The Info List - Maldives

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The Maldives
(/ˈmɒldiːvz/ or /ˈmɔːldaɪvz/ ( listen); Dhivehi: ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian island country, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea. It lies southwest of Sri Lanka and India. The chain of 26 atolls stretches from Ihavandhippolhu Atoll
in the north to the Addu City
Addu City
in the south. Comprising a territory spanning roughly 298 square kilometres (115 sq mi), the Maldives
is one of the world's most geographically dispersed countries, as well as the smallest Asian country by both land area and population, with around 427,756 inhabitants. Malé
is the capital and most populated city, traditionally called the "King's Island" for its central location.


1 Introduction 2 Toponymy 3 History

3.1 Ancient history and settlement 3.2 Buddhist period 3.3 Islamic period 3.4 Colonial period 3.5 Independence and republic 3.6 21st century

4 Geography

4.1 Protected areas of Maldives 4.2 Climate 4.3 Environmental issues 4.4 Marine ecosystem

5 Government

5.1 Law 5.2 Human rights 5.3 Foreign relations 5.4 Military 5.5 Administrative divisions

6 Economy

6.1 Tourism 6.2 Fishing industry

7 Demographics

7.1 Religion 7.2 Languages 7.3 Population by locality

8 Culture 9 Transportation 10 Education 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Introduction[edit] The Maldives
archipelago is located atop the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge, a vast submarine mountain range in the Indian Ocean, which also forms a terrestrial ecoregion, together with the Chagos and the Lakshadweep.[13] With an average ground-level elevation of 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in) above sea level,[14] it is the world's lowest country, with even its highest natural point being the lowest in the world, at 2.4 metres (7 ft 10 in).[14] Due to the consequent risks posed by rising sea-levels, the government pledged in 2009 to make the Maldives
a carbon-neutral country by 2019.[15][needs update] The Maldivian archipelago took to Islam
in the 12th century and consolidated as a sultanate, developing strong commercial and cultural ties with Asia
and Africa. From the mid 16th-century, the region came under the increasing influence of European colonial powers, with the Maldives
becoming a British protectorate in 1887. Independence from the United Kingdom was achieved in 1965 and a presidential republic was established in 1968 with an elected People's Majlis. The ensuing decades have been characterised by political instability, efforts at democratic reform,[16] and environmental challenges posed by climate change.[citation needed] The Maldives
is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). It is also a member of the United Nations, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, and the Non Aligned Movement. The World Bank
World Bank
classifies the Maldives
as having an upper middle income economy.[17] Fishing has historically been the dominant economic activity, and remains the largest sector by far, followed by the rapidly growing tourism industry. Along with Sri Lanka, it is one of only two South Asian countries rated "high" on the Human Development Index,[12] with its per capita income one of the highest among SAARC nations.[18] The Maldives
was a Commonwealth republic
Commonwealth republic
from July 1982 until its withdrawal from the Commonwealth in October 2016 in protest of international criticism of its records in relation to corruption and human rights. Toponymy[edit] See also: Names of Maldives The name "Maldives" may derive from the Tamil words maalai (garland / evening) and theevu (island),[19] or මාල දිවයින (Maala Divaina, "Necklace Islands") in Sinhala.[20] The Maldivian people are called Dhivehin. The word theevu (archaic heevu, related to Tamil தீவு, dheevu) means "island", and Dhives (Dhivehin) means "islanders" (i.e., Maldivians).[citation needed] The ancient Sri Lankan chronicle Mahawamsa
refers to an island called Mahiladiva ("Island of Women", महिलादिभ) in Pali, which is probably a mistranslation of the same Sanskrit
word meaning "garland". Jan S Hogendorn, Grossman Professor of Economics, theorises that the name Maldives
derives from the Sanskrit
mālādvīpa (मालाद्वीप), meaning "garland of islands".[19] In Tamil, " Garland
of Islands" can be translated as Malai Theevu (மாலைத்தீவு).[21] In Malayalam, " Garland
of Islands" can be translated as Maladweepu (മാലദ്വീപ്). In Kannada, " Garland
of Islands" can be translated as Maaledweepa (ಮಾಲೆದ್ವೀಪ). None of these names is mentioned in any literature, but classical Sanskrit
texts dating back to the Vedic period
Vedic period
mention the "Hundred Thousand Islands" (Lakshadweepa), a generic name which would include not only the Maldives, but also the Laccadives, Aminidivi
Islands, Minicoy, and the Chagos island groups.[22] Some medieval travellers such as Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
called the islands Mahal Dibiyat (محل دبيأت) from the Arabic word mahal ("palace"), which must be how the Berber traveller interpreted the local name, having been through Muslim
North India, where Perso-Arabic
words were introduced to the local vocabulary.[23] This is the name currently inscribed on the scroll in the Maldive state emblem. The classical Persian/Arabic name for Maldives
is Dibajat.[24][25] The Dutch referred to the islands as the Maldivische Eilanden (pronounced [mɑlˈdivisə ˈɛi̯lɑndə(n)]), while the British anglicised the local name for the islands first to the "Maldive Islands" and later to "Maldives". Garcia da Orta writes in his conversational book[26] first published in 1563 as follows: "I must tell you that I have heard it said that the natives do not call it Maldiva but Nalediva. In the Malabar language nale means four and diva island. So that in that language the word signifies "four islands," while we, corrupting the name, call it Maldiva." History[edit] Main article: History of the Maldives Ancient history and settlement[edit] Main article: History of the Maldives
History of the Maldives
§ Early Age The first Maldivians
did not leave any archaeological artifacts. Their buildings were probably built of wood, palm fronds and other perishable materials, which would have quickly decayed in the salt and wind of the tropical climate. Moreover, chiefs or headmen did not reside in elaborate stone palaces, nor did their religion require the construction of large temples or compounds.[27] Comparative studies of Maldivian oral, linguistic and cultural traditions and customs confirm that the first settlers were people from the southern shores of the neighboring Indian subcontinent,[28] including the Giraavaru people mentioned in ancient legends and local folklore about the establishment of the capital and kingly rule in Malé.[29] A strong underlying layer of Dravidian population and culture survives in Maldivian society, with a clear Tamil-Malayalam substratum in the language, which also appears in place names, kinship terms, poetry, dance, and religious beliefs. Malabari seafaring culture led to the settlement of the Islands by Malayali
seafarers.[2] The earliest written history of the Maldives
was marked by the arrival of Sinhalese people
Sinhalese people
in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
(Mahiladvipika) circa 543 to 483 BC, as reported in the Mahavansa. Their settlement marks a significant change in demographics and the development of the Indo-Aryan language
Indo-Aryan language
Dhivehi language.[citation needed] Buddhist period[edit] Main articles: History of the Maldives
History of the Maldives
§ Buddhist period, and Buddhism
in the Maldives

Isdhoo Lōmāfānu
is the oldest copper-plate book to have been discovered in the Maldives
to date. The book was written in AD 1194 (590 AH) in the Evēla form of the Divehi akuru, during the reign of Siri Fennaadheettha Mahaa Radun (Dhinei Kalaminja).

Despite being just mentioned briefly in most history books, the 1,400-year-long Buddhist period has a foundational importance in the history of the Maldives. It was during this period that the culture of the Maldives
as we now know it both developed and flourished. The Maldivian language, the first Maldive scripts, the architecture, the ruling institutions, the customs and manners of the Maldivians originated at the time when the Maldives
were a Buddhist kingdom.[30] Buddhism
probably spread to the Maldives
in the 3rd century BC at the time of Emperor Ashoka's expansion, and became the dominant religion of the people of the Maldives
until the 12th century AD. The ancient Maldivian Kings promoted Buddhism, and the first Maldive writings and artistic achievements, in the form of highly developed sculpture and architecture, are from that period. Nearly all archaeological remains in the Maldives
are from Buddhist stupas and monasteries, and all artifacts found to date display characteristic Buddhist iconography. Buddhist (and Hindu) temples were Mandala
shaped, they are oriented according to the four cardinal points, the main gate being towards the east. Local historian Hassan Ahmed Maniku counted as many as 59 islands with Buddhist archaeological sites in a provisional list he published in 1990. Islamic period[edit] See also: History of the Maldives
History of the Maldives
§ Islamic Period, Islam
in Maldives, and List of sultans of the Maldives

A plaque in Juma Mosque, Malé, Maldives, on which Yusuf bin Ahmad al-Kawneyn's name is written. Yusuf Al Kowneyn was a Somali who is said to have converted Maldives
in 12th century AD to Islam.

The importance of the Somalis
as traders in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
by the 12th century may partly explain why the last Buddhist king of Maldives Dhovemi converted to Islam
in the year 1153 (or 1193), adopting the Muslim
title of Sultan Muhammad al Adil, and initiating a series of six Islamic dynasties that lasted until 1932 when the sultanate became elective.The formal title of the Sultan up to 1965 was, Sultan of Land and Sea, Lord of the twelve-thousand islands and Sultan of the Maldives
which came with the style Highness. The person who was responsible for converting the Maldive population to Islam
was Yusuf bin Ahmad al-Kawneyn
Yusuf bin Ahmad al-Kawneyn
a very famous Somali saint. In the Maldives, he is called Saint
Abu Barakat al Barbari ("blessed father of Somalia") and whose religious name was Shaykh Yusuf al Kawneyn.[31] He is also credited with spreading Islam
in the islands, establishing the Hukuru Miskiiy Mosque, and converting the Maldivian population into Islam.[32] Ibn Batuta
Ibn Batuta
states the Madliveian king was converted by Abu Al Barakat Al Berber ("blessed father of Somalia").[33] The Shaikh reportedly converted the islands into Islam by convincing the local King, Sultan Mohammed Al Adil, after having subdued Ranna Maari, a demon coming from the sea.[34] The Somalis
also established the Hilaalee dynasty in the maldive islands where it became a colony under Ajuran Empire
Ajuran Empire
and ruled by a famous Somali Viceroy from Mogadishu
called Abd al-Aziz of Mogadishu. The presence and high position of Abd al-Aziz in this region highlights the close connections between medieval Maldives
and the Somali seamen from Mogadishu
sailing the Indian Ocean. They supplied Maldivian traders with exotic animals and musk, and contributed to the ethnogenesis of the Maldivian population.[35][36] In 1346, Abd al-Aziz welcomed Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
at his court and entertained him before giving him a barque to continue his journey.[37] Middle Eastern seafarers had just begun to take over the Indian Ocean trade routes in the 10th century and found Maldives
to be an important link in those routes as the first landfall for traders from Basra sailing to Southeast Asia. Trade involved mainly cowrie shells – widely used as a form of currency throughout Asia
and parts of the East African coast – and coir fiber. The Bengal Sultanate, where cowrie shells were used as legal tender, was one of the principal trading partners of the Maldives. The Bengal- Maldives
cowry shell trade was the largest shell currency trade network in history.[38] The other essential product of the Maldives
was coir, the fibre of the dried coconut husk, resistant to saltwater. It stitched together and rigged the dhows that plied the Indian Ocean. Maldivian coir was exported to Sindh, China, Yemen, and the Persian Gulf. Colonial period[edit]

18th-century map by Pierre Mortier of The Netherlands
depicting with detail the islands of the Maldives

In 1558 the Portuguese established a small garrison with a Viador (Viyazoru), or overseer of a factory (trading post) in the Maldives, which they administered from their main colony in Goa. Their attempts to impose Christianity provoked a local revolt led by Muhammad Thakurufaanu Al-Azam and his two brothers, that fifteen years later drove the Portuguese out of Maldives. This event is now commemorated as National Day. In the mid-17th century, the Dutch, who had replaced the Portuguese as the dominant power in Ceylon, established hegemony over Maldivian affairs without involving themselves directly in local matters, which were governed according to centuries-old Islamic customs. The British expelled the Dutch from Ceylon
in 1796 and included Maldives
as a British protected area. The status of Maldives
as a British protectorate was officially recorded in an 1887 agreement in which the sultan accepted British influence over Maldivian external relations and defence while retaining home rule, which continued to be regulated by Muslim
traditional institutions in exchange for an annual tribute. The status of the islands was akin to other British protectorates in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
region, including Zanzibar
and the Trucial States. In the British period the Sultan's powers were taken over by the Chief Minister, much to the chagrin of the British Governor-General who continued to deal with the ineffectual Sultan. Consequently, Britain encouraged the development of a constitutional monarchy, and the first Constitution was proclaimed in 1932. However, the new arrangements favoured neither the aging Sultan nor the wily Chief Minister, but rather a young crop of British-educated reformists. As a result, angry mobs were instigated against the Constitution which was publicly torn up. Maldives
remained a British crown protectorate until 1953 when the sultanate was suspended and the First Republic was declared under the short-lived presidency of Muhammad Amin Didi. While serving as prime minister during the 1940s, Didi nationalized the fish export industry. As president he is remembered as a reformer of the education system and a promoter of women's rights. Muslim
conservatives in Malé eventually ousted his government, and during a riot over food shortages, Didi was beaten by a mob and died on a nearby island.

Short Sunderland
Short Sunderland
moored in the lagoon at Addu Atoll, during WWII

Beginning in the 1950s, the political history in Maldives
was largely influenced by the British military presence in the islands. In 1954 the restoration of the sultanate perpetuated the rule of the past. Two years later, the United Kingdom obtained permission to reestablish its wartime RAF
Gan airfield in the southernmost Addu Atoll, employing hundreds of locals. In 1957, however, the new prime minister, Ibrahim Nasir, called for a review of the agreement. Nasir was challenged in 1959 by a local secessionist movement in the three southernmost atolls that benefited economically from the British presence on Gan. This group cut ties with the Maldives
government and formed an independent state, the United Suvadive Republic
United Suvadive Republic
with Abdullah Afif
Abdullah Afif
as president and Hithadhoo as capital. One year later the Suvadive republic was scrapped after Nasir sent gunboats from Malé
with government police, and Abdulla Afif went into exile. Meanwhile, in 1960 the Maldives
had allowed the United Kingdom to continue to use both the Gan and the Hitaddu facilities for a thirty-year period, with the payment of £750,000 over the period of 1960 to 1965 for the purpose of Maldives' economic development.The base was closed in 1976 as part of the larger British withdrawal of permanently stationed forces 'East of Suez'.[39] Independence and republic[edit]

Abdul Majeed Didi, the last Sultan of the Maldives
Sultan of the Maldives

In line with the broader British policy of decolonisation on 26 July 1965 an agreement was signed on behalf of His Majesty the Sultan by Ibrahim Nasir
Ibrahim Nasir
Rannabandeyri Kilegefan, Prime Minister, and on behalf of Her Majesty The Queen by Sir Michael Walker, British Ambassador designate to the Maldive Islands, which ended the British responsibility for the defence and external affairs of the Maldives. The islands thus achieved full political independence, with the ceremony taking place at the British High Commissioner's Residence in Colombo. After this, the sultanate continued for another three years under Muhammad Fareed Didi, who declared himself King rather than Sultan. On 15 November 1967, a vote was taken in parliament to decide whether the Maldives
should continue as a constitutional monarchy or become a republic. Of the 44 members of parliament, forty voted in favour of a republic. On 15 March 1968, a national referendum was held on the question, and 93.34% of those taking part voted in favour of establishing a republic. The republic was declared on 11 November 1968, thus ending the 853-year-old monarchy, which was replaced by a republic under the presidency of Ibrahim Nasir. As the King had held little real power, this was seen as a cosmetic change and required few alterations in the structures of government.

Mamoon Abdul Gayoom, President of the Maldives
President of the Maldives

Tourism began to be developed on the archipelago by the beginning of the 1970s. The first resort in the Maldives
was Kurumba Maldives
Kurumba Maldives
which welcomed the first guests on 3 October 1972. The first accurate census was held in December 1977 and showed 142,832 persons residing in Maldives.[40] Political infighting during the '70s between Nasir's faction and other political figures led to the 1975 arrest and exile of elected prime minister Ahmed Zaki to a remote atoll. Economic decline followed the closure of the British airfield at Gan and the collapse of the market for dried fish, an important export. With support for his administration faltering, Nasir fled to Singapore
in 1978, with millions of dollars from the treasury. Maumoon Abdul Gayoom
Maumoon Abdul Gayoom
began his 30-year role as President in 1978, winning six consecutive elections without opposition. His election was seen as ushering in a period of political stability and economic development in view of Gayoom's priority to develop the poorer islands. Tourism flourished and increased foreign contact spurred development. However, Gayoom's rule was controversial, with some critics saying Gayoom was an autocrat who quelled dissent by limiting freedoms and political favouritism.[41] A series of coup attempts (in 1980, 1983, and 1988) by Nasir supporters and business interests tried to topple the government without success. While the first two attempts met with little success, the 1988 coup attempt involved a roughly 80-person mercenary force of the PLOTE who seized the airport and caused Gayoom to flee from house to house until the intervention of 1600 Indian troops airlifted into Malé
restored order. A November 1988 coup was headed by Muhammadu Ibrahim Lutfee, a small-businessman. On the night of 3 November 1988, the Indian Air Force airlifted a parachute battalion group from Agra
and flew them over 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) to the Maldives. The Indian paratroopers landed at Hulule
and secured the airfield and restored the government rule at Malé
within hours. The brief operation, labelled Operation Cactus, also involved the Indian Navy. 21st century[edit] Main article: History of the Maldives
History of the Maldives
§ 21st century

The ousted democratically elected president Mohamed Nasheed

On 26 December 2004, following the 2004 Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
earthquake, the Maldives
were devastated by a tsunami. Only nine islands were reported to have escaped any flooding,[42][43] while fifty-seven islands faced serious damage to critical infrastructure, fourteen islands had to be totally evacuated, and six islands were destroyed. A further twenty-one resort islands were forced to close because of tsunami damage. The total damage was estimated at more than US$400 million, or some 62% of the GDP.[44][45] 102 Maldivians and 6 foreigners reportedly died in the tsunami.[41] The destructive impact of the waves on the low-lying islands was mitigated by the fact there was no continental shelf or land mass upon which the waves could gain height. The tallest waves were reported to be 14 feet (4.3 m) high.[46]

People in Malé
removing sand bags from a nearby construction site, to be used as a barrier to protect their homes from the flood, shortly after being hit by the tsunami generated by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake.

During the later part of Gayoom's rule, independent political movements emerged in Maldives, which challenged the then-ruling Dhivehi Rayyithunge Party
Dhivehi Rayyithunge Party
(Maldivian People's Party, MPP) and demanded democratic reform. The dissident journalist and activist Mohamed Nasheed founded the Maldivian Democratic Party
Maldivian Democratic Party
(MDP) in 2003 and pressured Gayoom into allowing gradual political reforms.[47] In 2008 a new constitution was approved and the first direct presidential elections occurred, which were won by Mohamed Nasheed
Mohamed Nasheed
in the second round. His administration faced many challenges, including the huge debt left by the previous government, the economic downturn following the 2004 tsunami, overspending (by means of overprinting of local currency rufiyaa), unemployment, corruption, and increasing drug use.[48][unreliable source?] Taxation on goods was imposed for the first time in the country, and import duties were reduced in many goods and services. Social welfare benefits were given to those aged 65 years or older, single parents, and those with special needs.[41] Social and political unrest grew in late 2011, following opposition campaigns in the name of protecting Islam. Nasheed controversially resigned from office after large number of police and army mutinied in February 2012. Nasheed's vice president, Mohammed Waheed Hassan, was sworn in as President.[49] Nasheed was later arrested,[50] convicted of terrorism, and sentenced to 13 years. The trial was widely seen as flawed and political. The UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention called for Nasheed's immediate release.[51] The elections in late 2013 were highly contested. Former president Mohammed Nasheed
Mohammed Nasheed
won the most votes in the first round, but the Supreme Court annulled it despite the positive assessment of international election observers. In the re-run vote Abdulla Yameen, half-brother of the former president Gayoom, assumed the presidency.[47] Yameen introduced increased engagement with China, and promoted a policy of connecting Islam
with anti-Western rhetoric.[47] Yameen survived an assassination attempt in late 2015.[52] Vice president Ahmed Adeeb
Ahmed Adeeb
was later arrested together with 17 supporters for "public order offences" and the government instituted a broader crackdown against political dissent. A state of emergency was later declared ahead of a planned anti-government rally,[53] and the people's Majlis accelerated the removal of Vice president Ahmed Adeeb.[54][55] Though the popular image of the Maldives
is that of a holiday paradise, its radicalised youths are enlisting in significant numbers to fight for ISIL militants in the Middle East.[56] On February 3, 2018, Parliament dissolved and the military occupied the capital. On February 5, the supreme court of Maldives
released three imprisoned opposition leaders, including former President Mohammed Nasheed. The court also provided relief to 12 ministers who had been removed from President Abdullah Yameen's ruling party. Yameen refused to comply with the court order and imposed a state of emergency to last for 15 days. Protesters demonstrated on the streets against President Abdullah Yemen
after the announcement of the emergency.[57][58] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of the Maldives

Malhosmadulhu Atoll
seen from space. "Fasdutere" and Southern Maalhosmadulhu Atoll
can be seen in this picture.

The Maldives
consists of 1,192 coral islands grouped in a double chain of 26 atolls, along the north-south direction, spread over roughly 90,000 square kilometres (35,000 sq mi), making this one of the world's most dispersed countries. It lies between latitudes 1°S and 8°N, and longitudes 72° and 74°E. The atolls are composed of live coral reefs and sand bars, situated atop a submarine ridge 960 kilometres (600 mi) long that rises abruptly from the depths of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
and runs north to south. Only near the southern end of this natural coral barricade do two open passages permit safe ship navigation from one side of the Indian Ocean to the other through the territorial waters of Maldives. For administrative purposes, the Maldivian government organised these atolls into 21 administrative divisions. The largest island of Maldives
is Gan, which belongs to Laamu Atoll
or Hahdhummathi Maldives. In Addu Atoll, the westernmost islands are connected by roads over the reef (collectively called Link Road) and the total length of the road is 14 km (9 mi). Maldives
is the lowest country in the world, with maximum and average natural ground levels of only 2.4 metres (7 ft 10 in) and 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in) above sea level, respectively. In areas where construction exists, however, this has been increased to several metres. More than 80 per cent of the country's land is composed of coral islands which rise less than one metre above sea level.[59] As a result, the Maldives
are at high risk of being submerged due to rising sea levels. The UN's environmental panel has warned that, at current rates, sea level rise would be high enough to make the Maldives
uninhabitable by 2100.[60][61] Protected areas of Maldives[edit] Protected areas of Maldives
are administrated by Ministry of Environment and Energy and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of Maldives. There are 31 protected areas in Maldives.[62] Climate[edit]

Sunset in the Maldives

The Maldives
has a tropical monsoon climate (Am) under the Köppen climate classification, which is affected by the large landmass of South Asia
to the north. The presence of this landmass causes differential heating of land and water. These factors set off a rush of moisture-rich air from the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
over South Asia, resulting in the southwest monsoon. Two seasons dominate Maldives' weather: the dry season associated with the winter northeastern monsoon and the rainy season which brings strong winds and storms. The shift from the dry northeast monsoon to the moist southwest monsoon occurs during April and May. During this period, the southwest winds contribute to the formation of the southwest monsoon, which reaches Maldives
in the beginning of June and lasts until the end of August. However, the weather patterns of Maldives
do not always conform to the monsoon patterns of South Asia. The annual rainfall averages 254 centimetres (100 in) in the north and 381 centimetres (150 in) in the south.[63] The monsoonal influence is greater in the north of the Maldives
than in the south, more influenced by the equatorial currents.

Climate data for Malé

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 30.3 (86.5) 30.7 (87.3) 31.4 (88.5) 31.6 (88.9) 31.2 (88.2) 30.6 (87.1) 30.5 (86.9) 30.4 (86.7) 30.2 (86.4) 30.2 (86.4) 30.1 (86.2) 30.1 (86.2) 30.61 (87.11)

Daily mean °C (°F) 28.0 (82.4) 28.3 (82.9) 28.9 (84) 29.2 (84.6) 28.8 (83.8) 28.3 (82.9) 28.2 (82.8) 28.0 (82.4) 27.8 (82) 27.8 (82) 27.7 (81.9) 27.8 (82) 28.2 (82.8)

Average low °C (°F) 25.7 (78.3) 25.9 (78.6) 26.4 (79.5) 26.8 (80.2) 26.3 (79.3) 26.0 (78.8) 25.8 (78.4) 25.5 (77.9) 25.3 (77.5) 25.4 (77.7) 25.2 (77.4) 25.4 (77.7) 25.8 (78.4)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 114.2 (4.496) 38.1 (1.5) 73.9 (2.909) 122.5 (4.823) 218.9 (8.618) 167.3 (6.587) 149.9 (5.902) 175.5 (6.909) 199.0 (7.835) 194.2 (7.646) 231.1 (9.098) 216.8 (8.535) 1,901.4 (74.858)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6 3 5 9 15 13 12 13 15 15 13 12 131

Average relative humidity (%) 78.0 77.0 76.9 78.1 80.8 80.7 79.1 80.5 81.0 81.7 82.2 80.9 79.7

Mean monthly sunshine hours 248.4 257.8 279.6 246.8 223.2 202.3 226.6 211.5 200.4 234.8 226.1 220.7 2,778.2

Source #1: World Meteorological Organization[64]

Source #2: NOAA
(relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[65]

Environmental issues[edit] See also: The Island President

The white sandy beaches of Maldives

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's 2007 report predicted the upper limit of the sea level rises will be 59 centimetres (23 in) by 2100, which means that most of the republic's 200 inhabited islands may need to be abandoned.[66] One study appears to show that the sea level in the Maldives
dropped 20–30 centimetres (8–12 in) throughout the 1970s and '80s, although later studies failed to back this up.[67] The observed rate of sea level rise is only 1.7–1.8 millimetres per year.[68] According to former Maldivian president Mohamed Nasheed, the Maldives are ranked the third most endangered nation due to flooding from climate change.[69] In March and April 2012, Nasheed stated, "If carbon emissions were to stop today, the planet would not see a difference for 60 to 70 years." "If carbon emissions continue at the rate they are climbing today, my country will be under water in seven years." He called for more climate change mitigation action while on the American television shows The Daily Show[70] and the Late Show with David Letterman.[71] This opinion was disputed in 2012, when the next President said: "The good news is that Maldives
is not about to disappear....on the basis of technical and scientific information that we have, that we will be able to manage climate change in the Maldives and prolong the life for the islands and for our life on these islands."[72] In November 2008, President Mohamed Nasheed
Mohamed Nasheed
announced plans to look into purchasing new land in India, Sri Lanka, and Australia
because of his concerns about global warming, and the possibility of much of the islands being inundated with water from rising sea levels. The purchase of land will be made from a fund generated by tourism.[73] The President has explained his intentions: "We do not want to leave the Maldives, but we also do not want to be climate refugees living in tents for decades".[74] On 22 April 2008, then President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom pleaded for a cut in global greenhouse gas emissions, warning that rising sea levels could submerge the island nation of Maldives.[75][76] By 2020, Maldives
plans to eliminate or offset all of its greenhouse gas emissions. At the 2009 International Climate Talks, President Mohamed Nasheed
Mohamed Nasheed
explained that:

For us swearing off fossil fuels is not only the right thing to do, it is in our economic self-interest... Pioneering countries will free themselves from the unpredictable price of foreign oil; they will capitalise on the new green economy of the future, and they will enhance their moral standing giving them greater political influence on the world stage.[77]

Other environmental issues include bad waste disposal and beach theft. Although the Maldives
are kept relatively pristine and little litter can be found on the islands, no good waste disposal sites exist. Most trash from Male and other resorts is simply dumped at Thilafushi.[78] Marine ecosystem[edit] Further information: Wildlife of Maldives

soft coral

Oriental Sweetlips
Oriental Sweetlips
(Plectorhinchus vittatus) at Meeru Island, North Male Atoll

The Maldives
have a range of different habitats including deep sea, shallow coast, and reef ecosystems, fringing mangroves, wetlands and dry land. There are 187 species of coral forming the coral reefs. This area of the Indian Ocean, alone, houses 1100 species of fish, 5 species of sea turtle, 21 species of whale and dolphin, 400 species of mollusc, and 83 species of echinoderms. The area is also populated by a number of crustacean species: 120 copepod, 15 amphipod, as well as more than 145 crab and 48 shrimp species.[79] Among the many marine families represented are Pufferfish, Fusiliers, Jackfish, Lionfish, Oriental Sweetlips, reef sharks, Groupers, Eels, Snappers, Bannerfish, Batfish, Humphead Wrasse, Spotted Eagle Rays, Scorpionfish, Lobsters, Nudibranches, Angelfish, Butterflyfish, Squirrelfish, Soldierfish, Glassfish, Surgeonfish, Unicornfish, Triggerfish, Napoleon wrasses, and Barracudas.[80][81] These coral reefs are home to a variety of marine ecosystems that vary from planktonic organisms to whale sharks. Sponges have gained importance as five species have displayed anti-tumor and anti-cancer properties.[82] In 1998, sea-temperature warming of as much as 5 °C (9.0 °F) due to a single El Niño phenomenon event caused coral bleaching, killing two-thirds of the nation's coral reefs.[83] In an effort to induce the regrowth of the reefs, scientists placed electrified cones anywhere from 20–60 feet (6.1–18.3 m) below the surface to provide a substrate for larval coral attachment. In 2004, scientists witnessed corals regenerating. Corals began to eject pink-orange eggs and sperm. The growth of these electrified corals was five times faster than untreated corals.[83] Scientist Azeez Hakim stated:

before 1998, we never thought that this reef would die. We had always taken for granted that these animals would be there, that this reef would be there forever. El Niño gave us a wake-up call that these things are not going to be there for ever. Not only this, they also act as a natural barrier against the tropical storms, floods and tsunamis. Seaweeds grow on the skeletons of dead coral.[80]

Again, in 2016, the coral reefs of the Maldives
experienced a severe bleaching incident. Up to 95% of coral around some islands have died, and, even after six months, 100% of young coral transplants died. The surface water temperatures reached an all-time high in 2016, at 31 degrees Celsius in May.[84] Recent scientific studies suggest that the faunistic composition can vary greatly between neighbour atolls, especially in terms of benthic fauna. Differences in terms of fishing pressure (including poaching) could be the cause.[85] Government[edit] Main article: Politics of the Maldives

Independence Square in Malé

is a presidential republic, with the President as head of government and head of state. The President heads the executive branch and appoints the cabinet which is approved by the People's Majlis (Parliament). Following the introduction of a new constitution in 2008, direct elections for the President take place every five years, with a limit of two terms in office for any individual. The current President is Abdulla Yameen.[86] Members of the unicameral Majlis serve five-year terms, with the total number of members determined by atoll populations. At the 2009 election, 77 members were elected. The People's Majlis, located in Male, houses members from all over the country.[3] The republican constitution came into force in 1968, and was amended in 1970, 1972, and 1975. On 27 November 1997 it was replaced by another Constitution assented to by the President Gayoom. This Constitution came into force on 1 January 1998. All stated that the president was the Head of State, Head of Government and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and the Police of the Maldives. A third Constitution was ratified in 2008, which separated the judiciary from the head of state. In 2018, tensions with opposition and subsequent crackdown was termed as an "Assault on democracy" by the UN Human Rights chief.[87] Law[edit] See also: Judiciary
in the Maldives According to the Constitution of Maldives, "the judges are independent, and subject only to the Constitution and the law. When deciding matters on which the Constitution or the law is silent, judges must consider Islamic Shari'ah". Article 15 of the Act Number 1/81 (Penal Code) gives provision for hudud punishments.[88] Article 156 of the constitution states that law includes the norms and provisions of sharia.[89] Islam
is the official religion of the Maldives
and open practice of any other religion is forbidden and liable to prosecution. Article 2 of the revised constitution says that the republic "is based on the principles of Islam". Article nine says that "a non- Muslim
may not become a citizen"; article ten says that "no law contrary to any principle of Islam
can be applied". Article nineteen states that "citizens are free to participate in or carry out any activity that is not expressly prohibited by sharia [Islamic law] or by the law". The requirement to adhere to a particular religion and prohibition of public worship following other religions is contrary to Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
and Article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
to which Maldives has recently become party[90] and was addressed in Maldives' reservation in adhering to the Covenant claiming that "The application of the principles set out in Article 18 of the Covenant shall be without prejudice to the Constitution of the Republic of the Maldives."[91] Human rights[edit] Main articles: Human rights in the Maldives
Human rights in the Maldives
and LGBT rights in the Maldives Human rights in the Maldives
Human rights in the Maldives
is a contentious issue. In its 2011 Freedom in the World
Freedom in the World
report, Freedom House
Freedom House
declared the Maldives "Partly Free", claiming a reform process which had made headway in 2009 and 2010 had stalled.[92] The United States
United States
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor claims in their 2012 report on human rights practices in the country that the most significant problems are corruption, lack of religious freedom, and abuse and unequal treatment of women.[93] In February 2013, the court sentenced a 15-year-old rape victim to 100 lashes and 8 months of house arrest for having had extra-marital relations. The conviction was based on the confession of the girl shortly after being raped by her stepfather[94] Same-sex relations are illegal in the Maldives.[95] Foreign relations[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of the Maldives

Former Maldivian Defence Minister Mohamed Nazim
Mohamed Nazim
at an Indian naval base in Kochi

Since 1996, the Maldives
has been the official progress monitor of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Commission. In 2002, the Maldives
began to express interest in the commission but as of 2008[update] had not applied for membership. Maldives' interest relates to its identity as a small island state, especially economic development and environmental preservation, and its desire for closer relations with France, a main actor in the IOC region. The Maldives
is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). The republic joined the Commonwealth in 1982, some 17 years after gaining independence from the United Kingdom. In October 2016, Maldives
announced its withdrawal from the Commonwealth[96] in protest at allegations of human rights abuse and failing democracy.[97] The Maldives
enjoys close ties with Commonwealth members Seychelles
and Mauritius. The Maldives
and Comoros
are also both members of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Military[edit] Main article: Maldives
National Defence Force

Fire & Rescue Service boats

The Maldives National Defence Force
Maldives National Defence Force
is the combined security organisation responsible for defending the security and sovereignty of the Maldives, having the primary task of being responsible for attending to all internal and external security needs of the Maldives, including the protection of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and the maintenance of peace and security. The MNDF component branches are the Coast Guard, Marine Corps, Special
Forces, Service Corps and the Corps of Engineers. As a water-bound nation much of the security concerns lie at sea. Almost 99% of the country is covered by sea and the remaining 1% land is scattered over an area of 800 km (497 mi) × 120 km (75 mi), with the largest island being not more than 8 km2 (3 sq mi). Therefore, the duties assigned to the MNDF of maintaining surveillance over Maldives' waters and providing protection against foreign intruders poaching in the EEZ and territorial waters, are immense tasks from both logistical and economic viewpoints. The Coast Guard plays a vital role in carrying out these functions. To provide timely security its patrol boats are stationed at various MNDF Regional Headquarters. The Coast Guard is also assigned to respond to the maritime distress calls and to conduct search and rescue operations in a timely manner. Maritime pollution control exercises are conducted regularly on an annual basis for familiarisation and handling of such hazardous situations.

Administrative divisions[edit] Main article: Administrative divisions of the Maldives

Each administrative atoll is marked, along with the thaana letter used to identify the atoll. Natural atolls are labelled in light blue. Full view of the map.

The Maldives
has twenty-six natural atolls and few island groups on isolated reefs, all of which have been divided into twenty-one administrative divisions (19 administrative atolls and cities of Malé and Addu).[98] Each atoll is administered by an elected Atoll
Council. The islands are administered by an elected Island Council. Between 2008 and 2010 the Maldives
had 7 provinces each consisting of the following administrative divisions (the capital Malé
is its own administrative division):

Mathi-Uthuru Province; consists of Haa Alif
Haa Alif
Atoll, Haa Dhaalu Atoll and Shaviyani Atoll. Uthuru Province; consists of Noonu Atoll, Raa Atoll, Baa Atoll
and Lhaviyani Atoll. Medhu-Uthuru Province; consists of Kaafu Atoll, Alifu Alifu Atoll, Alifu Dhaalu Atoll
and Vaavu Atoll. Medhu Province; consists of Meemu Atoll, Faafu Atoll
and Dhaalu Atoll. Medhu-Dhekunu Province; consists of Thaa Atoll
and Laamu Atoll. Mathi-Dhekunu Province; consists of Gaafu Alifu Atoll
and Gaafu Dhaalu Atoll. Dhekunu Province; consists of Gnaviyani Atoll
and Addu City.

In addition to a name, every administrative division is identified by the Maldivian code letters, such as "Haa Alif" for Thiladhunmati Uthuruburi (Thiladhunmathi North); and by a Latin code letter. The first corresponds to the geographical Maldivian name of the atoll; the second is a code adopted for convenience. As there are certain islands in different atolls that have the same name, for administrative purposes this code is quoted before the name of the island, for example: Baa Funadhoo, Kaafu Funadhoo, Gaafu-Alifu Funadhoo. Since most Atolls have very long geographical names it is also used whenever the long name is inconvenient, for example in the atoll website names.[99] The introduction of code-letter names has been a source of much puzzlement and misunderstandings, especially among foreigners. Many people have come to think that the code-letter of the administrative atoll is its new name and that it has replaced its geographical name. Under such circumstances it is hard to know which is the correct name to use.[99] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of the Maldives

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Graphical depiction of Maldives's product exports in 28 color-coded categories

In ancient times the Maldives
were renowned for cowry shells, coir rope, dried tuna fish (Maldive Fish), ambergris (Maavaharu), and coco de mer (Tavakkaashi). Local and foreign trading ships used to load these products in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and transport them to other harbours in the Indian Ocean. Historically Maldives
provided enormous quantities of cowry shells, an international currency of the early ages. From the 2nd century AD the islands were known as the 'Money Isles' by the Arabs.[100] Monetaria moneta were used for centuries as a currency in Africa, and huge amounts of Maldivian cowries were introduced into Africa
by western nations during the period of slave trade.[101] The cowry is now the symbol of the Maldives
Monetary Authority. The Maldivian government began an economic reform programme in 1989, initially by lifting import quotas and opening some exports to the private sector. Subsequently, it has liberalised regulations to allow more foreign investment. Real GDP growth averaged over 7.5% per year for more than a decade. Today, the Maldives' largest industry is tourism, accounting for 28% of GDP and more than 60% of the Maldives' foreign exchange receipts. Fishing is the second leading sector. The Maldivian economy is to a large degree based on tourism. In late December 2004, the major tsunami left more than 100 dead, 12,000 displaced, and property damage exceeding $400 million. As a result of the tsunami, the GDP contracted by about 3.6% in 2005. A rebound in tourism, post-tsunami reconstruction, and development of new resorts helped the economy recover quickly and showed an 18% increase on 2006. 2013 estimates show Maldivians
enjoy the highest GDP (PPP) per capita $11,900 (2013 est) among south Asian countries. Agriculture and manufacturing continue to play a lesser role in the economy, constrained by the limited availability of cultivable land and the shortage of domestic labour. Tourism gave a major boost to the country's fledgling traditional cottage industries such as mat weaving, lacquer work, handicraft, and coir rope making. New industries that have since emerged include printing, production of PVC pipes, brick making, marine engine repairs, bottling of aerated water, and garment production. Tourism[edit] Main articles: Tourism in the Maldives
Tourism in the Maldives
and Diving in the Maldives

Filitheyo island beach with tall palm trees and blue lagoons

The Maldives
remained largely unknown to tourists until the early 1970s. Only 185 islands are home to its 300,000 inhabitants. The other islands are used entirely for economic purposes, of which tourism and agriculture are the most dominant. Tourism accounts for 28% of the GDP and more than 60% of the Maldives' foreign exchange receipts. Over 90% of government tax revenue comes from import duties and tourism-related taxes. The development of tourism fostered the overall growth of the country's economy. It created direct and indirect employment and income generation opportunities in other related industries. The first tourist resorts were opened in 1972 with Bandos island resort and Kurumba Village (the current name is Kurumba Maldives),[102] which transformed the Maldives

The resort island of Landaa Giraavaru
Landaa Giraavaru
(Baa atoll)

According to the Ministry of Tourism, the emergence of tourism in 1972 transformed the economy, moving rapidly from dependence on fisheries to tourism. In just three and a half decades, the industry became the main source of income. Tourism was also the country's biggest foreign currency earner and the single largest contributor to the GDP. As of 2008[update], 89 resorts in the Maldives
offered over 17,000 beds and hosted over 600,000 tourists annually.[103] The number of resorts increased from 2 to 92 between 1972 and 2007. As of 2007[update], over 8,380,000 tourists had visited Maldives.[104] Visitors to the Maldives
do not need to apply for a visa pre-arrival, regardless of their country of origin, provided they have a valid passport, proof of onward travel, and the money to be self-sufficient while in the country.[105] Most visitors arrive at Malé
International Airport, on Hulhulé Island, adjacent to the capital Malé. The airport is served by flights to and from India, Sri Lanka, Doha, Dubai, Singapore, Istanbul, and major airports in South-East Asia, as well as charters from Europe. Gan Airport, on the southern atoll of Addu, also serves an international flight to Milan
several times a week. British Airways offers direct flights to the Maldives
around 2–3 times per week. Fishing industry[edit] Main article: Fishing industry in the Maldives

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A mechanised traditional inter-island dhoni stripped of its sails

For many centuries the Maldivian economy was entirely dependent on fishing and other marine products. Fishing remains the main occupation of the people and the government gives priority to the fisheries sector. The mechanisation of the traditional fishing boat called dhoni in 1974 was a major milestone in the development of the fisheries industry. A fish canning plant was installed on Felivaru in 1977, as a joint venture with a Japanese firm. In 1979, a Fisheries Advisory Board was set up with the mandate of advising the government on policy guidelines for the overall development of the fisheries sector. Manpower development programmes began in the early 1980s, and fisheries education was incorporated into the school curriculum. Fish aggregating devices and navigational aids were located at various strategic points. Moreover, the opening up of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Maldives
for fisheries has further enhanced the growth of the fisheries sector. As of 2010[update], fisheries contributed over 15% of the country's GDP and engaged about 30% of the country's work force. Fisheries were also the second-largest foreign exchange earner after tourism. Demographics[edit]

Malé, the capital of the Maldives

Demographics of the Maldives, from 2000 to 2012

Main article: Demographics of the Maldives

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The largest ethnic group are Dhivehis, native to the historic region of the Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands
comprising today's Republic of Maldives
and the island of Minicoy
in Union territory of Lakshadweep, India. They share the same culture and speak the Dhivehi language. They are principally an Indo-Aryan people, closely related to the Sinhalese and having traces of Middle Eastern, South Asian, Austronesian and African genes in the population. In the past there was also a small Tamil population known as the Giraavaru people. This group have now been almost completely absorbed into the larger Maldivian society but were once native to the island of Giraavaru (Kaafu Atoll).[citation needed] This island was evacuated in 1968 due to heavy erosion of the island. Some social stratification exists on the islands. It is not rigid, since rank is based on varied factors, including occupation, wealth, Islamic virtue, and family ties. Instead of a complex caste system, there was merely a distinction between noble (bēfulhu) and common people in the Maldives. Members of the social elite are concentrated in Malé. The population doubled by 1978, and the population growth rate peaked at 3.4% in 1985. At the 2006 census, the population had reached 298,968,[106] although the census in 2000 showed that the population growth rate had declined to 1.9%. Life expectancy at birth stood at 46 years in 1978, and later rose to 72. Infant mortality has declined from 12.7% in 1977 to 1.2% today, and adult literacy reached 99%. Combined school enrolment reached the high 90s. The population was projected to have reached 317,280 in 2010.[107] As of April 2008, more than 70,000 foreign employees, along with 33,000 illegal immigrants, comprised more than one third of the Maldivian population.[citation needed]. There are 40,000 Bangladeshis in the Maldives, making them the largest group of foreigners working in that country.[108] Other immigrants include Filipinos in the Maldives
as well as various Western expatriates. Religion[edit] See also: Islam
in the Maldives, Buddhism
in the Maldives, and Freedom of religion in the Maldives

religions (2010)[109]





Mosque in Hulhumalé

After the long Buddhist[110] period of Maldivian history, Muslim traders introduced Islam. Maldivians
converted to Islam
by the mid-12th century. The islands have had a long history of Sufic orders, as can be seen in the history of the country such as the building of tombs. They were used until as recently as the 1980s for seeking the help of buried saints. They can be seen next to some old mosques and are considered a part of Maldives's cultural heritage. Other aspects of tassawuf, such as ritualised dhikr ceremonies called Maulūdu (Mawlid)—the liturgy of which included recitations and certain supplications in a melodical tone—existed until very recent times. These Maulūdu festivals were held in ornate tents specially built for the occasion. At present Islam
is the official religion of the entire population, as adherence to it is required for citizenship. According to Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta, the person responsible for this conversion was a Sunni Muslim
visitor named Abu al-Barakat, sailing from Morocco. He is also referred to as Tabrizugefaanu. His venerated tomb now stands on the grounds of the Friday Mosque, or Hukuru Miskiy, in Malé. Built in 1656, this is the country's oldest mosque. Languages[edit] Main article: Languages of Maldives


The official and common language is Dhivehi, an Indo-Aryan language having some similarities with Elu, the ancient Sinhalese language. The first known script used to write Dhivehi is Eveyla akuru script which is found in historical recording of kings (raadhavalhi). Later a script called Dhives akuru
Dhives akuru
was used for a long period. The present-day script is called Thaana
and is written from right to left. Thaana
is said to have been introduced by the reign of Mohamed Thakurufaanu. English is widely spoken by the locals of Maldives.[111] Population by locality[edit]


v t e

Largest localities in Maldives by registered population as of July 4, 2012

Rank Name Division Pop.


Addu City 1 Malé Malé 103,693



2 Addu City Addu Atoll 31,999

3 Fuvahmulah Gnaviyani Atoll 11,857

4 Kulhudhuffushi Haa Dhaalu 8,974

5 Thinadhoo Gaafu Dhaalu 7,108

6 Naifaru Lhaviyani 5,133

7 Hinnavaru Lhaviyani 4,676

8 Gan Laamu 4,385

9 Dhuvaafaru Raa 4,368

10 Dhidhdhoo Haa Alifu 3,848


Play media

Playing an electric bulbul tarang

Main article: Culture of the Maldives See also: Music of the Maldives
Music of the Maldives
and Maldivian folklore

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Since the 12th century AD there were also influences from Arabia
in the language and culture of the Maldives
because of the conversion to Islam
and its location as a crossroads in the central Indian Ocean. This was due to the long trading history between the far east and the middle east. Somali travellers discovered the island for gold in the 13th century, before the Portuguese. Their brief stay later ended in a bloody conflict known by the Somalis
as "Dagaal Diig Badaaney" in 1424. However, unlike the Sinhalese of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and most of the Arabs, Africans and Europeans whose influence can be seen in borrow-words, material culture, and the diversity of Maldivian phenotype, Maldivians do not have the highly embedded patriarchal codes of honour, purity, corporate marriage, and sedentary private property that are typical of places where agriculture is the key form of subsistence and social relations have been built, historically, around tribute taking.[citation needed] Reflective of this is the fact that the Maldives
has had the highest national divorce rate in the world for many decades. This, it is hypothesised, is due to a combination of liberal Islamic rules about divorce and the relatively loose marital bonds that have been identified as common in non- and semi-sedentary peoples without a history of fully developed agrarian property and kinship relations.[112] Transportation[edit]

TMA Terminal

Velana International Airport
Velana International Airport
is the principal gateway to the Maldives. International travel is available on a number of major airlines. Two Maldives
based airlines also operate international flights. Privately owned MEGA Maldives Airlines
MEGA Maldives Airlines
has Boeing 737 and 767 aircraft and operates frequent services to Beijing, Shanghai, and Hong Kong. Government owned Island Aviation Services
Island Aviation Services
(branded as Maldivian) operates to nearly all Maldives
domestic airports with several Bombardier Dash 8
Bombardier Dash 8
aircraft and one A320
with international service to Chennai and Thiruvananthapuram, India, and Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Maldives
there are three main ways to travel between islands: by domestic flight, by seaplane or by boat.[113] For several years there were two seaplane companies operating: TMA (Trans Maldivian Airways and Maldivian Air Taxi, but these merged in 2013 under the name TMA. The seaplane fleet is entirely made up of DHC-6 Twin Otters. There is also another airline, Flyme, which operates using ATR planes to domestic airports, principally Maamagili and some others. The typical Maldivian boat is called a dhoni. Depending on the distance of the destination island from the airport, resorts organise domestic flight plus boat transfers, seaplane flights directly to the resort island jetty, or speedboat trips for their guests. There are also locally run ferries using large dhoni boats. Speedboats and seaplanes tend to be more expensive, while travel by dhoni, although slower, is relatively cheaper and convenient. Education[edit] The Maldives National University is one of the country's three institutions of higher education. Its mission statement is as follows:

To create, discover, preserve and disseminate knowledge that are necessary to enhance the lives and livelihoods of people and essential for the cultural, social and economic development of the society so that this nation shall remain free and Islamic forever.[114]

In 1973, the Allied Health Services Training Centre (the forerunner of the Faculty of Health Sciences) was established by the Ministry of Health. The Vocational Training Centre was established in 1974, providing training for mechanical and electrical trades. In 1984, the Institute for Teacher Education was created and the School of Hotel and Catering Services was established in 1987 to provide trained personnel for the tourist industry. In 1991, the Institute of Management and Administration was created to train staff for public and private services. In 1998, the Maldives
College of Higher Education was founded. The Institute of Shar'ah and Law was founded in January 1999. In 2000 the college launched its first degree programme: Bachelor of Arts. On 17 January 2011 the Maldives
National University Act was passed by the President of the Maldives; The Maldives
National University was named on 15 February 2011.[115] See also[edit]

Geography portal Asia
portal South Asia
portal SAARC portal Maldives
portal Islands portal

27596 Maldives, a minor planet named after the nation Commonwealth of Nations Desalination in the Maldives Index of Maldives-related articles List of island countries Outline of Maldives


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– Population". Library of Congress Country Studies ^ a b c CNN (11 November 2008). "Sinking island nation seeks new home". Retrieved 12 November 2008. BAT ^ " Maldives
– Country Review Report on the Implementation of the Brussels Programme of Action for LDCS" (PDF). Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ " Maldives
Skyscraper – Floating States". UN.org.  ^ "UNDP: Discussion Paper – Achieving Debt Sustainability and the MDGs in Small Island Developing States: The Case of the Maldives" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2012.  ^ " Maldives
tsunami damage 62 percent of GDP: WB". 15 February 2005. Retrieved 18 September 2015.  ^ "Republic of Maldives
– Tsunami: Impact and Recovery" (PDF). undp.org.mv. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 March 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2015.  ^ a b c Autocracy and Back Again: The Ordeal of the Maldives. Brown Political Review. Retrieved on 10 May 2016. ^ Raajje News (7 May 2009). "he Quality of Political Appointees in the Nasheed Administration". Retrieved 21 February 2012.  ^ Al Jazeera (9 February 2012). " Maldives
president quits after protests". Retrieved 6 February 2012.  ^ The Huffington Post, ed. (8 October 2012). "Mohamed Nasheed, Former Maldives
President, Arrested after Failing to Appear in Court". Archived from the original on 10 March 2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 October 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2015.  ^ Maldives
President Escapes Unhurt After Explosion on Boat. Time.com (28 September 2015). Retrieved on 10 May 2016. ^ Maldives
declares 30-day emergency – BBC News. bbc.co.uk. Retrieved on 10 May 2016. ^ "Majlis passes declaration to remove VP from office". 5 November 2015. Archived from the original on 14 July 2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ " Maldives
revokes state of emergency amid global outcry and tourism worries". Retrieved 10 November 2015.  ^ Bosley, Daniel. (24 October 2015) Maldives
vice president arrested in probe of explosion targeting president. Reuters. Retrieved on 10 May 2016. ^ "Crisis in Maldives
- GK Padho". Retrieved 2018-02-13.  ^ " Maldives
hit by hundreds of holiday cancellations as state of emergency continues". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2018-02-27.  ^ "Entire Maldives
cabinet resigns". Al Jazeera English. 29 June 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ Megan Angelo (1 May 2009). "Honey, I Sunk the Maldives: Environmental changes could wipe out some of the world's most well-known travel destinations". Archived from the original on 17 July 2012.  ^ Kristina Stefanova (19 April 2009). "Climate refugees in Pacific flee rising sea".  ^ "Protected Areas – Maldives". epa.gov.mv. Environmental Protection Agency. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2013. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ " Maldives
– Atlapedia Online".  ^ "World Weather Information Service – Malé". WMO. Retrieved 17 March 2016.  ^ " Malé
Climate 1961–90". NOAA. Retrieved 17 March 2016.  ^ "Where climate change threatens survival". The Sydney Morning Herald. 9 January 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2015.  ^ Mörner N.-A.; Tooley M. & Possnert, G (7 May 2003). "New Perspectives for the future of the Maldives" (PDF). Retrieved 18 September 2015.  ^ Sea Level Trends – Global Regional Trends. Tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov (15 October 2013). Retrieved on 10 May 2016. ^ Stephen, Marcus (14 November 2011). "A sinking feeling: Why is the president of the tiny Pacific island nation of Nauru so concerned about climate change?". The New York Times Upfront. Retrieved 9 February 2015. Most Endangered Island nations at highest risk for flooding due to climate change 3 Maldives
(Indian Ocean)  ^ "Exclusive – Mohamed Nasheed
Mohamed Nasheed
Extended Interview Pt. 2". The Daily Show. Comedy Central. 2 April 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2017.  ^ World Nation (6 April 2012). "Endangered island nations call for global action on climate change". Guilfordian.com.  ^ https://presidencymaldives.gov.mv/Index.aspx?lid=12&dcid=7951 ^ Ramesh, Randeep (10 November 2008). "Paradise almost lost: Maldives seek to buy a new homeland". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 12 May 2010.  ^ Ramesh, Randeep (10 November 2008). "Paradise almost lost: Maldives seek to buy a new homeland". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ (AFP) – 22 April, "awareness of threats from climate change to low-lying nations such as the Maldives." ^ Lang, Olivia (17 October 2009). " Maldives
leader in climate change stunt". BBC News. Retrieved 19 October 2010.  ^ "Climate Change Gridlock: Where Do We Go From Here? (Part 1)". Making Contact. National Radio Project. 28 June 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2011.  ^ Evans, Judith (24 April 2015). " Maldives
island swamped by rising tide of waste". Financial Times. Retrieved 14 February 2017.  ^ "Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity of Maldives" (PDF). Ministry of Housing and Environment. p. 7. Archived from the original on 4 November 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2013. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ a b " Maldives
Marine Life". Scubadivemaldives.com. Archived from the original on 22 December 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2013. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Sharks of the Maldives". TheMaldives.com. Retrieved 12 February 2017.  ^ "Regional Workshop on the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Coral Reefs". Fao.org. Retrieved 2 April 2013.  ^ a b " Maldives
Nurses Its Coral Reefs Back to Life". Globalcoral.org. 2 May 2004. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.  ^ "Coral Bleaching Updates". MarineSavers. Marine Savers and Four Seasons Resorts Maldives
(2012–2017). Retrieved 12 February 2017.  ^ Ducarme, Frédéric (2016). "Field Observations of Sea Cucumbers in Ari Atoll, and Comparison with Two Nearby Atolls in Maldives" (PDF). SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin. 36.  ^ "Maldives' VP Hassan Takes Oath as President". Time Magazine. Male, Maldives. Associated Press. 7 February 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2012.  ^ " Maldives
crackdown an 'assault on democracy': UN rights chief". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 2018-02-08.  ^ " Maldives
Penal Code" (PDF). Retrieved 19 February 2013.  ^ Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im (2015). "Maldives, Republic of". Islamic Family Law. Emory University School of Law. Retrieved 18 February 2013.  ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Maldives". Foreign.gov.mv. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2010. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Davis, Thomas W. D. (2011). Human Rights in Asia. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-84844-680-9.  ^ Freedom House
Freedom House
(2011). " Freedom in the World
Freedom in the World
2011: Maldives". Freedom House. Retrieved 25 August 2012.  ^ Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor
(2012). "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2011: Maldives". United States Department of State. Retrieved 24 August 2012.  ^ "Britons urged to boycott Maldives
over sexist laws". 7 July 2013.  ^ "State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition" (PDF). International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. 17 May 2016.  ^ Secretary-General statement on Maldives
decision to leave the Commonwealth, 13 October 2016 ^ Maldives
quits Commonwealth over alleged rights abuses, The Guardian, 13 October 2016 ^ " Maldives
Atolls". Statoids.com. Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ a b Divehiraajjege Jōgrafīge Vanavaru. Muhammadu Ibrahim Lutfee ^ Lyon, James (October 2003). Maldives. Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-74059-176-8.  ^ Hogendorn, Jan and Johnson Marion (1986). The Shell Money of the Slave Trade. African Studies Series 49, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge
ISBN 0521541107. ^ "Coup? What coup? Tourists ignore Maldives
turmoil". The Age. Melbourne. 13 February 2012.  ^ "Ministry of Tourism. Retrieved 3 April 2009". Tourism.gov.mv. Retrieved 2 April 2013.  ^ "35 years of tourism" (PDF). Retrieved 2 April 2013.  ^ "Entry into Maldives". Department of Immigration and Emigration, Republic of Maldives. Retrieved 9 February 2012.  ^ "Islands by Population Size and Percentage Share of Total Population". Maldives: Population and Housing Census 2006. Ministry of Planning and National Development. Archived from the original on 19 September 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2012. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Census Analysis 2006. Population Projection 2006 – 2050" (PDF). planning.gov.mv. p. 273. Retrieved 5 July 2014.  ^ Maldives
to recruit more Bangladeshi workers, SATURDAY, 02 AUGUST 2008. ^ Maldives. globalreligiousfutures.org ^ "Conversion of the Maldives
to Islam". maldivesstory.com.mv. Archived from the original on 2003-05-09.  ^ " Maldives
Languages – Languages of Maldives – Language Spoken In Maldives". maldives.tourism-srilanka.com.  ^ Marcus, Anthony. 2012. Reconsidering Talaq: Marriage, Divorce and Sharia
Reform in the Republic of Maldives
in Chitra Raghavan and James Levine. Self-Determination and Women's Rights in Muslim
Societies. Lebanon, NH: Brandeis University Press ^ Maldives
– Élite Diving Agency. Elitedivingagency.com. Retrieved on 29 January 2014. ^ "The Maldives
National University". mnu.edu.mv.  ^ "The Maldives
National University". mnu.edu.mv. 

Further reading[edit]

Divehiraajjege Jōgrafīge Vanavaru. Muhammadu Ibrahim Lutfee. G.Sōsanī. Malé
1999. H. C. P. Bell, The Maldive Islands, An account of the Physical Features, History, Inhabitants, Productions and Trade. Colombo 1883, ISBN 81-206-1222-1. H.C.P. Bell, The Maldive Islands; Monograph on the History, Archaeology and Epigraphy. Reprint Colombo 1940. Council for Linguistic and Historical Research. Malé
1989. H.C.P. Bell, Excerpta Maldiviana. Reprint Colombo 1922/35 edn. Asian Educational Services. New Delhi 1999. Divehi Tārīkhah Au Alikameh. Divehi Bahāi Tārikhah Khidmaiykurā Qaumī Markazu. Reprint 1958 edn. Malé, Maldives
1990. Christopher, William (1836–38). Transactions of the Bombay Geographical Society, Vol. I. Bombay. Lieut. I.A. Young & W. Christopher, Memoirs on the Inhabitants of the Maldive Islands. Geiger, Wilhelm. Maldivian Linguistic Studies. Reprint 1919 edn. Asian Educational Services. Delhi 1999. Hockly, T.W. The Two Thousand Isles. Reprint 1835 edn. Asian Educational Services. Delhi 2003. Hideyuki Takahashi, Maldivian National Security –And the Threats of Mercenaries, The Round Table (London), No. 351, July 1999, pp. 433–444. Malten, Thomas: Malediven und Lakkadiven. Materialien zur Bibliographie der Atolle im Indischen Ozean. Beiträge zur Südasien-Forschung Südasien-Institut Universität Heidelberg, Nr. 87. Franz Steiner Verlag. Wiesbaden, 1983. Vilgon, Lars: Maldive and Minicoy
Islands Bibliography with the Laccadive Islands. Published by the author. Stockholm, 1994. Clarence Maloney, People of the Maldive Islands, Orient Black Swan, 2013 Xavier Romero-Frias, The Maldive Islanders : a study of the popular culture of an ancient ocean kingdom, NEI, 1999 Xavier Romero-Frias, Folk Tales of the Maldives, Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, 2012 Djan Sauerborn, The Perils of Rising Fundamentalism in the Maldives, International Relations and Security Network (ISN), Zürich, September 2013 Djan Sauerborn, Failing to Transition: Democratization under Stress in the Maldives, South Asia
Democratic Forum (SADF), February 2015

External links[edit]

Find more aboutMaldivesat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Travel guide from Wikivoyage

Official tourist information President's Office "Maldives". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  Maldives
from UCB Libraries GovPubs Maldives
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Maldives
from the BBC News Wikimedia Atlas of Maldives Key Development Forecasts for the Maldives
from International Futures Constitution of the Republic of Maldives

v t e

Maldives articles


Museum Folklore Buddhism Koimala Dynasties Sultans 1952 republic referendum 1968 republic referendum 1988 coup d'état 2003 civil unrest Black Friday 2004 tsunami 2005 civil unrest Multi-party democracy 2011–12 political crisis


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Outline Index

Book Category Portal

Articles related to the Maldives

  Geographic locale

v t e

Island-level constituencies of the Maldives

Haa Alif

Baarah Dhidhdhoo Filladhoo Hoarafushi Ihavandhoo Kelaa Maarandhoo Mulhadhoo Muraidhoo Thakandhoo Thuraakunu Uligan Utheemu Vashafaru

Haa Dhaalu

Finey Hanimaadhoo Hirimaradhoo Kulhudhuffushi Kumundhoo Kurinbi Makunudhoo Naivaadhoo Nellaidhoo Neykurendhoo Nolhivaram Nolhivaranfaru Vaikaradhoo


Bileffahi Feevah Feydhoo Foakaidhoo Funadhoo Goidhoo Kanditheemu Komandoo Lhaimagu Maaungoodhoo Maroshi Milandhoo Narudhoo Noomaraa


Foddhoo Henbandhoo Holhudhoo Kendhikolhudhoo Kudafaree Landhoo Lhohi Maafaru Maalhendhoo Magoodhoo Manadhoo Miladhoo Velidhoo


Alifushi Angolhitheemu Dhuvaafaru Fainu Hulhudhuffaaru Inguraidhoo Innamaadhoo Kinolhas Maakurathu Maduvvaree Meedhoo Rashgetheemu Rasmaadhoo Ungoofaaru Vaadhoo


Dharavandhoo Dhonfanu Eydhafushi Fehendhoo Fulhadhoo Goidhoo Hithaadhoo Kamadhoo Kendhoo Kihaadhoo Kudarikilu Maalhos Thulhaadhoo


Hinnavaru Kurendhoo Naifaru Olhuvelifushi


Dhiffushi Gaafaru Gulhi Guraidhoo Himmafushi Huraa Kaashidhoo Maafushi Thulusdhoo

Alif Alif

Bodufulhadhoo Feridhoo Himandhoo Maalhos Mathiveri Rasdhoo Thoddoo Ukulhas

Alif Dhaalu

Dhangethi Dhigurah Didhdhoo Fenfushi Hangnaameedhoo Kunburudhoo Maamingili Mahibadhoo Mandhoo Omadhoo


Felidhoo Fulidhoo Keyodhoo Rakeedhoo Thinadhoo


Dhiggaru Kolhufushi Maduvvaree Mulah Muli Naalaafushi Raimmandhoo Veyvah


Bileddhoo Dharanboodhoo Feeali Magoodhoo Nilandhoo


Bandidhoo Hulhudheli Kudahuvadhoo Maaenboodhoo Meedhoo Rinbudhoo

Kolhumadulu (Thaa)

Burunee Dhiyamingili Gaadhiffushi Guraidhoo Hirilandhoo Kandoodhoo Kinbidhoo Madifushi Omadhoo Thimarafushi Vandhoo Veymandoo Vilufushi


Dhanbidhoo Fonadhoo Gaadhoo Gan Hithadhoo Isdhoo Kalhaidhoo Kunahandhoo Maabaidhoo Maamendhoo Maavah Mundoo

Gaafu Alif

Dhaandhoo Dhevvadhoo Gemanafushi Kanduhulhudhoo Kolamaafushi Kondey Maamendhoo Nilandhoo Vilingili

Gaafu Dhaalu

Fares-Maathodaa Fiyoaree Gaddhoo Hoandeddhoo Madaveli Nadellaa Rathafandhoo Thinadhoo Vaadhoo



Dhadimagu Dhiguvaandu Dhoondigan Funaadu Hoadhadu Maadhadu Maalegan Miskiymagu

The capitals of each atoll are in bold. This list excludes first-level administrative divisions, Malé
and Addu cities.

v t e

First-level administrative divisions of the Maldives


Haa Alif Haa Dhaalu Shaviyani Noonu Raa Baa Lhaviyani Kaafu Alif Alif Alif Dhaal Vaavu Meemu Faafu Dhaalu Thaa Laamu Gaafu Alif Gaafu Dhaalu Gnaviyani


Malé Addu

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Countries and territories bordering the Indian Ocean


Comoros Djibouti Egypt Eritrea France

Mayotte Réunion

Kenya Madagascar Mauritius Mozambique Rodrigues
(Mauritius) Seychelles Somalia South Africa Sudan Tanzania Zanzibar, Tanzania


Bangladesh British Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean

Chagos Archipelago
Chagos Archipelago
- United Kingdom

Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia) India Indonesia Malaysia Maldives Myanmar Oman Pakistan Sri Lanka Thailand Timor-Leste Yemen



Australian Antarctic Territory French Southern and Antarctic Lands Heard Island and McDonald Islands


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Countries bordering the Arabian Sea

 India  Iran  Maldives  Oman  Pakistan  Somalia  Yemen

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Countries and dependencies of Asia

Sovereign states

Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China Cyprus Egypt Georgia India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan North Korea South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Oman Palestine Pakistan Philippines Qatar Russia Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Tajikistan Thailand East Timor
East Timor
(Timor-Leste) Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Artsakh Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Taiwan

Dependencies and special administrative regions


Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands


Hong Kong Macau

United Kingdom

Akrotiri and Dhekelia British Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean

International membership

v t e

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation


Afghanistan Albania Algeria Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Benin Burkina Faso Brunei Cameroon Chad Comoros Djibouti Egypt Gabon Gambia Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Indonesia Iran Iraq Ivory Coast Jordan Kuwait Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Lebanon Libya Maldives Malaysia Mali Mauritania Morocco Mozambique Niger Nigeria Oman Pakistan Palestine Qatar Saudi Arabia Senegal Sierra Leone Somalia Sudan Suriname Tajikistan Turkey Tunisia Togo Turkmenistan Uganda Uzbekistan United Arab Emirates Yemen




Countries and territories

Bosnia and Herzegovina Central African Republic Northern Cyprus1 Russia Thailand

Muslim communities

Moro National Liberation Front

International organizations

Economic Cooperation Organization African Union Arab League Non-Aligned Movement United Nations

1 As the "Turkish Cypriot State".

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South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation


South Asian Free Trade Area


Dhaka 1985 Bengaluru 1986 Kathmandu 1987 Islamabad 1988 Malé
1990 Colombo 1991 Dhaka 1993 New Delhi 1995 Malé
1997 Colombo 1998 Kathmandu 2002 Islamabad 2004 Dhaka 2005 New Delhi 2007 Colombo 2008 Thimphu 2010 Addu 2011 Kathmandu 2014 Islamabad 2016 (Cancelled) Next


 Afghanistan  Bangladesh  Bhutan  India  Maldives    Nepal  Pakistan  Sri Lanka


 Australia  China  European Union  Iran  Japan  Mauritius  Myanmar  South Korea  United States


 South Africa  Russia

Specialized agencies

SAARC Consortium on Open and Distance Learning SAARC Documentation Centre South Asia
Co-operative Environment Programme Foundation of SAARC Writers and Literature SAARC Chamber of Commerce and Industry South Asian Federation of Accountants

Related Articles

SAARC Secretary General SAARC Secretariat SAARC satellite South Asian University South Asian Games SAARC Literary Award SAARC Road SAARC Fountain

v t e

World Trade Organization


Accession and membership Appellate Body Dispute Settlement Body International Trade Centre Chronology of key events


Criticism Doha
Development Round Singapore
issues Quota Elimination Peace Clause


General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Agriculture Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Technical Barriers to Trade Trade Related Investment Measures Trade in Services Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Government Procurement Information Technology Marrakech Agreement Doha
Declaration Bali Package

Ministerial Conferences

1st (1996) 2nd (1998) 3rd (1999) 4th (2001) 5th (2003) 6th (2005) 7th (2009) 8th (2011) 9th (2013) 10th (2015)


Roberto Azevêdo
Roberto Azevêdo
(Director-General) Pascal Lamy Supachai Panitchpakdi Alejandro Jara Rufus Yerxa


Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belize Benin Bolivia Botswana Brazil Brunei Burkina Faso Burma Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Costa Rica Côte d'Ivoire Cuba Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Gabon The Gambia Georgia Ghana Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong1 Iceland India Indonesia Israel Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lesotho Liberia Liechtenstein Macau1 Macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Qatar Russia Rwanda St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Saudi Arabia Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Switzerland Tajikistan Taiwan2 Tanzania Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United States Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe

European Union

Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom

administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao China". Officially the Republic of China, participates as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu", and "Chinese Taipei" in short.

v t e

Non-Aligned Movement


List of members of Non-Aligned Movement India
and the Non-Aligned Movement Yugoslavia
and the Non-Aligned Movement Egypt
and the Non-Aligned Movement



NAM News Network


Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence


Bandung Conference Non-Aligned Foreign Ministers Conference 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement


Josip Broz Tito (Yugoslavia) Sukarno (Indonesia) Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
(India) Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
(Ghana) Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt)


Houari Boumediene Fidel Castro Nelson Mandela Mohamed Morsi Nicolás Maduro

v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century


Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia
and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 173440507 LCCN: n81139903 GND: 4037212-1 BNF: cb11932321r (data) NDL: 00567502

Coordinates: 3°12′N 73°13′E / 3.20°N 73.22°