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The Majdanek
Majdanek
State Museum (Polish: Państwowe Muzeum na Majdanku)[3] is a memorial museum and education centre founded in the fall of 1944 on the grounds of the Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
Majdanek
Majdanek
death camp located in Lublin, Poland. It was the first museum of its kind in the world,[4] devoted entirely to the memory of atrocities committed in the network of slave-labor camps and subcamps of KL Lublin
Lublin
during World War II. The museum performs several tasks including scholarly research into the Holocaust in Poland. It houses a permanent collection of rare artifacts, archival photographs, and testimony.[1] The museum[edit]

The Majdanek
Majdanek
State Museum Info Centre display

Majdanek
Majdanek
concentration camp, June 24, 1944

Original gas chamber with visible Zyklon B
Zyklon B
blue stain on the back wall, permanently burned into the cement next to the release duct [5]

Overview of the Majdanek
Majdanek
Memorial containing the mound of ashes of camp victims

The symbolic Majdanek
Majdanek
Pylon on the 64 anniversary of the camp liquidation. The relief, which resembles an abstracted Yiddish sign similar to Lublin
Lublin
(לובלין) is supposed to represent mangled bodies.[6]

The Majdanek
Majdanek
concentration camp site was preserved as a museum by the fall of 1944, the best example of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
the Holocaust death camps, with intact gas chambers and crematoria. After the camp's liberation by the advancing Red Army
Red Army
on July 23, 1944, the site has been formally protected.[7] The camp became a state monument of martyrology by the 1947 decree of the Polish Parliament (Sejm).[1] In the same year, some 1,300 m³ of surface soil mixed with human ashes and fragments of bones were collected and arranged into a large mound (since turned into a mausoleum).[3] By comparison, the Auschwitz concentration camp liberated a half a year later, on January 27, 1945 was first declared a national monument in April 1946, but handed over to Poland
Poland
by the Red Army
Red Army
only in 1947. The act of Polish Parliament of July 2, 1947 declared them both as state monuments of martyrology at the same time (Dz.U. 1947 nr 52 poz. 264/265).[8] Majdanek
Majdanek
received the status of Poland's national museum in 1965.[3] The retreating Germans did not have time to destroy the facility. During its 34 months of operation, more than 79,000 people were murdered at Majdanek
Majdanek
main camp alone (59,000 of them Polish Jews) and between 95,000 and 130,000 people in the entire Majdanek
Majdanek
system of subcamps.[9] Some 18,000 Jews were killed at Majdanek
Majdanek
on November 3, 1943, during the largest single-day, single-camp massacre of the Holocaust,[10] named Harvest Festival (totalling 43,000 with 2 subcamps).[11] In 1969, on the 25th anniversary of the Majdanek
Majdanek
liberation, a stunningly emotional monument dedicated to Holocaust victims was erected on the grounds of the former Nazi extermination camp. It was designed by a Polish sculptor and architect Wiktor Tołkin,[3] who also designed the symbolic tombstone at Stutthof.[12] The monument consists of three parts, the symbolic Pylon (gate, 11 meters tall and 35 meters wide), the road, and the Mausoleum, containing a mound of ashes of the victims.[13] The Museum is also in possession of the archives left behind by the SS after a failed attempt at their destruction by Obersturmführer Anton Thernes, tried at the Majdanek Trials.[9] Recent history[edit] In 2003, a new obelisk was erected at Majdanek
Majdanek
to the memory of Jewish victims of Erntefest. In 2004, a new branch of Majdanek
Majdanek
State Museum was inaugurated at the Belzec extermination camp
Belzec extermination camp
nearby. Belzec was created for implementing the Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
during the Holocaust. And finally, in 2005 additional archeological works were conducted, resulting in new items being unearthed at the camp site, buried by Jewish prisoners in 1943.[3] On September 2, 2009 the Majdanek
Majdanek
Museum was awarded the Gold Medal Gloria Artis for outstanding contributions to Polish culture by Deputy State Secretary Minister Tomasz Merta. Two other recipients included the Muzeum Stutthof and the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum.[14] There was a massive fire at one of the barracks in Majdanek
Majdanek
on the night of August 9/10, 2010. Some 7,000 pairs of prisoners' shoes were destroyed – stated the museum administration. The cause of the blaze is unknown.[15] The museum states that bringing children under 13 to Majdanek
Majdanek
is not advisable, because it is also forbidden to behave there noisily.[16] Since May 1, 2012 the Museum also serves as the main branch of the Sobibór Museum
Sobibór Museum
nearby.[17] Notes and references[edit]

^ a b c "Regulamin organizacyjny Państwowego Muzeum na Majdanku". Dz. U. z 1947 r. nr 52, poz. 265. Biuletyn Informacji Publicznej (Bulletin of Public Information, Republic of Poland). 2006. Retrieved April 28, 2013.  ^ "Statystyki". Frekwencja zwiedzających. Państwowe Muzeum na Majdanku. 2011. Retrieved 2013-04-28.  ^ a b c d e "Kalendarium". Powstanie Państwowego Muzeum (Creation of the Museum). Państwowe Muzeum na Majdanku. Archived from the original on 2011-02-13. Retrieved 2013-04-09.  ^ " Majdanek
Majdanek
State Museum". Lublin
Lublin
Sights. Lonely Planet. 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-29.  ^ "Crematorium at Majdanek". Jewish Virtual Library. 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-15.  ^ Danuta Olesiuk, Krzysztof Kokowicz. ""Jeśli ludzie zamilkną, głazy wołać będą." Pomnik ku czci ofiar Majdanka". Państwowe Muzeum na Majdanku ( Majdanek
Majdanek
State Museum). Archived from the original on 2014-10-23. Retrieved 2013-04-29.  ^ "Majdanek" (PDF). Majdanek
Majdanek
concentration camp. Yad Vashem. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 27, 2007. Retrieved 2013-04-14.  ^ Dziennik Ustaw (2013). "Ustawa z dnia 2 lipca 1947 r". Internetowy System Aktow Prawnych. Kancelaria Sejmu RP. Retrieved 2013-04-28.  ^ a b Paweł Reszka (Dec 23, 2005). " Majdanek
Majdanek
Victims Enumerated. Changes in the history textbooks?". Gazeta Wyborcza. Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum. Archived from the original (Internet Archive) on November 6, 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2013.  ^ USHMM (May 11, 2012). "Soviet forces liberate Majdanek". Lublin/Majdanek: Chronology. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, D.C. Retrieved 2013-04-13.  ^ Jennifer Rosenberg. "Aktion Erntefest". 20th Century History. About.com Education. Archived from the original on December 27, 2016. Retrieved April 28, 2013.  ^ PINNEX (2013). "Tołkin, Wiktor (b. 1922)". Encyklopedia Internautica. Interia.pl. Retrieved 2013-04-28.  ^ Kazimierz S. Ożóg (June 7, 2006). "Pomnik Ofiar Majdanka (Majdanek Monument)". Pomniki Lublina (The Monuments of Lublin). Archived from the original (WebCite) on April 29, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2013.  ^ "Złote medale Zasłużony Kulturze Gloria Artis dla Muzeum Stutthof w Sztutowie, Państwowego Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau oraz Państwowego Muzeum na Majdanku". MKiDN.Gov.pl. 2 września 2009. Retrieved April 28, 2013.  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ GPL (10 August 2010). "Pożar na terenie byłego obozu na Majdanku. Straty na milion złotych" (in Polish). Gazeta.pl Lublin. Retrieved 2013-04-27.  ^ "Visiting the State Museum at Majdanek". General Rules and Regulations. The State Museum at Majdanek. 2006. Retrieved 16 November 2013.  ^ MBOZS (2013). "Sobibór extermination camp. Commemoration". The State Museum at Majdanek. Archived from the original on January 13, 2015. Retrieved June 8, 2013. 

Państwowe Muzeum na Majdanku (The Majdanek
Majdanek
State Museum) official website. Internet portal "KL Lublin" ((in Polish)) Towarzystwo Opieki nad Majdankiem – Oddział w Białymstoku (The Society for the Preservation of Majdanek) official website.

Media related to KZ Majdanek
Majdanek
at Wikimedia Commons

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The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Poland

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Camps, ghettos and operations

Camps

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Chełmno Majdanek Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
death camps

Bełżec Sobibór Treblinka

Concentration

Kraków-Płaszów Potulice Soldau Stutthof Szebnie Trawniki Warsaw

Mass shootings

AB Action Bronna Góra Erntefest Jedwabne Kielce cemetery Aktion Krakau Lviv pogroms Lwów professors Palmiry Sonderaktion Krakau Tannenberg Tykocin Bydgoszcz Wąsosz Bloody Sunday

Ghettos

List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Poland
(1939–1942) Będzin Białystok Brest Częstochowa Grodno Kielce Kraków Lwów Łódź Lubartów Lublin Międzyrzec Podlaski Mizocz Nowy Sącz Pińsk Radom Siedlce Sambor Słonim Sosnowiec Stanisławów Tarnopol Wilno Warsaw

Other atrocities

Action T4 Grossaktion Warsaw Human medical experimentation

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Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

Major perpetrators

Organizers

Josef Bühler Eichmann Eicke Ludwig Fischer Hans Frank Globocnik Glücks Greiser Himmler Hermann Höfle Fritz Katzmann Wilhelm Koppe Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger Kutschera Erwin Lambert Ernst Lerch Oswald Pohl Reinefarth Scherner Seyss-Inquart Sporrenberg Streckenbach Thomalla Otto Wächter Wisliceny

Camp command

Aumeier Baer Boger Braunsteiner Eberl Eupen Kurt Franz Karl Frenzel Karl Fritzsch Göth Grabner Hartjenstein Hering Höss Hössler Josef Kramer Liebehenschel Mandel Matthes Michel Möckel Mulka Johann Niemann Oberhauser Reichleitner Heinrich Schwarz Stangl Gustav Wagner Christian Wirth

Gas chamber executioners

Erich Bauer Bolender Hackenholt Klehr Hans Koch Herbert Lange Theuer

Physicians

von Bodmann Clauberg Gebhardt Fritz Klein Mengele Horst Schumann Trzebinski Eduard Wirths

Ghetto command

Auerswald Biebow Blösche Bürkl Konrad Palfinger von Sammern-Frankenegg Stroop

Einsatzgruppen

Wolfgang Birkner Blobel Felix Landau Schaper Schöngarth von Woyrsch

Personnel

Camp guards

Juana Bormann Danz Demjanjuk Margot Dreschel Kurt Gerstein Grese Höcker Kaduk Kollmer Muhsfeldt Orlowski Volkenrath

By camp

Sobibór Treblinka

Organizations

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
(SS) Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
(Orpo battalions) WVHA RKFDV VoMi General Government Hotel Polski

Collaboration

Belarusian

Belarusian Auxiliary Police BKA battalions Brigade Siegling Black Cats Central Rada

Jewish

Jewish Ghetto Police Żagiew ("Torch Guard") Group 13 Kapos Judenräte

Russian

Waffen-SS "RONA" Waffen-SS "Russland" Ostlegionen, Bataillone (Cossack Division, Russian "ROA")

Ukrainian

Ukrainian Auxiliary Police SS Galizien Ukrainian Liberation Army Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Battalion 118, Brigade Siegling, 30. Waffen SS Grenadier Division) Trawnikimänner

Other nationalities

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Latvian Auxiliary Police
(Arajs Kommando) Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
(Schutzmannschaft, Ypatingasis būrys) Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten
(Nederlandsche SS)

v t e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

Organizations

AK AOB Bund GL PKB ŻOB ŻZA

Uprisings

Ghetto uprisings Białystok Częstochowa Sobibór Treblinka Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising

Leaders

Mordechai Anielewicz Icchak Cukierman Mordechai Tenenbaum Marek Edelman Leon Feldhendler Paweł Frenkiel Henryk Iwański Itzhak Katzenelson Michał Klepfisz Miles Lerman Alexander Pechersky Witold Pilecki Frumka Płotnicka Roza Robota Szmul Zygielbojm

Judenrat

Jewish Ghetto Police Adam Czerniaków Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

Victim lists

Ghettos

Kraków Łódź Lvov (Lwów) Warsaw

Camps

Auschwitz Bełżec Gross-Rosen Izbica Majdanek Sobibór Soldau Stutthof Trawniki Treblinka

Documentation

Nazi sources

Auschwitz Album Frank Memorandum Höcker Album Höfle Telegram Katzmann Report Korherr Report Nisko Plan Posen speeches Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland Stroop Report Wannsee Conference

Witness accounts

Graebe affidavit Gerstein Report Vrba–Wetzler report Witold's Report Sonderkommando photographs

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

Technical and logistics

Identification in camps Gas chamber Gas van Holocaust train Human medical experimentation Zyklon B

v t e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

Aftermath

Holocaust survivors Polish population transfers (1944–1946) Bricha Kielce pogrom Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 Ministry of Public Security

Trials

West German trials

Frankfurt Auschwitz trials Treblinka trials

Polish, East German, and Soviet trials

Auschwitz trial
Auschwitz trial
(Poland) Stutthof trials Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Memorials

Museum of the History of Polish Jews Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum Majdanek
Majdanek
State Museum Sobibór Museum International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz March of the Living

Righteous Among the Nations

Polish Righteous Among the Nations Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust Garde

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