Maine (/meɪn/) is a
U.S. state in the
New England region of the
northeastern United States.
Maine is the 39th most extensive and the
9th least populous of the U.S. states. It is bordered by New Hampshire
to the west, the
Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, and the Canadian
New Brunswick and
Quebec to the northeast and northwest
Maine is the easternmost state in the contiguous United
States, and the northernmost east of the Great Lakes. It is known for
its jagged, rocky coastline; low, rolling mountains; heavily forested
interior; and picturesque waterways, as well as its seafood cuisine,
especially clams and lobster. There is a humid continental climate
throughout the state, even in coastal areas such as its most populous
city of Portland. The capital is Augusta.
For thousands of years, indigenous peoples were the only inhabitants
of the territory that is now Maine. At the time of European arrival in
what is now Maine, several Algonquian-speaking peoples inhabited the
area. The first European settlement in the area was by the French in
1604 on Saint Croix Island, by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons. The first
English settlement was the short-lived Popham Colony, established by
Plymouth Company in 1607. A number of English settlements were
established along the coast of
Maine in the 1620s, although the rugged
climate, deprivations, and conflict with the local peoples caused many
to fail over the years.
Maine entered the 18th century, only a half dozen European
settlements had survived. Loyalist and Patriot forces contended for
Maine's territory during the
American Revolution and the War of 1812.
At the close of the War of 1812, it was occupied by British forces,
but the territory of
Maine was returned to the
United States as part
of a peace treaty that was to include dedicated land on the Michigan
peninsula for Native American peoples.
Maine was part of the
Massachusetts until 1820, when it voted to secede from
Massachusetts to become a separate state. On March 15, 1820, under the
Missouri Compromise, it was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state.
4.1 Race, ancestry and language
4.2 Birth data
7 Law and government
7.2 State and local politics
7.3 Federal politics
8.1 Organized municipalities
8.2 Unorganized territory
8.3 Most populous cities and towns
10.1 Sports teams
10.2 State symbols
10.3 In popular culture
11 Notable people
12 See also
14 External links
There is no definitive explanation for the origin of the name "Maine",
but the most likely origin is that the name was given by early
explorers after the former province of
Maine in France. Whatever the
origin, the name was fixed for English settlers in 1665 when the
English King's Commissioners ordered that the "Province of Maine" be
entered from then on in official records. The state legislature in
2001 adopted a resolution establishing Franco-American Day, which
stated that the state was named after the former French province of
Other theories mention earlier places with similar names, or claim it
is a nautical reference to the mainland. Attempts to uncover the
history of the name of
Maine began with James Sullivan's 1795 "History
of the District of Maine". He made the unsubstantiated claim that the
Province of Maine
Province of Maine was a compliment to the queen of Charles I,
Henrietta Maria, who once "owned" the
Province of Maine
Province of Maine in France.
This was quoted by
Maine historians until the 1845 biography of that
queen by Agnes Strickland established that she had no connection
Province of Maine
Province of Maine in France; further, King Charles I married
Henrietta Maria in 1625, three years after the name
appeared on the charter. A new theory, put forward by Carol B.
Smith Fisher in 2002, is that Sir
Ferdinando Gorges chose the name in
1622 to honor the village where his ancestors first lived in England,
rather than the province in France. "MAINE" appears in the Domesday
Book of 1086 in reference to the county of Dorset, which is today
Broadmayne, just southeast of Dorchester.
The view generally held among British place name scholars is that
Dorset is Brythonic, corresponding to modern Welsh "maen",
plural "main" or "meini". Some early spellings are:
MAINE 1086, MEINE 1200, MEINES 1204, MAYNE 1236.
Today the village is known as Broadmayne, which is primitive Welsh or
Brythonic, "main" meaning rock or stone, considered a reference to the
many large sarsen stones still present around Little Mayne farm, half
a mile northeast of
The first known record of the name appears in an August 10, 1622 land
charter to Sir
Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason, English Royal
Navy veterans, who were granted a large tract in present-day Maine
that Mason and Gorges "intend to name the Province of Maine". Mason
had served with the
Royal Navy in the Orkney Islands, where the chief
island is called Mainland, a possible name derivation for these
English sailors. In 1623, the English naval captain Christopher
Levett, exploring the
New England coast, wrote: "The first place I set
my foote upon in
New England was the Isle of Shoals, being Ilands
[sic] in the sea, above two Leagues from the Mayne." Initially,
several tracts along the coast of
New England were referred to as Main
Maine (cf. the Spanish Main). A reconfirmed and enhanced April 3,
1639 charter, from England's King Charles I, gave Sir Ferdinando
Gorges increased powers over his new province and stated that it
"shall forever hereafter, be called and named the PROVINCE OR COUNTIE
OF MAINE, and not by any other name or names whatsoever..."
Maine is the only
U.S. state whose name has exactly one
Main article: History of Maine
Settlement of the northern borders by the Webster–Ashburton Treaty
Maine State House, designed by Charles Bulfinch, built 1829–1832
Misty Morning, Coast of Maine
Arthur Parton (1842–1914). Between 1865 and 1870, Brooklyn Museum
The original inhabitants of the territory that is now
Algonquian-speaking Wabanaki peoples, including the Passamaquoddy,
Maliseet, Penobscot, Kennebec and Androscoggin. During the later King
Phillip's War, many of these peoples would merge in one form or
another to become the Wabanaki Confederacy, aiding the
Massachusetts & the
Mahican of New York. Afterwards, many of these
people were driven from their natural territories, but most of the
Maine continued, unchanged, until the American Revolution.
Before this point, however, most of these people were considered
separate nations. Many had adapted to living in permanent,
Iroquois-inspired settlements, while those along the coast tended to
be semi-nomadic—traveling from settlement to settlement on a yearly
cycle. They would usually winter inland & head to the coasts by
European contact with what is now called
Maine started around 1200 CE
when Norwegians interacted with the native
Penobscot in present-day
Hancock County, most likely through trade. About 200 years earlier,
from the settlements in
Iceland and Greenland, Norwegians had first
identified America and attempted to settle areas such as Newfoundland,
but failed to establish a permanent settlement there. Archeological
evidence suggests that Norwegians in
Greenland returned to North
America for several centuries after the initial discovery to collect
timber and to trade, with the most relevant evidence being the Maine
Penny, an 11th-century Norwegian coin found at a Native American dig
site in 1954.
The first European settlement in
Maine was in 1604 on Saint Croix
Island, led by French explorer Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons; his party
included Samuel de Champlain, noted as an explorer. The French named
the entire area Acadia, including the portion that later became the
state of Maine. The first English settlement in
Maine was established
Plymouth Company at the
Popham Colony in 1607, the same year as
the settlement at Jamestown, Virginia. The Popham colonists returned
to Britain after 14 months.
The French established two
Jesuit missions: one on
Penobscot Bay in
1609, and the other on
Mount Desert Island
Mount Desert Island in 1613. The same year,
Castine was established by Claude de La Tour. In 1625, Charles de
Saint-Étienne de la Tour erected
Fort Pentagouet to protect Castine.
The coastal areas of western
Maine first became the Province of Maine
in a 1622 land patent. The part of Eastern
Maine north of the Kennebec
River was more sparsely settled, and was known in the
17th century as
the Territory of Sagadahock. A second settlement was attempted in 1623
by English explorer and naval Captain
Christopher Levett at a place
called York, where he had been granted 6,000 acres (24 km2) by
King Charles I of England. It also failed.
Maine was formerly inhabited by people of the Androscoggin
tribe of the
Abenaki nation, also known as Arosaguntacook. They were
driven out of the area in 1690 during King William's War. They were
relocated at St. Francis, Canada, which was destroyed by Rogers'
Rangers in 1759, and is now Odanak. The other
Abenaki tribes suffered
several severe defeats, particularly during Dummer's War, with the
Norridgewock in 1724 and the defeat of the
1725, which greatly reduced their numbers. They finally withdrew to
Canada, where they were settled at Bécancour and Sillery, and later
at St. Francis, along with other refugee tribes from the south.
The province within its current boundaries became part of
Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1652.
Maine was much fought over by the
French, English, and allied natives during the 17th and early 18th
centuries, who conducted raids against each other, taking captives for
ransom or, in some cases, adoption by Native American tribes. A
notable example was the early 1692
Abenaki raid on York, where about
100 English settlers were killed and another estimated 80 taken
Abenaki took captives taken during raids of
Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War of the early 1700s to Kahnewake, a
Catholic Mohawk village near Montreal, where some were adopted and
After the British defeated the French in
Acadia in the 1740s, the
territory from the
Penobscot River east fell under the nominal
authority of the Province of Nova Scotia, and together with
New Brunswick formed the
Nova Scotia county of Sunbury,
with its court of general sessions at Campobello. American and British
forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution
and the War of 1812, with the British occupying eastern
Maine in both
conflicts. The territory of
Maine was confirmed as part of
Massachusetts when the
United States was formed following the Treaty
of Paris ending the revolution, although the final border with British
North America was not established until the Webster–Ashburton Treaty
Maine was physically separate from the rest of Massachusetts.
Long-standing disagreements over land speculation and settlements led
Maine residents and their allies in
Massachusetts proper forcing an
1807 vote in the
Massachusetts Assembly on permitting
Maine to secede;
the vote failed. Secessionist sentiment in
Maine was stoked during the
War of 1812
War of 1812 when
Massachusetts pro-British merchants opposed the war
and refused to defend
Maine from British invaders. In 1819,
Massachusetts agreed to permit secession, sanctioned by voters of the
rapidly growing region the following year. Formal secession and
formation of the state of
Maine as the 23rd state occurred on March
15, 1820, as part of the
Missouri Compromise, which geographically
limited the spread of slavery and enabled the admission to statehood
Missouri the following year, keeping a balance between slave and
Maine's original state capital was Portland, Maine's largest city,
until it was moved to the more central Augusta in 1832. The principal
office of the
Maine Supreme Judicial Court
Maine Supreme Judicial Court remains in Portland.
Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment, under the command of
Colonel Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, prevented the
Union Army from
being flanked at
Little Round Top
Little Round Top by the
Confederate Army during the
Battle of Gettysburg.
Four U.S. Navy ships have been named USS Maine, most famously the
armored cruiser USS Maine (ACR-1), whose sinking by an
explosion on 15 February 1898 precipitated the Spanish–American War.
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See also: List of counties in Maine, List of
Maine rivers, List of
lakes in Maine, Geology of Maine, and Geology of New England
A map of
Maine and surrounding regions
To the south and east is the
Atlantic Ocean and to the north and
northeast is New Brunswick, a province of Canada. The Canadian
Quebec is to the northwest.
Maine is both the northernmost
New England and the largest, accounting for almost half the
region's entire land area.
Maine is the only state to border only one
other state (
New Hampshire to the west).
Maine is the easternmost state in the
United States in both its
extreme points and its geographic center. The municipalities of
Eastport and Lubec are, respectively, the easternmost city and town in
the United States. Estcourt Station is Maine's northernmost point, as
well as the northernmost point in New England. (For more information
see extreme points of the United States.)
Moosehead Lake is the largest lake wholly in New England, as
Lake Champlain is located between Vermont, New York and Quebec. A
number of other
Maine lakes, such as South Twin Lake, are described by
Thoreau in The
Maine Woods (1864).
Mount Katahdin is both the northern
terminus of the Appalachian Trail, which extends southerly to Springer
Mountain, Georgia, and the southern terminus of the new International
Appalachian Trail which, when complete, will run to Belle Isle,
Newfoundland and Labrador.
Maine has several unique geographical features. Machias Seal Island
and North Rock, off its easternmost point, are claimed by both the
Canada and are within one of four areas between the two
countries whose sovereignty is still in dispute, but it is the only
one of the disputed areas containing land. Also in this easternmost
area in the
Bay of Fundy
Bay of Fundy is the Old Sow, the largest tidal whirlpool
in the Western Hemisphere.
Maine is the least densely populated
U.S. state east of the
Mississippi River. It is called the Pine Tree State; about 83% of its
land is forested, the most forest cover of any U.S. state. In the
forested areas of the interior lies much uninhabited land, some of
which does not have formal political organization into local units (a
rarity in New England). The
Northwest Aroostook, Maine
Northwest Aroostook, Maine unorganized
territory in the northern part of the state, for example, has an area
of 2,668 square miles (6,910 km2) and a population of 10, or one
person for every 267 square miles (690 km2).
Maine is in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome. The land
near the southern and central Atlantic coast is covered by the mixed
oaks of the Northeastern coastal forests. The remainder of the state,
including the North Woods, is covered by the New England-Acadian
Maine has almost 230 miles (400 km) of coastline (and 3,500 miles
(5,600 km) of tidal coastline). West Quoddy Head, in
Lubec, Maine, is the easternmost point of land in the 48 contiguous
states. Along the famous rock-bound coast of
Maine are lighthouses,
beaches, fishing villages, and thousands of offshore islands,
Isles of Shoals
Isles of Shoals which straddle the
New Hampshire border.
There are jagged rocks and cliffs and many bays and inlets. Inland are
lakes, rivers, forests, and mountains. This visual contrast of
forested slopes sweeping down to the sea has been summed up by
Edna St. Vincent Millay
Edna St. Vincent Millay of Rockland and Camden, Maine,
The coast of
Acadia National Park
"All I could see from where I stood
Was three long mountains and a wood;
I turned and looked the other way,
And saw three islands in a bay."
Geologists describe this type of landscape as a "drowned coast", where
a rising sea level has invaded former land features, creating bays out
of valleys and islands out of mountain tops. A rise in the
elevation of the land due to the melting of heavy glacier ice caused a
slight rebounding effect of underlying rock; this land rise, however,
was not enough to eliminate all the effect of the rising sea level and
its invasion of former land features.
Much of Maine's geomorphology was created by extended glacial activity
at the end of the last ice age. Prominent glacial features include
Somes Sound and Bubble Rock, both part of
Acadia National Park on
Mount Desert Island. Carved by glaciers,
Somes Sound is considered to
be the only fjord on the eastern seaboard and reaches depths of 175
feet (50 m). The extreme depth and steep drop-off allow large
ships to navigate almost the entire length of the sound. These
features also have made it attractive for boat builders, such as the
prestigious Hinckley Yachts.
Bubble Rock, a glacial erratic, is a large boulder perched on the edge
of Bubble Mountain in
Acadia National Park. By analyzing the type of
granite, geologists were able to discover that glaciers carried Bubble
Rock to its present location from near Lucerne – 30 miles
(48 km) away. The
Iapetus Suture runs through the north and west
of the state, being underlain by the ancient Laurentian terrane, and
the south and east underlain by the Avalonian terrane.
Acadia National Park is the only national park in New England. Areas
under the protection and management of the National Park Service
Acadia National Park near Bar Harbor
Appalachian National Scenic Trail
Maine Acadian Culture in St. John Valley
Roosevelt Campobello International Park
Roosevelt Campobello International Park on
Campobello Island in New
Brunswick, Canada, operated by both the US and Canada, just across the
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Bridge
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Bridge from Lubec.
Saint Croix Island International Historic Site
Saint Croix Island International Historic Site at Calais
Katahdin Woods and Waters National Monument
Maine State Parks
Maine Wildlife Management Areas (WMA)
Autumn in Stratton
Winter in Bangor
Maine has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification
Dfb), with warm (although generally not hot), humid summers. Winters
are cold and snowy throughout the state, and are especially severe in
the northern parts of Maine. Coastal areas are moderated somewhat by
the Atlantic Ocean, resulting in milder winters and cooler summers in
immediate coastal areas. Daytime highs are generally in the
75–80 °F (24–27 °C) range throughout the state in
July, with overnight lows in the high 50s °F (around 15 °C).
January temperatures range from highs near 32 °F (0 °C) on
the southern coast to overnight lows averaging below 0 °F
(−18 °C) in the far north.
The state's record high temperature is 105 °F (41 °C), set
in July 1911, at North Bridgton. Precipitation in
Maine is evenly
distributed year-round, but with a slight summer maximum in
Maine and a slight late-fall or early-winter
maximum along the coast due to "nor'easters" or intense cold-season
storms. In coastal Maine, the late spring and summer months are
usually driest – a rarity across the Eastern United States. Maine
has fewer days of thunderstorms than any other state east of the
Rockies, with most of the state averaging less than 20 days of
thunderstorms a year. Tornadoes are rare in Maine, with the state
averaging fewer than two per year, mostly occurring in the southern
part of the state.
Maine rarely sees tropical cyclones.
In January 2009, a new record low temperature for the state was set at
Big Black River of −50 °F (−46 °C), tying the New
Annual precipitation varies from 909 mm (35.8 in) in Presque
Isle, to 1,441 mm (56.7 in) in
Acadia National Park.
Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in
United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Maine
was 1,329,328 on July 1, 2015, a 0.07% increase since the 2010 United
States Census. The population density of the state is 41.3 people
per square mile, making it the least densely populated state in New
England, the American northeast, the eastern seaboard, of all of the
states with an Atlantic coastline and of all of the states east of the
The mean population center of
Maine is located in Kennebec County,
just east of Augusta. The Greater Portland metropolitan area is
the most densely populated with nearly 40% of Maine's population.
Portland's estimated population in 2016 was 66,937. As explained
in detail under "Geography", there are large tracts of uninhabited
land in some remote parts of the interior.
Maine has experienced a very slow rate of population growth since the
1990 census; its rate of growth (0.57%) since the 2010 census ranks
45th of the 50 states. The modest population growth in the state
has been concentrated in the southern coastal counties; the northern,
more rural areas of the state have experienced a significant decline
in population in recent years.
Race, ancestry and language
At the 2010 Census, 94.4% of the population was non-Hispanic White,
1.1% non-Hispanic Black or African American, 0.6% American Indian and
Alaska Native, 1.0% Asian, 0.1% from some other race and 1.4% of two
or more races. 1.3% of Maine's population was of Hispanic, Latino, or
Maine population by race
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
Two or more races
Largest ancestries (2011) 
Maine population density map
People citing that they are American are of overwhelmingly English
descent, but have ancestry that has been in the region for so long
(often since the 1600s) that they choose to identify simply as
Maine has the highest percentage of
French Americans among American
states. It also has the highest percentage of non-Hispanic whites of
any state, at 94.4% of the total population, according to the 2010
Census. In 2011, 89.0% of all births in the state were to non-Hispanic
white parents. The state also has the highest percentage of
French-speakers of any state. Most of the French in
Maine are of
Canadian Origin, but in some cases have been living there prior to the
American Revolutionary War. There are particularly high concentrations
of French in the northern part of
Maine in Aroostook County, which is
part of a cultural region known as
Acadia that goes over the border
into New Brunswick. Along with the Acadian population in the north,
many French came from
Quebec as immigrants between 1840 and 1930.
Census figures show that
Maine has the highest percentage of people
speaking French at home of any state: 5.28% of
Maine households are
French-speaking, compared with 4.68% in Louisiana, which is the second
highest state. French-speakers are the state's chief linguistic
minority; the 2000 Census reported 92.25% of
Maine residents aged five
and older spoke only English at home.
Maine does not have an official
language, but the most widely spoken language in the state is
English. Spanish is the third-most-spoken language in Maine, after
English and French.
The upper Saint John River valley area was once part of the so-called
Republic of Madawaska, before the frontier was decided in the
Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842. Over one quarter of the population
of Lewiston, Waterville, and
Biddeford are Franco-American. Most of
the residents of the
Mid Coast and
Down East sections are chiefly of
British heritage. Smaller numbers of various other groups, including
Irish, Italian and Polish, have settled throughout the state since the
late 19th and early 20th century immigration waves.
Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both
by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.
Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother
> Non-Hispanic White
Hispanic (of any race)
According to the
Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), the
religious affiliations of
Maine in 2010 were:
Catholic Church – 28%
Protestant – 7%
Protestant – 4%
Other religions – 1.7%
Christian religions include Hinduism, Islam,
Catholic Church was the largest religious institution with 202,106
United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church had 28,329 members, the United
Church of Christ had 22,747 members
In 2010, a study named
Maine as the least religious state in the
Maine locations by per capita income
Stereoscopic view "Lobster pots ready for placing" ~ 1928
Bath Iron Works
Bath Iron Works naval shipbuilding
Bureau of Economic Analysis
Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Maine's total gross
state product for 2010 was $52 billion. Its per capita personal
income for 2007 was US$33,991, 34th in the nation. As of April 2016,
Maine's unemployment rate is 3.4%
Old port area of Portland
Maine's agricultural outputs include poultry, eggs, dairy products,
cattle, wild blueberries, apples, maple syrup, and maple sugar.
Aroostook County is known for its potato crops. Commercial fishing,
once a mainstay of the state's economy, maintains a presence,
particularly lobstering and groundfishing. Western
Maine aquifers and
springs are a major source of bottled water.
Maine's industrial outputs consist chiefly of paper, lumber and wood
products, electronic equipment, leather products, food products,
textiles, and bio-technology. Naval shipbuilding and construction
remain key as well, with
Bath Iron Works
Bath Iron Works in Bath and Portsmouth Naval
Shipyard in Kittery.
Brunswick Landing, formerly Naval Air Station Brunswick, is also in
Maine. Formerly a large support base for the U.S. Navy, the BRAC
campaign initiated the Naval Air Station's closing, despite a
government-funded effort to upgrade its facilities. The former base
has since been changed into a civilian business park, as well as a new
satellite campus for Southern
Maine Community College.
Maine is the number one US producer of low-bush blueberries (Vaccinium
angustifolium). Preliminary data from the
USDA for 2012 also indicate
Maine was the largest blueberry producer of the major blueberry
producing states in the US, with 91,100,000 lbs. This data
includes both low (wild), and high-bush (cultivated) blueberries:
Vaccinium corymbosum. The largest toothpick manufacturing plant in the
United States used to be located in Strong, Maine. The Strong Wood
Products plant produced 20 million toothpicks a day. It closed in May
Tourism and outdoor recreation play a major and increasingly important
role in Maine's economy. The state is a popular destination for sport
hunting (particularly deer, moose and bear), sport fishing,
snowmobiling, skiing, boating, camping and hiking, among other
Maine ports played a key role in national
transportation. Beginning around 1880, Portland's rail link and
ice-free port made it Canada's principal winter port, until the
aggressive development of Halifax, Nova Scotia, in the mid-1900s. In
2013, 12,039,600 short tons passed into and out of Portland by
sea, which places it 45th of US water ports. Portland Maine's
Portland International Jetport
Portland International Jetport was recently expanded, providing the
state with increased air traffic from carriers such as
Maine has very few large companies that maintain headquarters in the
state, and that number has fallen due to consolidations and mergers,
particularly in the pulp and paper industry. Some of the larger
companies that do maintain headquarters in
Maine include Fairchild
Semiconductor in South Portland; IDEXX Laboratories, in Westbrook;
Hannaford Bros. Co.
Hannaford Bros. Co. in Scarborough,
Unum in Portland; TD Bank, in
L.L.Bean in Freeport; and
Cole Haan in Yarmouth.
also the home of The Jackson Laboratory, the world's largest
non-profit mammalian genetic research facility and the world's largest
supplier of genetically purebred mice.
Maine has an income tax structure containing two brackets, 6.5% to
7.95% of personal income. Before July 2013
Maine had four
brackets: 2%, 4.5%, 7%, and 8.5%. Maine's general sales tax rate
is 5.5%. The state also levies charges of 9% on lodging and prepared
food and 10% on short-term auto rentals. Commercial sellers of
Maine staple, must keep records of their transactions
and pay the state 1.5 cents per pound ($1.50 per 100 pounds) of the
fruit sold each season. All real and tangible personal property
located in the state of
Maine is taxable unless specifically exempted
by statute. The administration of property taxes is handled by the
local assessor in incorporated cities and towns, while property taxes
in the unorganized territories are handled by the State Tax Assessor.
Bath Iron Works
Bath Iron Works and Portsmouth Naval Shipyard
Maine has a longstanding tradition of being home to many shipbuilding
companies. In the 18th and 19th centuries,
Maine was home to many
shipyards that produced wooden sailing ships. The main function of
these ships was to transport either cargos or passengers overseas. One
of these yards was located in
Pennellville Historic District
Pennellville Historic District in what
is now Brunswick, Maine. This yard, owned by the Pennell family, was
typical of the many family-owned shipbuilding companies of the time
period. Other such examples of shipbuilding families were the
Skolfields and the Morses. During the 18th and 19th centuries, wooden
shipbuilding of this sort made up a sizable portion of the economy.
Portland International Jetport
Maine receives passenger jet service at its two largest airports, the
Portland International Jetport
Portland International Jetport in Portland, and the Bangor
International Airport in Bangor. Both are served daily by many major
airlines to destinations such as New York, Atlanta, and Orlando.
Essential Air Service
Essential Air Service also subsidizes service to a number of smaller
airports in Maine, bringing small turboprop aircraft to regional
airports such as the Augusta State Airport, Hancock County-Bar Harbor
Airport, Knox County Regional Airport, and the Northern
Airport at Presque Isle. These airports are served by Cape Air with
Cessna 402s and Penair with Saab 340s.
Many smaller airports are scattered throughout Maine, only serving
general aviation traffic. The Eastport Municipal Airport, for example,
is a city-owned public-use airport with 1,200 general aviation
aircraft operations each year from single-engine and ultralight
Penobscot Narrows Bridge, carrying
U.S. Route 1
U.S. Route 1 and
Route 3 over the
Interstate 95 (I-95) travels through Maine, as well as its
easterly branch I-295 and spurs 195, 395 and the unsigned I-495. In
addition, U.S. Route 1 (US 1) starts in Fort Kent and
travels to Florida. The eastern terminus of the eastern section of
US 2 starts in Houlton, near the New Brunswick,
Canada border to
Rouses Point, New York, at US 11. US 2A connects Old Town
and Orono, primarily serving the
University of Maine
University of Maine campus.
US 201 and US 202 flow through the state. US 2, Maine
State Route 6 (Route 6), and Route 9 are often used by
truckers and other motorists of the
Maritime Provinces en route to
other destinations in the
United States or as a short cut to Central
See also: List of
A southbound Downeaster passenger train at Ocean Park, Maine, as
viewed from the cab of a northbound train
The Downeaster passenger train, operated by Amtrak, provides passenger
service between Brunswick and Boston's North Station, with stops in
Freeport, Portland, Old Orchard Beach, Saco, and Wells. The Downeaster
makes five daily trips, three of which continue past Portland to
Freight service throughout the state is provided by a handful of
regional and shortline carriers:
Pan Am Railways
Pan Am Railways (formerly known as
Guilford Rail System), which operates the former
Boston & Maine
Maine Central railroads; St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad; Maine
Eastern Railroad; Central
Quebec Railway; and New Brunswick
Law and government
See also: List of Governors of Maine, List of
United States Senators
from Maine, List of
Maine State Senators, and Electoral reform in
Maine Constitution structures Maine's state government, composed
of three co-equal branches—the executive, legislative, and judicial
branches. The state of
Maine also has three Constitutional Officers
(the Secretary of State, the State Treasurer, and the State Attorney
General) and one Statutory Officer (the State Auditor).
The legislative branch is the
Maine Legislature, a bicameral body
composed of the
Maine House of Representatives, with 151 members, and
Maine Senate, with 35 members. The
Legislature is charged with
introducing and passing laws.
The executive branch is responsible for the execution of the laws
created by the
Legislature and is headed by the Governor of Maine
(currently Paul LePage). The Governor is elected every four years; no
individual may serve more than two consecutive terms in this office.
The current attorney general of
Maine is Janet T. Mills. As with other
state legislatures, the
Legislature can by a two-thirds majority
vote from both the House and Senate override a gubernatorial veto.
Maine is one of seven states that do not have a lieutenant governor.
The judicial branch is responsible for interpreting state laws. The
highest court of the state is the
Maine Supreme Judicial Court. The
lower courts are the District Court, Superior Court and Probate Court.
All judges except for probate judges serve full-time, are nominated by
the Governor and confirmed by the
Legislature for terms of seven
years. Probate judges serve part-time and are elected by the voters of
each county for four-year terms.
See also: List of counties in Maine
Maine is divided into political jurisdictions designated as counties.
Since 1860 there have been 16 counties in the state, ranging in size
from 370 to 6,829 square miles (958 to 17,700 km2).
Percent of total
Area (sq. mi.)
Percent of total
Total counties: 16
Total 2010 population: 1,328,361
Total state area: 34,554 square miles (89,494 km2)
State and local politics
See also: As
Maine goes, so goes the nation;
Maine Democratic Party;
Maine Green Independent Party; Libertarian Party of Maine; Maine
Republican Party; Political party strength in Maine; and Same-sex
marriage in Maine
Gubernatorial election results
Presidential election results
In state general elections,
Maine voters tend to accept independent
and third-party candidates more frequently than most states.
had two independent governors recently (James B. Longley, 1975–1979
and current U.S. Senator Angus King, 1995–2003).
politicians, Democrats and Republicans alike, are noted for having
more moderate views than many in the national wings of their
Maine is an alcoholic beverage control state.
On May 6, 2009,
Maine became the fifth state to legalize same-sex
marriage; however, the law was repealed by voters on November 3, 2009.
On November 6, 2012, Maine, along with
Maryland and Washington, became
the first state to legalize same-sex marriage at the ballot box.
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election
In the 1930s,
Maine was one of very few states which retained
Republican sentiments. In the 1936 presidential election, Franklin D.
Roosevelt received the electoral votes of every state other than Maine
and Vermont; these were the only two states in the nation that never
voted for Roosevelt in any of his presidential campaigns, though Maine
was closely fought in 1940 and 1944. In the 1960s,
Maine began to lean
toward the Democrats, especially in presidential elections. In 1968,
Hubert Humphrey became just the second Democrat in half a century to
carry Maine, perhaps because of the presence of his running mate,
Maine Senator Edmund Muskie, although the state voted Republican in
every presidential election in the 1970s and 1980s.
Since 1969, two of Maine's four electoral votes have been awarded
based on the winner of the statewide election; the other two go to the
highest vote-getter in each of the state's two congressional
districts. Every other state except
Nebraska gives all its electoral
votes to the candidate who wins the popular vote in the state at
large, without regard to performance within districts.
Maine split its
electoral vote for the first time in 2016, with Donald Trump's strong
showing in the more rural central and northern
Maine allowing him to
capture one of the state's four votes in the Electoral College.
Ross Perot achieved a great deal of success in
Maine in the
presidential elections of 1992 and 1996. In 1992, as an independent
candidate, Perot came in second to Democrat Bill Clinton, despite the
longtime presence of the
Bush family summer home in Kennebunkport. In
1996, as the nominee of the Reform Party, Perot did better in Maine
than in any other state.
Maine has voted for Democratic
Bill Clinton twice,
Al Gore in 2000,
John Kerry in 2004, and
Barack Obama in 2008 and 2012. In 2016,
Donald Trump won one of Maine's electoral votes with
Hillary Clinton winning the other three. Although
Democrats have mostly carried the state in presidential elections in
recent years, Republicans have largely maintained their control of the
state's U.S. Senate seats, with Edmund Muskie,
William Hathaway and
George J. Mitchell
George J. Mitchell being the only
Maine Democrats serving in the U.S.
Senate in the past fifty years.
In the 2010 midterm elections, Republicans made major gains in Maine.
They captured the governor's office as well as majorities in both
chambers of the state legislature for the first time since the early
1970s. However, in the 2012 elections Democrats managed to recapture
both houses of
Maine's U.S. senators are Republican
Susan Collins and Independent
Angus King. The governor is Republican Paul LePage. The state's two
members of the
United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives are Democrat
Chellie Pingree and Republican Bruce Poliquin.
An organized municipality has a form of elected local government which
administers and provides local services, keeps records, collects
licensing fees, and can pass locally binding ordinances, among other
responsibilities of self-government. The governmental format of most
organized towns and plantations is the town meeting, while the format
of most cities is the council-manager form. As of 2013 the organized
Maine consist of 23 cities, 431 towns, and 34
plantations. Collectively these 488 organized municipalities cover
less than half of the state's territory.
Maine also has 3
Reservations: Indian Island, Indian Township Reservation, and Pleasant
Point Indian Reservation.
The largest municipality in Maine, by population, is the city of
Portland (pop. 66,318).
The smallest city by population is Eastport (pop. 1,331).
The largest town by population is Brunswick (pop. 20,278).
The smallest town by population is Frye Island, a resort town which
reported zero year-round population in the 2000 Census; one
plantation, Glenwood Plantation, Maine, also reported a permanent
population of zero.
In the 2000 census, the smallest town aside from Frye Island was
Centerville with a population of 26, but since that census,
Centerville voted to disincorporate and therefore is no longer a town.
The next smallest town with a population listed in that census is
Beddington (pop. 50 at the 2010 census).
The largest municipality by land area is the town of Allagash, at 128
square miles (332 km2).
The smallest municipality by land area is the plantation of Monhegan
Island, at 0.86 square miles (2.2 km2). The smallest municipality
by area that is not an island is Randolph, at 2.23 square miles
Unorganized territory has no local government. Administration,
services, licensing, and ordinances are handled by the state
government. The unorganized territory of
Maine consists of over 400
townships (towns are incorporated, townships are unincorporated), plus
many coastal islands that do not lie within any municipal bounds. The
UT land area is slightly over one half the entire area of the State of
Maine. Year-round residents in the UT number approximately 9,000,
about 1.3% of the state's total population, with many more people
residing only seasonally within the UT. Only four of Maine's sixteen
counties (Androscoggin, Cumberland, Waldo and York) are entirely
incorporated, although a few others are nearly so, and most of the
unincorporated area is in the vast and sparsely populated Great North
Woods of Maine.
Most populous cities and towns
QuickFacts US Census
The 49 most populous cities and towns at the 2010 US Census
Old Orchard Beach
Throughout Maine, many municipalities, although each separate
governmental entities, nevertheless form portions of a much larger
population base. There are many such population clusters throughout
Maine, but some examples from the municipalities appearing in the
above listing are:
Portland, South Portland, Cape Elizabeth, Westbrook, Scarborough, and
Lewiston and Auburn
Bangor, Orono, Brewer, Old Town, and Hampden
Biddeford, Saco and Old Orchard Beach
Brunswick and Topsham
Waterville, Winslow, Fairfield, and Oakland
Presque Isle and Caribou
Further information: List of colleges and universities in Maine,
Education in Maine, List of high schools in Maine, and List of school
districts in Maine
Bates College and
Bowdoin College of Lewiston and Brunswick
There are thirty institutions of higher learning in Maine. These
institutions include the
University of Maine, which is the oldest,
largest and only research university in the state. U
Maine was founded
in 1865 and is the state's only land grant and sea grant college. The
University of Maine
University of Maine is located in the town of Orono and is the
flagship of Maine. There are also branch campuses in Augusta,
Farmington, Fort Kent, Machias, and Presque Isle.
Bowdoin College is a liberal arts college founded in 1794 in
Brunswick, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the
Colby College in Waterville was founded in 1813 making it the
second oldest college in Maine.
Bates College in Lewiston was
founded in 1855 making it the third oldest institution in the state
and the oldest coeducational college in New England. The three
colleges collectively form the
Colby-Bates-Bowdoin Consortium and are
ranked among the best colleges in the United States; often placing in
the top 10% of all liberal arts colleges.
Stevens Hall at the
University of Maine
University of Maine in Orono
Maine's per-student public expenditure for elementary and secondary
schools was 21st in the nation in 2012, at $12,344.
The collegiate system of
Maine also includes numerous baccalaureate
colleges such as: the
Maine Maritime Academcy (MMA), Unity College,
and Thomas College. There is only one medical school in the state,
University of New England's College of Osteopathic Medicine) and only
one law school (The
University of Maine
University of Maine School of Law).
Private schools in
Maine are funded independently of the state and its
furthered domains. Private schools are less common than public
schools. A large number of private elementary schools with under 20
students exist, but most private high schools in
Maine can be
described as "semi-private."
Maine Division 1 Hockey
Maine Red Claws, basketball, NBA G League
Portland Sea Dogs, minor league baseball, Eastern League (U.S.
Maine Mariners, ice hockey, ECHL
Portland Phoenix FC, soccer, Premier Developmental League
Maine Roller Derby, roller derby, Women's Flat Track Derby Association
The current state license plate design, introduced in 1999, depicts
both the state bird and the state flower
Maine Black Bears
The moose, the state mammal, as displayed at the
Maine State Museum in
Main article: List of
Maine state symbols
Adapted from the
Maine facts site.
Maine State Quarter
State berry: Wild blueberry
State bird: Black-capped chickadee
Blueberry pie made with wild
State fish: Land-locked salmon
State flower: White Pinecone and Tassel
State gemstone: Tourmaline
State herb: Wintergreen
State insect: European honey bee
State mammal: Moose
State soft drink: Moxie
State soil: Chesuncook soil series
State song: "State of
State treat: Whoopie pie
State tree: Eastern White Pine
State vessel: Arctic exploration schooner Bowdoin
Dirigo ("I lead")
In popular culture
Maine in popular culture
Main article: List of people from Maine
A citizen of
Maine is known as a "Mainer", though the term is often
reserved for those whose roots in
Maine go back at least three
generations. The term "Downeaster" may be applied to residents of
the northeast coast of the state. The term "Mainiac" is considered by
some to be derogatory, but embraced with pride by others, and is
used for a variety of organizations and for events such as the YMCA
Mainiac Sprint Triathlon & Duathlon.
New England portal
Index of Maine-related articles
Outline of Maine
Maine does not have an official language. Both English and French
are considered the de facto languages of the state. French in
particular is legally protected and recognized as Maine's minority
Maine (along with Louisiana) is considered apart of
the Francophone world and makes up the largest French-speaking
population in the United States.
Maine for Vacation". USA Today. Retrieved August 5, 2013. There's a
reason it's called "Vacationland..."
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^ "Title 1, §224: State soft drink". legislature.maine.gov.
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America, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994, pp. 186 and 224
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accessed February 1, 2010
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^ Woodard, Colin. The Lobster Coast: Rebels, Rusticators and the
Forgotten Frontier (2004) Penguin Books. ISBN 0-670-03324-3
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^ "Length of the U.S. Coastline by State". fen.com. Retrieved
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^ "Answers – The Most Trusted Place for Answering Life's Questions".
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^ Mary C. Waters, Ethnic Options: Choosing Identities in America
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^ French Canadian Emigration to the
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Americans by Marianne Fedunkiw
Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio:
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^ "Statistics" (PDF). cdc.gov.
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^ KEPM –
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^ "About". Retrieved 2016-08-19.
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Retrieved August 13, 2014.
Find more aboutMaineat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Maine Office of Tourism Search for tourism-related businesses
Maine fairs, festivals, etc. –
Maine State Guide, from the Library of Congress
U.S. EIA Energy Profile for
Maine – economic, environmental and
U.S. Geological Survey Real-time, geographic, and other scientific
resources of Maine
U.S. Dept. of
Maine State Facts – agricultural
U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau Quick facts on Maine
Portland Magazine Editorial on
Maine news, events, and people
Maine at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Maine Historical Society
Old USGS maps of Maine.
1860 Map of
Maine by Mitchell.
1876 Panoramic Birdseye View of Portland by Warner at LOC.,
Portland Stage Company
Comprehensive compilation of media sources in Maine.
Geographic data related to
Maine at OpenStreetMap
List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union
Admitted on March 15, 1820 (23rd)
State of Maine
Old Orchard Beach
New England Colonies
Dominion of New England
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Place names of Native-American origin
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Shore Line East
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Hartford Line (CT, MA; under construction)
New England (proposed)
I-84 (CT, MA)
I-89 (NH, VT)
I-90 (Mass Pike) (MA)
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I-93 (MA, NH, VT)
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United States Code
United States Reports
Central Intelligence Agency
Defense Intelligence Agency
Federal Bureau of Investigation
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
National Reconnaissance Office
National Security Agency
Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Public Health Service Corps
political status of Puerto Rico
District of Columbia statehood movement
Hawaiian sovereignty movement
Red states and blue states
Federal Reserve System
Social welfare programs
Black American Sign Language
Plains Sign Talk
Professional and working class conflict
Standard of living
Ages of consent
Criticism of government
Separation of church and state
Coordinates: 45°30′N 69°00′W / 45.5°N 69°W / 45.5;
ISNI: 0000 0004 0427 712X