-8248-1883-0. Donkin, R. A. (1997). Between East and West: The Moluccas and the Traffic in Spices
Spices
Up to the Arrival of Europeans. American Philosophical Society. ISBN 0-87169-248-1. Milton, Giles (1999). Nathaniel's Nutmeg. London: Sceptre. ISBN 978-0-340-69676-7. Monk, Kathryn A., Yance De Fretes, Gayatri Reksodiharjo-Lilley (1997). The Ecology of Nusa Tenggara and Maluku. Singapore: Periplus Press. ISBN 962-593-076-0. Van Oosterzee, Penny (1997). Where Worlds Collide: The Wallace Line. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-8497-9. Wallace, Alfred Russel (2000; originally published 1869). The Malay Archipelago. Singapore: Periplus Press. ISBN 962-593-645-9. Further reading[edit] George Miller (editor), To The Spice Islands And Beyond: Travels in Eastern Indonesia, Oxford University Press, 1996, Paperback, 310 pages, ISBN 967-65-3099-9 Severin, Tim The Spice Island Voyage: In Search of Wallace, Abacus, 1997, paperback, 302 pages, ISBN 0-349-11040-9 Bergreen, Laurence Over the Edge of the World, Morrow, 2003, paperback, 480 pages Muller, Dr. Kal Spice Islands: The Moluccas, Periplus Editions, 1990, paperback, 168 pages, ISBN 0-945971-07-9 External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Moluccas.

Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Moluccas" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. Deforestation in the Moluccas The Spanish presence in the Moluccas: Ternate
Ternate
and Tidore An interesting article linking British possession of Run, a Banda Island, with the history of New York Map of a Part of China, the Philippine Islands, the Isles of Sunda, the Moluccas, the Papuans from 1760 (in English) (in French) vte Islands of Maluku North Maluku
North Maluku
province Bacan Halmahera Kayoa Moti Makian Morotai Obi Sula Ternate Tidore Maluku province Ambelau Ambon Aru Boano Buru Babar Banda Damar Haruku Kai Kelang Leti Liran Manipa Manuk Moa Nila Nusa Laut Romang Saparua Seram Serua Tanimbar Tayandu Watubela Wetar

vteProvinces of IndonesiaCapital: JakartaSumatra  Aceh  Bangka Belitung Islands  Bengkulu  Jambi  Lampung  North Sumatra  Riau   Riau
Riau
Islands  South Sumatra  West Sumatra Java  Banten  Central Java  East Java  Jakarta  West Java  Yogyakarta Kalimantan  Central Kalimantan  East Kalimantan  North Kalimantan  South Kalimantan  West Kalimantan Lesser Sunda  Bali  East Nusa Tenggara  West Nusa Tenggara Sulawesi  Central Sulawesi  Gorontalo  North Sulawesi  Southeast Sulawesi  South Sulawesi  West Sulawesi Maluku  Maluku  North Maluku Papua  Papua  West Papua Lists by

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Category

vtePortuguese overseas empireNorth Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta
Ceuta
1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir) 1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah) 1471–1662 Tangier 1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida) 1487–16th century Ouadane
Ouadane
1488–1541 Safim (Safi) 1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir) 1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira) 1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima) 1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida) 1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour) 1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya) 1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim 1462–1975 Cape Verde 1470–1975 São Tomé1 1471–1975 Príncipe1 1474–1778 Annobón 1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko) 1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina) 1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast 1508–15472 Madagascar3 1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi
Malindi
1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique
Portuguese Mozambique
1502–1659 Saint Helena
Saint Helena
1503–1698 Zanzibar
Zanzibar
1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa) 1506–1511 Socotra
Socotra
1557–1578 Accra
Accra
1575–1975 Portuguese Angola 1588–1974 Cacheu4 1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor
Ziguinchor
1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá 1687–1974 Bissau4 18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa) 1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe 19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
from 1753.2 Or 1600.3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases.4 Part of Portuguese Guinea from 1879.5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas) 1507–1643 Sohar
Sohar
1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus) 1515–1648 Quriyat 1515–? Qalhat
Qalhat
1515–1650 Muscat 1515?–? Barka 1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah) 1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama) 1521–1529? Qatif 1521?–1551? Tarut Island 1550–1551 Qatif
Qatif
1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan
Khor Fakkan
1621?–? As Sib 1621–1622 Qeshm
Qeshm
1623–? Khasab
Khasab
1623–? Libedia 1624–? Kalba
Kalba
1624–? Madha
Madha
1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn
Dibba Al-Hisn
1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545 Laccadive Islands(Lakshadweep) 16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)  • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)  • 1502–1658 1659–1661 Quilon(Coulão / Kollam)  • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)  • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)  • 1510–1961 Goa
Goa
 • 1512–1525 1750 Calicut(Kozhikode)  • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)  • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)  • 1523–1662 Mylapore  • 1528–1666 Chittagong(Porto Grande De Bengala)  • 1531–1571 Chaul
Chaul
 • 1531–1571 Chalé  • 1534–1601 Salsette Island  • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)  • 1535 Ponnani
Ponnani
 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)  • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)  • 1540–1612 Surat
Surat
 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)  • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu  • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)  • 1579–1632Hugli  • 1598–1610Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam) 1518–1521 Maldives
Maldives
1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka) 1558–1573 Maldives 17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore 18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Malacca
[Malaysia] 1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]  • 1522–1575  Ternate  • 1576–1605  Ambon  • 1578–1650   Tidore
Tidore
1512–1665 Makassar 1557–1999 Macau [China] 1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan] 17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane
Coloane
 • 1851–1999 Taipa
Taipa
 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde 20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira
Madeira
1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland) 1500–1579? Labrador 1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil  • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil  • 1549–1572  Brazil  • 1572–1578  Bahia  • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro  • 1578–1607  Brazil  • 1621–1815  Brazil 1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão 1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento 18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão 1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro 1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay) 1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá) 1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Armorial of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Nusantara Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

vteDutch EmpireColonies and trading posts of the Dutch East India Company (1602–1798)Governorate General Batavia Governorates Ambon Banda Islands Cape Colony Celebes Ceylon Coromandel Formosa Malacca Moluccas Northeast coast of Java Directorates Bengal Persia Suratte Commandments Bantam Malabar West coast of Sumatra Residencies Bantam Banjarmasin Batavia Cheribon Malang Palembang Preanger Pontianak Opperhoofd settlements Myanmar Canton Dejima Mauritius Siam Timor Tonkin Colonies and trading posts of the Dutch West India Company (1621–1792)Colonies in the Americas Berbice 1 Brazil Cayenne Curaçao
Curaçao
and Dependencies Demerara Essequibo New Netherland Pomeroon Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
and Dependencies Surinam 2 Tobago Virgin Islands Trading posts in Africa Arguin Gold Coast Loango-Angola Senegambia Slave Coast

1 Governed by the Society of Berbice 2 Governed by the Society of Suriname Settlements of the Noordsche Compagnie
Noordsche Compagnie
(1614–1642)Settlements Jan Mayen Smeerenburg Colonies of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
(1815–1962)Until 1825 Bengal Coromandel Malacca Suratte Until 1853 Dejima Until 1872 Gold Coast Until 1945 Dutch East Indies Until 1954 Curaçao
Curaçao
and Dependencies 3 Surinam 3 Until 1962 New Guinea

3 Became constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; Suriname
Suriname
gained full independence in 1975, Curaçao
Curaçao
and Dependencies was renamed to the Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles, which was eventually dissolved in 2010. Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
(1954–present)Constituent countries Aruba Curaçao Netherlands Sint Maarten Special
Special
municipalities of the Netherlands Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius

Coordinates: 2°00′S 128°00′E / 2.000°S 128.000°E / -2.000; 128.000

Authority control GND: 4074944-7 LCCN: n79134162 MusicBrainz: 2d6d5eed-00bd-465c-a027-d5fed6afeaa7 NDL: 00629352 VIAF: 262243501 WorldCat Identities
WorldCat Identities
(via

.