The Info List - Maine

(/meɪn/) is a U.S. state
U.S. state
in the New England
New England
region of the northeastern United States. Maine
is the 39th most extensive and the 9th least populous of the U.S. states. It is bordered by New Hampshire to the west, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the southeast, and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick
New Brunswick
and Quebec
to the northeast and northwest respectively. Maine
is the easternmost state in the contiguous United States, and the northernmost east of the Great Lakes. It is known for its jagged, rocky coastline; low, rolling mountains; heavily forested interior; and picturesque waterways, as well as its seafood cuisine, especially clams and lobster. There is a humid continental climate throughout the state, even in coastal areas such as its most populous city of Portland.[16] The capital is Augusta. For thousands of years, indigenous peoples were the only inhabitants of the territory that is now Maine. At the time of European arrival in what is now Maine, several Algonquian-speaking peoples inhabited the area. The first European settlement in the area was by the French in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons. The first English settlement was the short-lived Popham Colony, established by the Plymouth Company in 1607. A number of English settlements were established along the coast of Maine
in the 1620s, although the rugged climate, deprivations, and conflict with the local peoples caused many to fail over the years. As Maine
entered the 18th century, only a half dozen European settlements had survived. Loyalist and Patriot forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution
American Revolution
and the War of 1812. At the close of the War of 1812, it was occupied by British forces, but the territory of Maine
was returned to the United States
United States
as part of a peace treaty that was to include dedicated land on the Michigan peninsula for Native American peoples. Maine
was part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts
until 1820, when it voted to secede from Massachusetts
to become a separate state. On March 15, 1820, under the Missouri
Compromise, it was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state.


1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Demographics

4.1 Race, ancestry and language 4.2 Birth data 4.3 Religion

5 Economy

5.1 Taxation 5.2 Shipbuilding

6 Transportation

6.1 Airports 6.2 Highways 6.3 Rail

6.3.1 Passenger 6.3.2 Freight

7 Law and government

7.1 Counties 7.2 State and local politics 7.3 Federal politics

8 Municipalities

8.1 Organized municipalities 8.2 Unorganized territory 8.3 Most populous cities and towns

9 Education 10 Culture

10.1 Sports teams

10.1.1 Professional 10.1.2 Non-professional 10.1.3 NCAA

10.2 State symbols 10.3 In popular culture

11 Notable people 12 See also 13 References

13.1 Notes 13.2 Citations

14 External links

Etymology[edit] There is no definitive explanation for the origin of the name "Maine", but the most likely origin is that the name was given by early explorers after the former province of Maine
in France. Whatever the origin, the name was fixed for English settlers in 1665 when the English King's Commissioners ordered that the "Province of Maine" be entered from then on in official records.[17] The state legislature in 2001 adopted a resolution establishing Franco-American Day, which stated that the state was named after the former French province of Maine.[18] Other theories mention earlier places with similar names, or claim it is a nautical reference to the mainland.[19] Attempts to uncover the history of the name of Maine
began with James Sullivan's 1795 "History of the District of Maine". He made the unsubstantiated claim that the Province of Maine
Province of Maine
was a compliment to the queen of Charles I, Henrietta Maria, who once "owned" the Province of Maine
Province of Maine
in France. This was quoted by Maine
historians until the 1845 biography of that queen by Agnes Strickland[20] established that she had no connection to the Province of Maine
Province of Maine
in France; further, King Charles I married Henrietta Maria
Henrietta Maria
in 1625, three years after the name Maine
first appeared on the charter.[21] A new theory, put forward by Carol B. Smith Fisher in 2002, is that Sir Ferdinando Gorges
Ferdinando Gorges
chose the name in 1622 to honor the village where his ancestors first lived in England, rather than the province in France. "MAINE" appears in the Domesday Book
of 1086 in reference to the county of Dorset, which is today Broadmayne, just southeast of Dorchester.[21][22] The view generally held among British place name scholars is that Mayne in Dorset
is Brythonic, corresponding to modern Welsh "maen", plural "main" or "meini".[citation needed] Some early spellings are: MAINE 1086, MEINE 1200, MEINES 1204, MAYNE 1236.[citation needed] Today the village is known as Broadmayne, which is primitive Welsh or Brythonic, "main" meaning rock or stone, considered a reference to the many large sarsen stones still present around Little Mayne farm, half a mile northeast of Broadmayne
village.[23][24] The first known record of the name appears in an August 10, 1622 land charter to Sir Ferdinando Gorges
Ferdinando Gorges
and Captain John Mason, English Royal Navy veterans, who were granted a large tract in present-day Maine that Mason and Gorges "intend to name the Province of Maine". Mason had served with the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
in the Orkney Islands, where the chief island is called Mainland, a possible name derivation for these English sailors.[17] In 1623, the English naval captain Christopher Levett, exploring the New England
New England
coast, wrote: "The first place I set my foote upon in New England
New England
was the Isle of Shoals, being Ilands [sic] in the sea, above two Leagues from the Mayne."[25] Initially, several tracts along the coast of New England
New England
were referred to as Main or Maine
(cf. the Spanish Main). A reconfirmed and enhanced April 3, 1639 charter, from England's King Charles I, gave Sir Ferdinando Gorges increased powers over his new province and stated that it "shall forever hereafter, be called and named the PROVINCE OR COUNTIE OF MAINE, and not by any other name or names whatsoever..."[21][26] Maine
is the only U.S. state
U.S. state
whose name has exactly one syllable.[27][28] History[edit] Main article: History of Maine

Settlement of the northern borders by the Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842

State House, designed by Charles Bulfinch, built 1829–1832

Misty Morning, Coast of Maine

Arthur Parton (1842–1914). Between 1865 and 1870, Brooklyn Museum

The original inhabitants of the territory that is now Maine
were Algonquian-speaking Wabanaki peoples, including the Passamaquoddy, Maliseet, Penobscot, Kennebec and Androscoggin. During the later King Phillip's War, many of these peoples would merge in one form or another to become the Wabanaki Confederacy, aiding the Wampanoag
of Massachusetts
& the Mahican
of New York. Afterwards, many of these people were driven from their natural territories, but most of the tribes of Maine
continued, unchanged, until the American Revolution. Before this point, however, most of these people were considered separate nations. Many had adapted to living in permanent, Iroquois-inspired settlements, while those along the coast tended to be semi-nomadic—traveling from settlement to settlement on a yearly cycle. They would usually winter inland & head to the coasts by summer.[29][30] European contact with what is now called Maine
started around 1200 CE when Norwegians interacted with the native Penobscot
in present-day Hancock County, most likely through trade. About 200 years earlier, from the settlements in Iceland
and Greenland, Norwegians had first identified America and attempted to settle areas such as Newfoundland, but failed to establish a permanent settlement there. Archeological evidence suggests that Norwegians in Greenland
returned to North America for several centuries after the initial discovery to collect timber and to trade, with the most relevant evidence being the Maine Penny, an 11th-century Norwegian coin found at a Native American dig site in 1954.[31] The first European settlement in Maine
was in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, led by French explorer Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons; his party included Samuel de Champlain, noted as an explorer. The French named the entire area Acadia, including the portion that later became the state of Maine. The first English settlement in Maine
was established by the Plymouth Company at the Popham Colony
Popham Colony
in 1607, the same year as the settlement at Jamestown, Virginia. The Popham colonists returned to Britain after 14 months.[32] The French established two Jesuit
missions: one on Penobscot
Bay in 1609, and the other on Mount Desert Island
Mount Desert Island
in 1613. The same year, Castine was established by Claude de La Tour. In 1625, Charles de Saint-Étienne de la Tour erected Fort Pentagouet
Fort Pentagouet
to protect Castine. The coastal areas of western Maine
first became the Province of Maine in a 1622 land patent. The part of Eastern Maine
north of the Kennebec River was more sparsely settled, and was known in the 17th century
17th century
as the Territory of Sagadahock. A second settlement was attempted in 1623 by English explorer and naval Captain Christopher Levett
Christopher Levett
at a place called York, where he had been granted 6,000 acres (24 km2) by King Charles I of England.[33] It also failed. Central Maine
was formerly inhabited by people of the Androscoggin tribe of the Abenaki
nation, also known as Arosaguntacook. They were driven out of the area in 1690 during King William's War. They were relocated at St. Francis, Canada, which was destroyed by Rogers' Rangers in 1759, and is now Odanak. The other Abenaki
tribes suffered several severe defeats, particularly during Dummer's War, with the capture of Norridgewock
in 1724 and the defeat of the Pequawket
in 1725, which greatly reduced their numbers. They finally withdrew to Canada, where they were settled at Bécancour and Sillery, and later at St. Francis, along with other refugee tribes from the south.[34] The province within its current boundaries became part of Massachusetts
Bay Colony in 1652. Maine
was much fought over by the French, English, and allied natives during the 17th and early 18th centuries, who conducted raids against each other, taking captives for ransom or, in some cases, adoption by Native American tribes. A notable example was the early 1692 Abenaki
raid on York, where about 100 English settlers were killed and another estimated 80 taken hostage.[35] The Abenaki
took captives taken during raids of Massachusetts
in Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
of the early 1700s to Kahnewake, a Catholic
Mohawk village near Montreal, where some were adopted and others ransomed.[36][37] After the British defeated the French in Acadia
in the 1740s, the territory from the Penobscot
River east fell under the nominal authority of the Province of Nova Scotia, and together with present-day New Brunswick
New Brunswick
formed the Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
county of Sunbury, with its court of general sessions at Campobello. American and British forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution and the War of 1812, with the British occupying eastern Maine
in both conflicts.[38] The territory of Maine
was confirmed as part of Massachusetts
when the United States
United States
was formed following the Treaty of Paris ending the revolution, although the final border with British North America was not established until the Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842. Maine
was physically separate from the rest of Massachusetts. Long-standing disagreements over land speculation and settlements led to Maine
residents and their allies in Massachusetts
proper forcing an 1807 vote in the Massachusetts
Assembly on permitting Maine
to secede; the vote failed. Secessionist sentiment in Maine
was stoked during the War of 1812
War of 1812
when Massachusetts
pro-British merchants opposed the war and refused to defend Maine
from British invaders. In 1819, Massachusetts
agreed to permit secession, sanctioned by voters of the rapidly growing region the following year. Formal secession and formation of the state of Maine
as the 23rd state occurred on March 15, 1820, as part of the Missouri
Compromise, which geographically limited the spread of slavery and enabled the admission to statehood of Missouri
the following year, keeping a balance between slave and free states.[39][40][41] Maine's original state capital was Portland, Maine's largest city, until it was moved to the more central Augusta in 1832. The principal office of the Maine Supreme Judicial Court
Maine Supreme Judicial Court
remains in Portland. The 20th Maine
Volunteer Infantry Regiment, under the command of Colonel Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, prevented the Union Army
Union Army
from being flanked at Little Round Top
Little Round Top
by the Confederate Army
Confederate Army
during the Battle of Gettysburg. Four U.S. Navy ships have been named USS Maine, most famously the armored cruiser USS Maine (ACR-1), whose sinking by an explosion on 15 February 1898 precipitated the Spanish–American War. Geography[edit]

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See also: List of counties in Maine, List of Maine
rivers, List of lakes in Maine, Geology of Maine, and Geology of New England

A map of Maine
and surrounding regions

To the south and east is the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and to the north and northeast is New Brunswick, a province of Canada. The Canadian province of Quebec
is to the northwest. Maine
is both the northernmost state in New England
New England
and the largest, accounting for almost half the region's entire land area. Maine
is the only state to border only one other state ( New Hampshire
New Hampshire
to the west). Maine
is the easternmost state in the United States
United States
in both its extreme points and its geographic center. The municipalities of Eastport and Lubec are, respectively, the easternmost city and town in the United States. Estcourt Station is Maine's northernmost point, as well as the northernmost point in New England. (For more information see extreme points of the United States.) Maine's Moosehead Lake
Moosehead Lake
is the largest lake wholly in New England, as Lake Champlain
Lake Champlain
is located between Vermont, New York and Quebec. A number of other Maine
lakes, such as South Twin Lake, are described by Thoreau
in The Maine
Woods (1864). Mount Katahdin
Mount Katahdin
is both the northern terminus of the Appalachian Trail, which extends southerly to Springer Mountain, Georgia, and the southern terminus of the new International Appalachian Trail
Appalachian Trail
which, when complete, will run to Belle Isle, Newfoundland
and Labrador. Maine
has several unique geographical features. Machias Seal Island and North Rock, off its easternmost point, are claimed by both the U.S. and Canada
and are within one of four areas between the two countries whose sovereignty is still in dispute, but it is the only one of the disputed areas containing land. Also in this easternmost area in the Bay of Fundy
Bay of Fundy
is the Old Sow, the largest tidal whirlpool in the Western Hemisphere. Maine
is the least densely populated U.S. state
U.S. state
east of the Mississippi
River. It is called the Pine Tree State; about 83% of its land is forested,[42] the most forest cover of any U.S. state. In the forested areas of the interior lies much uninhabited land, some of which does not have formal political organization into local units (a rarity in New England). The Northwest Aroostook, Maine
Northwest Aroostook, Maine
unorganized territory in the northern part of the state, for example, has an area of 2,668 square miles (6,910 km2) and a population of 10, or one person for every 267 square miles (690 km2). Maine
is in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome. The land near the southern and central Atlantic coast is covered by the mixed oaks of the Northeastern coastal forests. The remainder of the state, including the North Woods, is covered by the New England-Acadian forests.[43] Maine
has almost 230 miles (400 km) of coastline (and 3,500 miles (5,600 km) of tidal coastline).[44][45] West Quoddy Head, in Lubec, Maine, is the easternmost point of land in the 48 contiguous states. Along the famous rock-bound coast of Maine
are lighthouses, beaches, fishing villages, and thousands of offshore islands, including the Isles of Shoals
Isles of Shoals
which straddle the New Hampshire
New Hampshire
border. There are jagged rocks and cliffs and many bays and inlets. Inland are lakes, rivers, forests, and mountains. This visual contrast of forested slopes sweeping down to the sea has been summed up by American poet Edna St. Vincent Millay
Edna St. Vincent Millay
of Rockland and Camden, Maine, in "Renascence":

The coast of Maine
near Acadia
National Park

Boothbay Harbor

"All I could see from where I stood Was three long mountains and a wood; I turned and looked the other way, And saw three islands in a bay."

Geologists describe this type of landscape as a "drowned coast", where a rising sea level has invaded former land features, creating bays out of valleys and islands out of mountain tops.[46] A rise in the elevation of the land due to the melting of heavy glacier ice caused a slight rebounding effect of underlying rock; this land rise, however, was not enough to eliminate all the effect of the rising sea level and its invasion of former land features. Much of Maine's geomorphology was created by extended glacial activity at the end of the last ice age. Prominent glacial features include Somes Sound
Somes Sound
and Bubble Rock, both part of Acadia
National Park on Mount Desert Island. Carved by glaciers, Somes Sound
Somes Sound
is considered to be the only fjord on the eastern seaboard and reaches depths of 175 feet (50 m). The extreme depth and steep drop-off allow large ships to navigate almost the entire length of the sound. These features also have made it attractive for boat builders, such as the prestigious Hinckley Yachts. Bubble Rock, a glacial erratic, is a large boulder perched on the edge of Bubble Mountain in Acadia
National Park. By analyzing the type of granite, geologists were able to discover that glaciers carried Bubble Rock to its present location from near Lucerne – 30 miles (48 km) away. The Iapetus Suture
Iapetus Suture
runs through the north and west of the state, being underlain by the ancient Laurentian terrane, and the south and east underlain by the Avalonian terrane. Acadia
National Park is the only national park in New England. Areas under the protection and management of the National Park Service include:[47]

National Park near Bar Harbor Appalachian National Scenic Trail Maine
Acadian Culture in St. John Valley Roosevelt Campobello International Park
Roosevelt Campobello International Park
on Campobello Island
Campobello Island
in New Brunswick, Canada, operated by both the US and Canada, just across the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Bridge
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Bridge
from Lubec. Saint Croix Island International Historic Site
Saint Croix Island International Historic Site
at Calais Katahdin Woods and Waters National Monument Maine
State Parks Maine
Wildlife Management Areas (WMA)


in Stratton

in Bangor

has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb), with warm (although generally not hot), humid summers. Winters are cold and snowy throughout the state, and are especially severe in the northern parts of Maine. Coastal areas are moderated somewhat by the Atlantic Ocean, resulting in milder winters and cooler summers in immediate coastal areas. Daytime highs are generally in the 75–80 °F (24–27 °C) range throughout the state in July, with overnight lows in the high 50s °F (around 15 °C). January temperatures range from highs near 32 °F (0 °C) on the southern coast to overnight lows averaging below 0 °F (−18 °C) in the far north.[48] The state's record high temperature is 105 °F (41 °C), set in July 1911, at North Bridgton.[49] Precipitation in Maine
is evenly distributed year-round, but with a slight summer maximum in northern/northwestern Maine
and a slight late-fall or early-winter maximum along the coast due to "nor'easters" or intense cold-season storms. In coastal Maine, the late spring and summer months are usually driest – a rarity across the Eastern United States. Maine has fewer days of thunderstorms than any other state east of the Rockies, with most of the state averaging less than 20 days of thunderstorms a year. Tornadoes are rare in Maine, with the state averaging fewer than two per year, mostly occurring in the southern part of the state.[50] Maine
rarely sees tropical cyclones. In January 2009, a new record low temperature for the state was set at Big Black River of −50 °F (−46 °C), tying the New England
record.[48] Annual precipitation varies from 909 mm (35.8 in) in Presque Isle, to 1,441 mm (56.7 in) in Acadia
National Park.[51]

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Maine[52]

Location July (°F) July (°C) January (°F) January (°C)

Portland 78/59 26/15 31/13 −0/−10

Lewiston 81/61 27/16 29/11 −2/−12

Bangor 79/57 26/14 27/6 −2/−14

Augusta 79/60 26/15 27/11 −2/−11

Presque Isle 77/55 25/13 20/1 −6/−17


Historical population

Census Pop.

1790 96,540

1800 151,719


1810 228,705


1820 298,335


1830 399,455


1840 501,793


1850 583,169


1860 628,279


1870 626,915


1880 648,936


1890 661,086


1900 694,466


1910 742,371


1920 768,014


1930 797,423


1940 847,226


1950 913,774


1960 969,265


1970 992,048


1980 1,124,660


1990 1,227,928


2000 1,274,923


2010 1,328,361


Est. 2017 1,335,907


Source: 1910–2010[53] 2015 estimate[54]

The United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
estimates that the population of Maine was 1,329,328 on July 1, 2015, a 0.07% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[54] The population density of the state is 41.3 people per square mile, making it the least densely populated state in New England, the American northeast, the eastern seaboard, of all of the states with an Atlantic coastline and of all of the states east of the Mississippi
River. The mean population center of Maine
is located in Kennebec County, just east of Augusta.[55] The Greater Portland metropolitan area is the most densely populated with nearly 40% of Maine's population.[56] Portland's estimated population in 2016 was 66,937.[57] As explained in detail under "Geography", there are large tracts of uninhabited land in some remote parts of the interior. Maine
has experienced a very slow rate of population growth since the 1990 census; its rate of growth (0.57%) since the 2010 census ranks 45th of the 50 states.[58] The modest population growth in the state has been concentrated in the southern coastal counties; the northern, more rural areas of the state have experienced a significant decline in population in recent years.[59] Race, ancestry and language[edit] At the 2010 Census, 94.4% of the population was non-Hispanic White, 1.1% non-Hispanic Black or African American, 0.6% American Indian and Alaska
Native, 1.0% Asian, 0.1% from some other race and 1.4% of two or more races. 1.3% of Maine's population was of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin.[60]

population by race

Racial composition 1990[61] 2000[62] 2010[63]

White 98.4% 96.9% 95.2%

Black 0.4% 0.5% 1.2%

Asian 0.5% 0.7% 1.0%

Native 0.5% 0.6% 0.6%

Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific Islander – – –

Other race 0.1% 0.2% 0.3%

Two or more races – 1.0% 1.6%

Largest ancestries (2011) [64] Percent

English 21.6%

Irish 17.8%

French 16.3%

American 9.4%

German 8.5%

French Canadian 7.6%

Italian 5.8%

Scottish 5.5%

Polish 2.1%

Swedish 1.8%

population density map

People citing that they are American are of overwhelmingly English descent, but have ancestry that has been in the region for so long (often since the 1600s) that they choose to identify simply as Americans.[65][66][67][68][69][70][71] Maine
has the highest percentage of French Americans
French Americans
among American states. It also has the highest percentage of non-Hispanic whites of any state, at 94.4% of the total population, according to the 2010 Census. In 2011, 89.0% of all births in the state were to non-Hispanic white parents.[72] The state also has the highest percentage of French-speakers of any state. Most of the French in Maine
are of Canadian Origin, but in some cases have been living there prior to the American Revolutionary War. There are particularly high concentrations of French in the northern part of Maine
in Aroostook County, which is part of a cultural region known as Acadia
that goes over the border into New Brunswick. Along with the Acadian population in the north, many French came from Quebec
as immigrants between 1840 and 1930. Census figures show that Maine
has the highest percentage of people speaking French at home of any state: 5.28% of Maine
households are French-speaking, compared with 4.68% in Louisiana, which is the second highest state.[73] French-speakers are the state's chief linguistic minority; the 2000 Census reported 92.25% of Maine
residents aged five and older spoke only English at home. Maine
does not have an official language,[2] but the most widely spoken language in the state is English. Spanish is the third-most-spoken language in Maine, after English and French.[74] The upper Saint John River valley area was once part of the so-called Republic of Madawaska, before the frontier was decided in the Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
of 1842. Over one quarter of the population of Lewiston, Waterville, and Biddeford
are Franco-American. Most of the residents of the Mid Coast
Mid Coast
and Down East
Down East
sections are chiefly of British heritage. Smaller numbers of various other groups, including Irish, Italian and Polish, have settled throughout the state since the late 19th and early 20th century immigration waves. Birth data[edit] Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother

Race 2013[75] 2014[76] 2015[77]

White: 11,950 (93.5%) 11,842 (93.2%) 11,805 (93.6%)

> Non-Hispanic White 11,774 (92.1%) 11,654 (91.8%) 11,563 (91.7%)

Black 455 (3.6%) 450 (3.5%) 473 (3.7%)

Asian 253 (2.0%) 248 (1.9%) 186 (1.5%)

Native 118 (0.9%) 158 (1.2%) 143 (1.1%)

Hispanic (of any race) 172 (1.3%) 200 (1.6%) 251 (2.0%)

Total Maine 12,776 (100%) 12,698 (100%) 12,607 (100%)


Religion in Maine





No religion








Other Christian




Other faith


Don't know


According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA),[79] the religious affiliations of Maine
in 2010 were:

Church – 28% Protestant
– 7% Evangelical Protestant
– 4% Other religions – 1.7% Non- Christian
religions include Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism
and Bahá'í.

The Catholic
Church was the largest religious institution with 202,106 members, the United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church
had 28,329 members, the United Church of Christ had 22,747 members In 2010, a study named Maine
as the least religious state in the United States.[80] Economy[edit] See also: Maine
locations by per capita income

view "Lobster pots ready for placing" ~ 1928

Bath Iron Works
Bath Iron Works
naval shipbuilding

The Bureau of Economic Analysis
Bureau of Economic Analysis
estimates that Maine's total gross state product for 2010 was $52 billion.[81] Its per capita personal income for 2007 was US$33,991, 34th in the nation. As of April 2016, Maine's unemployment rate is 3.4%[82]

Old port area of Portland

Maine's agricultural outputs include poultry, eggs, dairy products, cattle, wild blueberries, apples, maple syrup, and maple sugar. Aroostook County is known for its potato crops. Commercial fishing, once a mainstay of the state's economy, maintains a presence, particularly lobstering and groundfishing. Western Maine
aquifers and springs are a major source of bottled water. Maine's industrial outputs consist chiefly of paper, lumber and wood products, electronic equipment, leather products, food products, textiles, and bio-technology. Naval shipbuilding and construction remain key as well, with Bath Iron Works
Bath Iron Works
in Bath and Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery. Brunswick Landing, formerly Naval Air Station Brunswick, is also in Maine. Formerly a large support base for the U.S. Navy, the BRAC campaign initiated the Naval Air Station's closing, despite a government-funded effort to upgrade its facilities. The former base has since been changed into a civilian business park, as well as a new satellite campus for Southern Maine
Community College.[83] Maine
is the number one US producer of low-bush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium). Preliminary data from the USDA
for 2012 also indicate Maine
was the largest blueberry producer of the major blueberry producing states in the US, with 91,100,000 lbs.[84] This data includes both low (wild), and high-bush (cultivated) blueberries: Vaccinium corymbosum. The largest toothpick manufacturing plant in the United States
United States
used to be located in Strong, Maine. The Strong Wood Products plant produced 20 million toothpicks a day. It closed in May 2003. Tourism and outdoor recreation play a major and increasingly important role in Maine's economy. The state is a popular destination for sport hunting (particularly deer, moose and bear), sport fishing, snowmobiling, skiing, boating, camping and hiking, among other activities. Historically, Maine
ports played a key role in national transportation. Beginning around 1880, Portland's rail link and ice-free port made it Canada's principal winter port, until the aggressive development of Halifax, Nova Scotia, in the mid-1900s. In 2013, 12,039,600 short tons passed into and out of Portland by sea,[85] which places it 45th of US water ports.[86] Portland Maine's Portland International Jetport
Portland International Jetport
was recently expanded, providing the state with increased air traffic from carriers such as JetBlue
and Southwest Airlines. Maine
has very few large companies that maintain headquarters in the state, and that number has fallen due to consolidations and mergers, particularly in the pulp and paper industry. Some of the larger companies that do maintain headquarters in Maine
include Fairchild Semiconductor in South Portland; IDEXX Laboratories, in Westbrook; Hannaford Bros. Co.
Hannaford Bros. Co.
in Scarborough, Unum
in Portland; TD Bank, in Portland; L.L.Bean
in Freeport; and Cole Haan
Cole Haan
in Yarmouth. Maine
is also the home of The Jackson Laboratory, the world's largest non-profit mammalian genetic research facility and the world's largest supplier of genetically purebred mice. Taxation[edit] Maine
has an income tax structure containing two brackets, 6.5% to 7.95% of personal income.[87] Before July 2013 Maine
had four brackets: 2%, 4.5%, 7%, and 8.5%.[88] Maine's general sales tax rate is 5.5%. The state also levies charges of 9% on lodging and prepared food and 10% on short-term auto rentals.[89] Commercial sellers of blueberries, a Maine
staple, must keep records of their transactions and pay the state 1.5 cents per pound ($1.50 per 100 pounds) of the fruit sold each season. All real and tangible personal property located in the state of Maine
is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. The administration of property taxes is handled by the local assessor in incorporated cities and towns, while property taxes in the unorganized territories are handled by the State Tax Assessor. Shipbuilding[edit] Further information: Bath Iron Works
Bath Iron Works
and Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Maine
has a longstanding tradition of being home to many shipbuilding companies. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Maine
was home to many shipyards that produced wooden sailing ships. The main function of these ships was to transport either cargos or passengers overseas. One of these yards was located in Pennellville Historic District
Pennellville Historic District
in what is now Brunswick, Maine. This yard, owned by the Pennell family, was typical of the many family-owned shipbuilding companies of the time period. Other such examples of shipbuilding families were the Skolfields and the Morses. During the 18th and 19th centuries, wooden shipbuilding of this sort made up a sizable portion of the economy. Transportation[edit] Airports[edit]

Portland International Jetport

receives passenger jet service at its two largest airports, the Portland International Jetport
Portland International Jetport
in Portland, and the Bangor International Airport in Bangor. Both are served daily by many major airlines to destinations such as New York, Atlanta, and Orlando. Essential Air Service
Essential Air Service
also subsidizes service to a number of smaller airports in Maine, bringing small turboprop aircraft to regional airports such as the Augusta State Airport, Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport, Knox County Regional Airport, and the Northern Maine
Regional Airport at Presque Isle. These airports are served by Cape Air with Cessna 402s and Penair with Saab 340s. Many smaller airports are scattered throughout Maine, only serving general aviation traffic. The Eastport Municipal Airport, for example, is a city-owned public-use airport with 1,200 general aviation aircraft operations each year from single-engine and ultralight aircraft.[90] Highways[edit]

The Penobscot
Narrows Bridge, carrying U.S. Route 1
U.S. Route 1
and Maine
State Route 3 over the Penobscot

Interstate 95 (I-95) travels through Maine, as well as its easterly branch I-295 and spurs 195, 395 and the unsigned I-495. In addition, U.S. Route 1 (US 1) starts in Fort Kent and travels to Florida. The eastern terminus of the eastern section of US 2 starts in Houlton, near the New Brunswick, Canada
border to Rouses Point, New York, at US 11. US 2A connects Old Town and Orono, primarily serving the University of Maine
University of Maine
campus. US 201 and US 202 flow through the state. US 2, Maine State Route 6 (Route 6), and Route 9 are often used by truckers and other motorists of the Maritime Provinces
Maritime Provinces
en route to other destinations in the United States
United States
or as a short cut to Central Canada. Rail[edit] See also: List of Maine
railroads Passenger[edit]

A southbound Downeaster passenger train at Ocean Park, Maine, as viewed from the cab of a northbound train

The Downeaster passenger train, operated by Amtrak, provides passenger service between Brunswick and Boston's North Station, with stops in Freeport, Portland, Old Orchard Beach, Saco, and Wells. The Downeaster makes five daily trips, three of which continue past Portland to Brunswick.[91] Freight[edit] Freight service throughout the state is provided by a handful of regional and shortline carriers: Pan Am Railways
Pan Am Railways
(formerly known as Guilford Rail System), which operates the former Boston
& Maine and Maine
Central railroads; St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad; Maine Eastern Railroad; Central Maine
and Quebec
Railway; and New Brunswick Southern Railway. Law and government[edit] See also: List of Governors of Maine, List of United States
United States
Senators from Maine, List of Maine
State Senators, and Electoral reform in Maine The Maine Constitution structures Maine's state government, composed of three co-equal branches—the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The state of Maine
also has three Constitutional Officers (the Secretary of State, the State Treasurer, and the State Attorney General) and one Statutory Officer (the State Auditor). The legislative branch is the Maine
Legislature, a bicameral body composed of the Maine
House of Representatives, with 151 members, and the Maine
Senate, with 35 members. The Legislature
is charged with introducing and passing laws. The executive branch is responsible for the execution of the laws created by the Legislature
and is headed by the Governor of Maine (currently Paul LePage). The Governor is elected every four years; no individual may serve more than two consecutive terms in this office. The current attorney general of Maine
is Janet T. Mills. As with other state legislatures, the Maine
can by a two-thirds majority vote from both the House and Senate override a gubernatorial veto. Maine
is one of seven states that do not have a lieutenant governor. The judicial branch is responsible for interpreting state laws. The highest court of the state is the Maine
Supreme Judicial Court. The lower courts are the District Court, Superior Court and Probate Court. All judges except for probate judges serve full-time, are nominated by the Governor and confirmed by the Legislature
for terms of seven years. Probate judges serve part-time and are elected by the voters of each county for four-year terms. Counties[edit] See also: List of counties in Maine Maine
is divided into political jurisdictions designated as counties. Since 1860 there have been 16 counties in the state, ranging in size from 370 to 6,829 square miles (958 to 17,700 km2).


County name County seat Year founded 2010 population[92] Percent of total Area (sq. mi.) Percent of total

Androscoggin Auburn 1854 107,702 8.11% 497 1.44%

Aroostook Houlton 1839 71,870 5.41% 6,829 19.76%

Cumberland Portland 1760 281,674 21.20% 1,217 3.52%

Franklin Farmington 1838 30,768 2.32% 1,744 5.05%

Hancock Ellsworth 1789 54,418 4.10% 1,522 4.40%

Kennebec Augusta 1799 122,151 9.20% 951 2.75%

Knox Rockland 1860 39,736 2.99% 1,142 3.30%

Lincoln Wiscasset 1760 34,457 2.59% 700 2.03%

Oxford Paris 1805 57,833 4.35% 2,175 6.29%

Penobscot Bangor 1816 153,923 11.59% 3,556 10.29%

Piscataquis Dover-Foxcroft 1838 17,535 1.32% 4,377 12.67%

Sagadahoc Bath 1854 35,293 2.66% 370 1.07%

Somerset Skowhegan 1809 52,228 3.93% 4,095 11.85%

Waldo Belfast 1827 38,786 2.92% 853 2.47%

Washington Machias 1790 32,856 2.47% 3,255 9.42%

York Alfred 1636 197,131 14.84% 1,271 3.68%

Total counties: 16

Total 2010 population: 1,328,361

Total state area: 34,554 square miles (89,494 km2)

State and local politics[edit] See also: As Maine
goes, so goes the nation; Maine
Democratic Party; Maine
Green Independent Party; Libertarian Party of Maine; Maine Republican Party; Political party strength in Maine; and Same-sex marriage in Maine

Gubernatorial election results[93]

Year Democratic Republican

1956 59.2% 180,254 40.8% 124,395

1958 52.0% 145,673 48.0% 134,572

1960 47.3% 197,447 52.7% 219,768

1962 49.9% 146,121 50.1% 146,604

1966 53.1% 172,036 46.9% 151,802

1970 50.1% 163,138 49.9% 162,248

1974 36.8% 132,219 23.5% 84,176

1978 47.8% 176,493 34.4% 126,862

1982 61.9% 281,066 38.1% 172,949

1986 30.2% 128,744 39.9% 170,312

1990 44.1% 230,038 46.7% 243,766

1994 33.8% 172,951 23.1% 117,990

1998 12.0% 50,506 18.9% 79,716

2002 47.2% 238,179 41.5% 209,496

2006 38.1% 209,927 30.2% 166,425

2010 18.8% 109,387 37.6% 218,065

2014 43.4% 265,125 48.2% 294,533

Presidential election results[93]

Year Democratic Republican

1952 33.8% 118,806 66.1% 232,353

1956 29.1% 102,468 70.9% 249,238

1960 43.0% 181,159 57.1% 240,608

1964 68.8% 262,264 31.1% 118,701

1968 55.3% 217,312 43.1% 169,254

1972 38.5% 160,584 61.5% 256,458

1976 48.1% 232,279 48.9% 236,320

1980 42.3% 220,974 45.6% 238,522

1984 38.8% 214,515 60.8% 336,500

1988 43.9% 243,569 55.3% 307,131

1992 38.8% 263,420 30.4% 206,504

1996 51.6% 312,788 30.8% 186,378

2000 49.1% 319,951 44.0% 286,616

2004 53.6% 396,842 44.6% 330,201

2008 57.7% 421,923 40.4% 295,273

2012 56.3% 401,306 41.0% 292,276

2016 47.8% 357,735 44.9% 335,593

In state general elections, Maine
voters tend to accept independent and third-party candidates more frequently than most states. Maine
has had two independent governors recently (James B. Longley, 1975–1979 and current U.S. Senator Angus King, 1995–2003). Maine
state politicians, Democrats and Republicans alike, are noted for having more moderate views than many in the national wings of their respective parties. Maine
is an alcoholic beverage control state. On May 6, 2009, Maine
became the fifth state to legalize same-sex marriage; however, the law was repealed by voters on November 3, 2009. On November 6, 2012, Maine, along with Maryland
and Washington, became the first state to legalize same-sex marriage at the ballot box.[94] Federal politics[edit]

of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election

In the 1930s, Maine
was one of very few states which retained Republican sentiments. In the 1936 presidential election, Franklin D. Roosevelt received the electoral votes of every state other than Maine and Vermont; these were the only two states in the nation that never voted for Roosevelt in any of his presidential campaigns, though Maine was closely fought in 1940 and 1944. In the 1960s, Maine
began to lean toward the Democrats, especially in presidential elections. In 1968, Hubert Humphrey
Hubert Humphrey
became just the second Democrat in half a century to carry Maine, perhaps because of the presence of his running mate, Maine
Senator Edmund Muskie, although the state voted Republican in every presidential election in the 1970s and 1980s. Since 1969, two of Maine's four electoral votes have been awarded based on the winner of the statewide election; the other two go to the highest vote-getter in each of the state's two congressional districts. Every other state except Nebraska
gives all its electoral votes to the candidate who wins the popular vote in the state at large, without regard to performance within districts. Maine
split its electoral vote for the first time in 2016, with Donald Trump's strong showing in the more rural central and northern Maine
allowing him to capture one of the state's four votes in the Electoral College.[95] Ross Perot
Ross Perot
achieved a great deal of success in Maine
in the presidential elections of 1992 and 1996. In 1992, as an independent candidate, Perot came in second to Democrat Bill Clinton, despite the longtime presence of the Bush family
Bush family
summer home in Kennebunkport. In 1996, as the nominee of the Reform Party, Perot did better in Maine than in any other state. Maine
has voted for Democratic Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
twice, Al Gore
Al Gore
in 2000, John Kerry
John Kerry
in 2004, and Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2008 and 2012. In 2016, Republican Donald Trump
Donald Trump
won one of Maine's electoral votes with Democratic opponent Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
winning the other three. Although Democrats have mostly carried the state in presidential elections in recent years, Republicans have largely maintained their control of the state's U.S. Senate seats, with Edmund Muskie, William Hathaway and George J. Mitchell
George J. Mitchell
being the only Maine
Democrats serving in the U.S. Senate in the past fifty years. In the 2010 midterm elections, Republicans made major gains in Maine. They captured the governor's office as well as majorities in both chambers of the state legislature for the first time since the early 1970s. However, in the 2012 elections Democrats managed to recapture both houses of Maine
Legislature. Maine's U.S. senators are Republican Susan Collins
Susan Collins
and Independent Angus King. The governor is Republican Paul LePage. The state's two members of the United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
are Democrat Chellie Pingree
Chellie Pingree
and Republican Bruce Poliquin. Municipalities[edit] Organized municipalities[edit] An organized municipality has a form of elected local government which administers and provides local services, keeps records, collects licensing fees, and can pass locally binding ordinances, among other responsibilities of self-government. The governmental format of most organized towns and plantations is the town meeting, while the format of most cities is the council-manager form. As of 2013 the organized municipalities of Maine
consist of 23 cities, 431 towns, and 34 plantations. Collectively these 488 organized municipalities cover less than half of the state's territory. Maine
also has 3 Reservations: Indian Island, Indian Township Reservation, and Pleasant Point Indian Reservation.[96]

The largest municipality in Maine, by population, is the city of Portland (pop. 66,318). The smallest city by population is Eastport (pop. 1,331). The largest town by population is Brunswick (pop. 20,278). The smallest town by population is Frye Island, a resort town which reported zero year-round population in the 2000 Census; one plantation, Glenwood Plantation, Maine, also reported a permanent population of zero. In the 2000 census, the smallest town aside from Frye Island was Centerville with a population of 26, but since that census, Centerville voted to disincorporate and therefore is no longer a town. The next smallest town with a population listed in that census is Beddington (pop. 50 at the 2010 census). The largest municipality by land area is the town of Allagash, at 128 square miles (332 km2). The smallest municipality by land area is the plantation of Monhegan Island, at 0.86 square miles (2.2 km2). The smallest municipality by area that is not an island is Randolph, at 2.23 square miles (6 km2).

Unorganized territory[edit] Unorganized territory
Unorganized territory
has no local government. Administration, services, licensing, and ordinances are handled by the state government. The unorganized territory of Maine
consists of over 400 townships (towns are incorporated, townships are unincorporated), plus many coastal islands that do not lie within any municipal bounds. The UT land area is slightly over one half the entire area of the State of Maine. Year-round residents in the UT number approximately 9,000, about 1.3% of the state's total population, with many more people residing only seasonally within the UT. Only four of Maine's sixteen counties (Androscoggin, Cumberland, Waldo and York) are entirely incorporated, although a few others are nearly so, and most of the unincorporated area is in the vast and sparsely populated Great North Woods of Maine.[97] Most populous cities and towns[edit] QuickFacts US Census Maine

The 49 most populous cities and towns at the 2010 US Census

Portland (66,194) Lewiston (36,592) Bangor (33,039) Auburn (25,055) South Portland (24,002) Biddeford (21,277) Sanford (20,798)

Brunswick (20,278) Augusta (19,136) Scarborough (18,919) Saco (18,482) Westbrook (17,494) Windham (17,001) Gorham (16,381)

Waterville (15,722) York (12,529) Falmouth (11,185) Kennebunk (10,798) Orono (10,362) Standish (9,874) Presque Isle (9,692)

Wells (9,589) Kittery (9,490) Brewer (9,482) Buxton (9,093) Cape Elizabeth (9,015) Lisbon (9,009) Topsham (8,794)

Old Orchard Beach (8,624) Skowhegan (8,589) Bath (8,514) Yarmouth (8,349) Caribou (8,189) Freeport (7,879) Old Town (7,840)

Winslow (7,794) Gray (7,761) Farmington (7,760) Ellsworth (7,741) Waterboro (7,693) Rockland (7,297) Hampden (7,257)

Berwick (7,246) South Berwick (7,220) Cumberland (7,211) Fairfield (6,735) Belfast (6,668) Oakland (6,240) Eliot (6,204)







Old Town



Throughout Maine, many municipalities, although each separate governmental entities, nevertheless form portions of a much larger population base. There are many such population clusters throughout Maine, but some examples from the municipalities appearing in the above listing are:

Portland, South Portland, Cape Elizabeth, Westbrook, Scarborough, and Falmouth Lewiston and Auburn Bangor, Orono, Brewer, Old Town, and Hampden Biddeford, Saco and Old Orchard Beach Brunswick and Topsham Waterville, Winslow, Fairfield, and Oakland Presque Isle and Caribou[98]

Education[edit] Further information: List of colleges and universities in Maine, Education in Maine, List of high schools in Maine, and List of school districts in Maine

Bates College
Bates College
and Bowdoin College
Bowdoin College
of Lewiston and Brunswick

There are thirty institutions of higher learning in Maine.[99] These institutions include the University
of Maine, which is the oldest, largest and only research university in the state. U Maine
was founded in 1865 and is the state's only land grant and sea grant college. The University of Maine
University of Maine
is located in the town of Orono and is the flagship of Maine. There are also branch campuses in Augusta, Farmington, Fort Kent, Machias, and Presque Isle.[100] Bowdoin College
Bowdoin College
is a liberal arts college founded in 1794 in Brunswick, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state. Colby College
Colby College
in Waterville was founded in 1813 making it the second oldest college in Maine.[101] Bates College
Bates College
in Lewiston was founded in 1855 making it the third oldest institution in the state and the oldest coeducational college in New England.[102] The three colleges collectively form the Colby-Bates-Bowdoin Consortium
Colby-Bates-Bowdoin Consortium
and are ranked among the best colleges in the United States; often placing in the top 10% of all liberal arts colleges.[103][104][105]

Stevens Hall at the University of Maine
University of Maine
in Orono

Maine's per-student public expenditure for elementary and secondary schools was 21st in the nation in 2012, at $12,344.[106] The collegiate system of Maine
also includes numerous baccalaureate colleges such as: the Maine
Maritime Academcy (MMA), Unity College, and Thomas College. There is only one medical school in the state, ( University
of New England's College of Osteopathic Medicine) and only one law school (The University of Maine
University of Maine
School of Law). Private schools in Maine
are funded independently of the state and its furthered domains. Private schools are less common than public schools. A large number of private elementary schools with under 20 students exist, but most private high schools in Maine
can be described as "semi-private." Culture[edit]

U Maine
Division 1 Hockey

Sports teams[edit] Professional[edit]

Red Claws, basketball, NBA G League Portland Sea Dogs, minor league baseball, Eastern League (U.S. baseball) Maine
Mariners, ice hockey, ECHL


Portland Phoenix FC, soccer, Premier Developmental League Maine
Roller Derby, roller derby, Women's Flat Track Derby Association

The current state license plate design, introduced in 1999, depicts both the state bird and the state flower


Black Bears

The moose, the state mammal, as displayed at the Maine
State Museum in Augusta

State symbols[edit] Main article: List of Maine
state symbols Adapted from the Maine
facts site.[107]

State Quarter

State berry: Wild blueberry[108] State bird: Black-capped chickadee State cat: Maine
Coon State dessert: Blueberry pie
Blueberry pie
made with wild Maine
blueberries State fish: Land-locked salmon State flower: White Pinecone and Tassel State fossil: Pertica
quadrifaria State gemstone: Tourmaline State herb: Wintergreen[109] State insect: European honey bee State mammal: Moose State soft drink: Moxie State soil: Chesuncook soil series State song: "State of Maine
Song" State treat: Whoopie pie[110] State tree: Eastern White Pine State vessel: Arctic exploration schooner Bowdoin State motto: Dirigo
("I lead")

In popular culture[edit] Main article: Maine
in popular culture Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Maine A citizen of Maine
is known as a "Mainer",[8] though the term is often reserved for those whose roots in Maine
go back at least three generations.[111] The term "Downeaster" may be applied to residents of the northeast coast of the state. The term "Mainiac" is considered by some to be derogatory, but embraced with pride by others,[112] and is used for a variety of organizations and for events such as the YMCA Mainiac Sprint Triathlon & Duathlon.[113] See also[edit]

portal New England
New England

Index of Maine-related articles Outline of Maine

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ Maine
does not have an official language.[2] Both English and French are considered the de facto languages of the state.[3][4][5] French in particular is legally protected and recognized as Maine's minority language.[6][7] Maine
(along with Louisiana) is considered apart of the Francophone world and makes up the largest French-speaking population in the United States.[6]


^ " Maine
for Vacation". USA Today. Retrieved August 5, 2013. There's a reason it's called "Vacationland..."  ^ a b " Maine
- World Travel Guide". World Travel Guide. Retrieved 2018-03-12.  ^ Cobarrubias, Juan (1983). Progress in Language Planning: International Perspectives. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9789027933584.  ^ "Legal Status CODOFIL - Louisiana
DCRT". www.crt.state.la.us. Retrieved 2018-03-12.  ^ "French Language - Acadian Culture in Maine". acim.umfk.maine.edu. Retrieved 2018-03-12.  ^ a b "Languages in Maine
(State) - Statistical Atlas". statisticalatlas.com. Retrieved 2018-03-12.  ^ " Maine
DHHS - Multicultural Resources - Interpreting Services& Referral Agencies". www.maine.gov. Retrieved 2018-03-12.  ^ a b "Dictionary.com – definition of "Mainer"". Dictionary.com. Retrieved July 21, 2010.  ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. June 22, 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2017.  ^ "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 9, 2016.  ^ "Katahdin 2". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 21, 2011.  ^ Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988. ^ In the event of a vacancy in the office of Governor, the President of the State Senate is first in line for succession. ^ "Title 1, §224: State soft drink". legislature.maine.gov.  ^ " Portland, Maine
Portland, Maine
Climate Summary". Weatherbase. Retrieved 29 December 2014.  ^ a b Stewart, George (1982) [1945]. Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: Random House. pp. 41–42. ISBN 978-0-938530-02-2.  ^ "Journal of the Senate" (doc). State of Maine, HP1629, item 1, 123rd Maine
State Legislature. March 6, 2002. Retrieved September 20, 2007. WHEREAS, the State of Maine
is named after the Province of Maine
Province of Maine
in France...  ^ Schroeder, Emily A. "Origin of Maine's Name". Maine
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of Wales Bangor[full citation needed] ^ Ekwall, Eilert, ed. (1960). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place Names (4th ed.). Oxford University
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Reader: The Down East Experience from 1614 to the Present. David R. Godine Publisher. ISBN 978-1-56792-078-9. Retrieved July 3, 2010.  ^ Baxter, James Phinney (1890). Sir Ferdinando Gorges
Ferdinando Gorges
and his Province of Maine. Boston: Prince Society. p. 180.  ^ "Real Fact #922". Snapple. Retrieved September 21, 2016.  ^ " Maine
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or Indians in the Eastern United States
United States
in 1600". www.celebrateboston.com.  ^ "Abenaki". tolatsga.org. Archived from the original on April 11, 2010.  ^ "Science: Bye, Columbus". TIME.com. December 11, 1978.  ^ MPBN, "Rolling Back the Frontier" Archived July 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., The Story of Maine; accessed January 3, 2011 ^ Massachusetts
Historical Society (1884). Proceedings of the Massachusetts
Historical Society. The Society. p. 339.  ^ Bruce G. Trigger (ed.): Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 15. Northeast. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. 1978 ISBN 0-16-004575-4 ^ "York commemorates Candlemas Raid". The Portsmouth Herald. February 1, 2001. ^ John Demos, The Unredeemed Captive: A Family Story from Early America, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994, pp. 186 and 224 ^ Darren Bonaparte, "The History of Akwesasne", The Wampum Chronicles, accessed February 1, 2010 ^ Woodard, Colin. The Lobster Coast. New York. Viking/Penguin, ISBN 0-670-03324-3, 2004, pp. 139–140, 150–151 ^ Woodard, Colin. "Parallel 44: Origins of the Mass Effect", The Working Waterfront, August 31, 2010. [1] ^ Woodard, Colin. The Lobster Coast: Rebels, Rusticators and the Forgotten Frontier (2004) Penguin Books. ISBN 0-670-03324-3 ^ " Maine
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climate averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved November 9, 2015.  ^ Resident Population Data. "Resident Population Data – 2010 Census". 2010.census.gov. Archived from the original on October 28, 2011. Retrieved March 15, 2012.  ^ a b "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". U.S. Census Bureau. December 26, 2015. Archived from the original (CSV) on December 23, 2015. Retrieved December 26, 2015.  ^ "Population and Population Centers by State: 2010 (US Census Bureau)". Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved April 9, 2011.  ^ "census.gov" (PDF). Retrieved August 3, 2013.  ^ " U.S. Census Bureau
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QuickFacts: Portland city, Maine". www.census.gov. Retrieved 2018-01-15.  ^ "Mass. Benchmarks" (PDF).  ^ "Interactive: Population change in Maine
towns, 2010-2016". Portland Press Herald. 2017-05-26. Retrieved 2018-01-15.  ^ "2010_State_Profile_TEMPLATE" (PDF). Retrieved October 25, 2012.  ^ "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". July 25, 2008. Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Population of Maine: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts[dead link] ^ Center for New Media and Promotions(C2PO). "2010 Census Data". census.gov. Retrieved September 11, 2015.  ^ "Selected Social Characteristics in the United States: 2011 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (DP02): Maine". U.S. Census Bureau American Factfinder. Retrieved January 4, 2013.  ^ Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America By Dominic J. Pulera. ^ Reynolds Farley, "The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?", Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3 (August 1991), pp. 414, 421. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Lawrence Santi, "The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns", Social Science Research, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1985), pp. 44–6. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Mary C. Waters, "Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites", Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 487, No. 79 (September 1986), pp. 82–86. ^ Mary C. Waters, Ethnic Options: Choosing Identities in America (Berkeley: University
of California
Press, 1990), p. 36. ^ French Canadian Emigration to the United States
United States
1840–1930. Claude Bélanger, Department of History, Marianopolis College ^ French-Canadian Americans
by Marianne Fedunkiw ^ " Americans
under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". The Plain Dealer. June 3, 2012. ^ "MLA Language Map Data Center". Modern Language Association.  ^ "Languages – Maine". www.city-data.com.  ^ "Statistics" (PDF). cdc.gov.  ^ "Statistics" (PDF). cdc.gov.  ^ "Statistics" (PDF). cdc.gov.  ^ "Religious Landscape Study". May 11, 2015.  ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives State Membership Report". www.thearda.com. Retrieved November 15, 2013.  ^ Hendrickson, Dyke (August 19, 2010). "The Role of Religion in Maine". Maine
Public Broadcasting Network. Retrieved October 19, 2011.  ^ "GDP by State". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved September 13, 2011.  ^ "Bureau of Labor Statistics Data". data.bls.gov. Retrieved 2016-05-23.  ^ "Brunswick Landing – Midcoast Regional Redevelopment Authority". Midcoast Regional Redevelopment Authority. Retrieved September 11, 2015.  ^ "Data". usda.mannlib.cornell.edu.  ^ "Part1_Ports_tonsbycommCY2013.htm". www.navigationdatacenter.us.  ^ "Table 1-57: Tonnage of Top 50 U.S. Water Ports, Ranked by Total Tons(a) – Bureau of Transportation Statistics". www.rita.dot.gov.  ^ "Tax forms" (PDF). maine.gov.  ^ "Tax forms" (PDF). maine.gov.  ^ "Title 36, §1811: Sales tax". legislature.maine.gov.  ^ KEPM – Eastport, Maine
Eastport, Maine
– Eastport Municipal Airport". Great Circle Mapper. http://gc.kls2.com/airport/KEPM. Retrieved August 9, 2009. ^ "Downeaster Schedule, effective November 1, 2012" (PDF). Amtrak Train Schedules, Timetables. Amtrak. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 14, 2012. Retrieved November 10, 2012.  ^ " Maine
QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". State & County QuickFacts. United States
United States
Census Bureau. January 17, 2012. Archived from the original on February 15, 2012. Retrieved February 12, 2012.  ^ a b Leip, David. "General Election Results – Maine". United States Election Atlas. Retrieved November 18, 2016.  ^ " Maine
Passes Gay Marriage in Historic 'Question 1' Vote". The Huffington Post. November 7, 2012. ^ "Trump takes 1 of Maine's 4 electoral votes, in a first for the state". November 8, 2016.  ^ "Maine.gov: Local". maine.gov. Retrieved September 11, 2015.  ^ "Unorganized Territory". maine.gov. Retrieved September 11, 2015.  ^ Fact Finder US Census Maine
Portland Archived November 3, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Carnegie Classifications Basic Classification". carnegieclassifications.iu.edu. Retrieved 2016-08-12.  ^ "About UMaine". Umaine.edu. Retrieved 2016-07-18.  ^ "About". Retrieved 2016-08-19.  ^ "Bates College". Forbes. Retrieved 2016-06-16. [Bates College] was the first coeducational college in New England.  ^ "National Liberal Arts College Rankings Top Liberal Arts Colleges US News Best Colleges". colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. Archived from the original on October 12, 2016. Retrieved 2016-08-12.  ^ "College Guide Rankings 2015 – Liberal Arts Colleges". Washington Monthly. Retrieved 2016-08-12.  ^ "America's Top Colleges". Retrieved 2016-08-12.  ^ Bidwell, Allie. "How States Are Spending Money in Education". U.S. News & World Report – News. Archived from the original on May 5, 2015. Retrieved May 5, 2015.  ^ "Facts About Maine". Maine.gov. Retrieved September 20, 2015.  ^ " Maine
State Berry – Wild Blueberry". Statesymbolsusa.org. Retrieved March 15, 2012.  ^ " Maine
State Symbols and Emblems". maine.gov. Archived from the original on May 10, 2009. Retrieved August 13, 2012.  ^ " Whoopie pie
Whoopie pie
to become Maine
state 'treat'". The Boston
Globe. Archived from the original on October 25, 2011.  ^ "Maine: A Spiritual Frontier Opens for Business". Retrieved July 20, 2014.  ^ Louise Dickinson Rich. State o'Maine. Harper & Row, 1964, p ix ^ "Mainiac Tri". Archived from the original on August 14, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2014. 

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