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Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (Persian: یمین‌الدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین‎), more commonly known as Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود غزنوی; November 971 – 30 April 1030), also known as Mahmūd-i Zābulī (محمود زابلی), was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire. He conquered the eastern Iranian lands, modern Afghanistan, and the northwestern Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
(modern Pakistan) from 997 to his death in 1030. Mahmud turned the former provincial city of Ghazna into the wealthy capital of an extensive empire that covered most of today's Afghanistan, eastern Iran, and Pakistan, by looting the riches and wealth from the then Indian subcontinent.[2][3] He was the first ruler to hold the title Sultan
Sultan
("authority"), signifying the extent of his power while at the same time preserving an ideological link to the suzerainty of the Abbasid Caliphate. During his rule, he invaded and plundered parts of the Indian subcontinent (east of the Indus River) seventeen times.[3][4]

Contents

1 Early life and origin 2 Family 3 Early career 4 Reign

4.1 Ghaznavid campaigns in Indian Subcontinent

5 Political challenges

5.1 Campaign timeline

5.1.1 As emir 5.1.2 As sultan

6 Attitude on religion and jihad 7 Attack on the Somnath
Somnath
Temple

7.1 Historiography concerning Somnath

8 Legacy 9 See also 10 Footnotes 11 References 12 External links

Early life and origin[edit] Mahmud was born on Thursday, 10 Muharram, 361 AH/2 November 971 CE in the town of Ghazna in Medieval Khorasan (modern southeastern Afghanistan). His father, Sabuktigin, was a Turkic Mamluk who founded the Ghaznavid dynasty and was thus the first Ghaznavid Sultan
Sultan
Sebüktigin. His mother was the daughter of a Persian aristocrat from Zabulistan.[5] Mahmud had a younger brother, Yusuf Sebüktigin. Family[edit] Mahmud married a woman named Kausari Jahan, and they had twin sons Mohammad and Ma'sud, who succeeded him one after the other; his grandson by Mas'ud, Maw'dud Ghaznavi, also later became ruler of the empire. His sister, Sitr-i-Mu'alla, was married to Dawood bin Ataullah Alavi, also known as Ghazi Salar Sahu, whose son was Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud. Mahmud's companion was a Georgian slave Malik Ayaz, and his love for him inspired poems and stories.[6] Early career[edit]

Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud and his forces attacking the fortress of Zaranj

In 994 Mahmud joined his father Sabuktigin
Sabuktigin
in the capture of Khorasan from the rebel Fa'iq in aid of the Samanid
Samanid
Emir, Nuh II. During this period, the Samanid Empire
Samanid Empire
became highly unstable, with shifting internal political tides as various factions vied for control, the chief among them being Abu'l-Qasim Simjuri, Fa'iq, Abu Ali[citation needed], the General Bekhtuzin as well as the neighbouring Buyid dynasty
Buyid dynasty
and Kara-Khanid Khanate. Reign[edit] Mahmud took over his father's kingdom in 998 after defeating and capturing Ismail at the Battle of Ghazni. He then set out west from Ghazni
Ghazni
to take the Kandahar region followed by Bost (Lashkar Gah), where he turned it into a militarised city. Mahmud initiated the first of numerous invasion of North India. On 28 November 1001, his army fought and defeated the army of Raja Jayapala
Jayapala
of the Kabul Shahis at the battle of Peshawar. In 1002 Mahmud invaded Sistan
Sistan
and dethroned Khalaf ibn Ahmad, ending the Saffarid dynasty.[7] From there he decided to focus on Hindustan to the southeast, particularly the highly fertile lands of the Punjab region. Mahmud's first campaign to the south was against an Ismaili state first established at Multan
Multan
in 965 by a da'i from the Fatimid Caliphate in a bid to curry political favor and recognition with the Abbasid Caliphate; he also engaged elsewhere with the Fatimids. At this point, Jayapala
Jayapala
attempted to gain revenge for an earlier military defeat at the hands of Mahmud's father, who had controlled Ghazni
Ghazni
in the late 980s and had cost Jayapala
Jayapala
extensive territory. His son Anandapala succeeded him and continued the struggle to avenge his father's suicide. He assembled a powerful confederacy that suffered defeat as his elephant turned back from the battle at a crucial moment, turning the tide into Mahmud's favor once more at Lahore
Lahore
in 1008 and bringing Mahmud into control of the Shahi dominions of Udbandpura.[8] Ghaznavid campaigns in Indian Subcontinent[edit]

Mahmud of Ghazni's last success in India against the Jats

Following the defeat of the Indian Confederacy, after deciding to retaliate for their combined resistance, Mahmud then set out on regular expeditions against them, leaving the conquered kingdoms in the hands of Hindu
Hindu
vassals and annexing only the Punjab region.[8] He also vowed to raid and loot the wealthy region of northwestern India every year.[2] In 1001 Mahmud of Ghazni
Ghazni
first invaded modern day Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan
Pakistan
and then parts of India. Mahmud defeated, captured, and later released the Shahi ruler Jayapala, who had moved his capital to Peshawar
Peshawar
(modern Pakistan). Jayapala
Jayapala
killed himself and was succeeded by his son Anandapala. In 1005 Mahmud of Ghazni
Ghazni
invaded Bhatia (probably Bhera), and in 1006 he invaded Multan, at which time Anandapala's army attacked him. The following year Mahmud of Ghazni attacked and crushed Sukhapala, ruler of Bathinda
Bathinda
(who had become ruler by rebelling against the Shahi kingdom). In 1013, during Mahmud's eighth expedition into eastern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan, the Shahi kingdom (which was then under Trilochanapala, son of Anandapala) was overthrown.[9] In 1014 Mahmud led an expedition to Thanesar. The next year he unsuccessfully attacked Kashmir. In 1018 he attacked Mathura
Mathura
and defeated a coalition of rulers there while also killing a ruler called Chandrapala. In 1021 Mahmud supported the Kannauj
Kannauj
king against Chandela
Chandela
Ganda, who was defeated. That same year Shahi Trilochanapala was killed at Rahib and his son Bhimapala succeeded him. Lahore (modern Pakistan) was annexed by Mahmud. Mahmud besieged Gwalior, in 1023, where he was given tribute. Mahmud attacked Somnath
Somnath
in 1025, and its ruler Bhima I
Bhima I
fled. The next year, he captured Somnath
Somnath
and marched to Kachch against Bhima I. That same year Mahmud also attacked the Jat people of Jud.[9] The Indian kingdoms of Nagarkot, Thanesar, Kannauj, and Gwalior
Gwalior
were all conquered and left in the hands of Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist kings as vassal states and he was pragmatic enough not to neglect making alliances and enlisting local peoples into his armies at all ranks. Since Mahmud never kept a permanent presence in the northwestern subcontinent, he engaged in a policy of destroying Hindu
Hindu
temples and monuments to crush any move by the Hindus to attack the Empire; Nagarkot, Thanesar, Mathura, Kannauj, Kalinjar
Kalinjar
(1023)[10] and Somnath all submitted or were raided. Political challenges[edit]

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The last four years of Mahmud's life were spent contending with the influx of Oghuz and Seljuk Turks
Seljuk Turks
from Central Asia and the Buyid dynasty. Initially, after being repulsed by Mahmud, the Seljuks retired to Khwarezm, but Togrül and Çagrı led them to capture Merv and Nishapur
Nishapur
(1028–1029). Later, they repeatedly raided and traded territory with his successors across Khorasan and Balkh and even sacked Ghazni
Ghazni
in 1037. In 1040, at the Battle of Dandanaqan, they decisively defeated Mahmud's son, Mas'ud I, resulting in Mas'ud abandoning most of his western territories to the Seljuks. Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud died on 30 April 1030. His mausoleum is located in Ghazni, Afghanistan. Campaign timeline[edit] As emir[edit]

994: Gains the title of Saif ad-Dawla and becomes Governor of Khorasan under service to Nuh II of the Samanid Empire
Samanid Empire
in civil strife 995: The Samanid
Samanid
rebels Fa'iq (leader of a court faction that had defeated Alptigin's nomination for Emir) and Abu Ali expel Mahmud from Nishapur. Mahmud and Sabuktigin
Sabuktigin
defeat Samanid
Samanid
rebels at Tus.

As sultan[edit]

997: Kara-Khanid Khanate 999: Khorasan, Balkh, Herat, Merv
Merv
from the Samanids. A concurrent invasion from the north by the Qarakhanids under Elik Khan (Nasr Khan) ends Samanid
Samanid
rule. 1000: Sistan
Sistan
from Saffarid dynasty 1001: Gandhara: Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud defeats Raja Jayapala
Jayapala
at Peshawar; Jayapala
Jayapala
subsequently abdicates and commits suicide. 1002: Seistan: Is imprisoned in Khuluf 1004: Bhatia (Bhera) is annexed after it fails to pay its yearly tribute, 1004 CE 1005-6: Multan: Fateh Daud, the Ismaili ruler of Multan[11] revolts and enlists the aid of Anandapala. Mahmud massacres the Ismailis[12][13] of Multan
Multan
in the course of his conquest. Anandapala is defeated at Peshawar
Peshawar
and pursued to Sodra (Wazirabad).

Ghor and Muhammad ibn Suri
Muhammad ibn Suri
are then captured by Mahmud, made prisoner along with Muhammad ibn Suri's son, and taken to Ghazni, where Muhammad ibn Suri
Muhammad ibn Suri
dies. Appoints Sewakpal to administer the region. Anandapala flees to Kashmir, fort in the hills on the western border of Kashmir.

1005: Defends Balkh and Khorasan against Nasr I of the Kara-Khanid Khanate
Kara-Khanid Khanate
and recaptures Nishapur
Nishapur
from Isma'il Muntasir
Isma'il Muntasir
of the Samanids. 1005: Sewakpal rebels and is defeated. 1008: Mahmud defeats the Indian Confederacy (Ujjain, Gwalior, Kalinjar, Kannauj, Delhi, and Ajmer) in battle between Und and Peshawar,[14] and captures the Shahi treasury at Kangra, Himachal Pradesh.

Note: A historical narrative states in this battle, under the onslaught of the Gakhars, Mahmud's army was about to retreat when King Anandapala's elephant took flight and turned the tide of the battle.[citation needed]

1010: Ghor; against Amir Suri 1010: Multan
Multan
revolts. Abul Fatah Dawood is imprisoned for life at Ghazni. 1012-1013: Sacks Thanesar[14] 1012: Invades Gharchistan and deposes its ruler Abu Nasr Muhammad. 1012: Demands and receives remainder of the province of Khorasan from the Abassid Caliph. Then demands Samarkand
Samarkand
as well but is rebuffed. 1013: Bulnat: Defeats Trilochanpala. 1014: Kafiristan
Kafiristan
is attacked 1015: Mahmud's army sacks Lahore, but his expedition to Kashmir
Kashmir
fails, due to inclement weather.[15] 1015: Khwarezm: Marries his sister to Abul Abbas Mamun of Khwarezm, who dies in the same year in a rebellion. Moves to quell the rebellion and installs a new ruler and annexes a portion. 1017: Kannauj, Meerut, and Muhavun on the Yamuna, Mathura
Mathura
and various other regions along the route. While moving through Kashmir
Kashmir
he levies troops from vassal Prince for his onward march; Kannauj
Kannauj
and Meerut submit without battle. 1018-1020: Sacks the town of Mathura.[14] 1021: Raises Ayaz to kingship, awarding him the throne of Lahore 1021: Kalinjar
Kalinjar
attacks Kannauj: he marches to their aid and finds the last Shahi King, Trilochanpaala, encamped as well. No battle, the opponents leave their baggage trains and withdraw from the field. Also fails to take the fort of Lokote again. Takes Lahore
Lahore
on his return. Trilochanpala flees to Ajmer. First Muslim governors appointed east of the Indus River. 1023: Lahore. He forces Kalinjar
Kalinjar
and Gwalior
Gwalior
to submit and pay tribute:[16] Trilochanpala, the grandson of Jayapala, is assassinated by his own troops. Official annexation of Punjab by Ghazni. Also fails to take the Lohara fort on the western border of Kashmir
Kashmir
for the second time. 1024: Ajmer, Nehrwala, Kathiawar: This raid is his last major campaign. The concentration of wealth at Somnath
Somnath
was renowned, and consequently it became an attractive target for Mahmud, as it had previously deterred most invaders. The temple and citadel are sacked, and most of its defenders massacred. 1024: Somnath: Mahmud sacks the temple and is reported to have personally hammered the temple's gilded Lingam
Lingam
to pieces, and the stone fragments are carted back to Ghazni, where they are incorporated into the steps of the city's new Jama Masjid (Friday Mosque) in 1026. He places a new king on the throne in Gujarat
Gujarat
as a tributary. His return detours across the Thar Desert
Thar Desert
to avoid the armies of Ajmer
Ajmer
and other allies on his return. 1025: Marches against the Jats of the Jood mountains who harry his army on its return from the sack of Somnath. 1027: Rey, Isfahan, Hamadan
Hamadan
from the Buyids Dynasty. 1028, 1029: Merv, Nishapur
Nishapur
are lost to Seljuq dynasty

Attitude on religion and jihad[edit] Following Mahmud's recognition by the Abbasid caliphate in 999, he pledged a jihad and a raid on India every year.[17] In 1005 Mahmud conducted a series of campaigns during which the Ismailis of Multan were massacred.[18] In the context of his religious policies toward Hindus, modern historians such as Romila Thapar
Romila Thapar
and Richard M. Eaton have commented that his policies were in contrast to his general image in the modern era.[19] Thapar writes:

Of the mercenaries, not an insubstantial number were Indians and, presumably, Hindus. Indian soldiers under their commander, referred to as Suvendhary, remained loyal to Mahmud. They had their own commander, the sipasalar-i-Hinduwan, lived in their own quarter in Ghazni
Ghazni
and continued with their religion. When the Turkish commander of the troops rebelled, the command was given to a Hindu, Tilak, and he is commended for his loyalty. Complaints are made about the severity with which Muslims and Christians were killed by Indian troops fighting for Mahmud in Seistan.[20]

Mohammad Habib states that there was no imposition of Jizya
Jizya
on "non-Muslims" during the reign of Mahmud of Ghazni
Ghazni
nor any mention of "forced conversions":

[H]is (Mahmud's) expeditions against India were not motivated by religion but by love of plunder.[21]

Attack on the Somnath
Somnath
Temple[edit]

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A painting of the tomb of Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud of Ghazni, in 1839–40, with sandalwood doors long believed to have been plundered from Somnath, which he destroyed in c. 1024, but later found to be replicas of the original

In 1024 Mahmud raided Gujarat, plundering the Somnath
Somnath
temple and breaking its jyotirlinga. He took away a booty of 2 million dinars.[22][23] Historians estimate the damage to the temple to have been minimal because there are records of pilgrimages to the temple in 1038 that make no mention of any damage.[24] However, powerful legends with intricate detail had developed regarding Mahmud's raid in the Turko-Persian literature,[25] which "electrified" the Muslim world according to scholar Meenakshi Jain.[26] Historiography concerning Somnath[edit] Historians including Thapar, Eaton, and A. K. Majumdar have questioned the iconoclastic historiography of this incident. Thapar quoted Majmudar (1956):

But, as is well known, Hindu
Hindu
sources do not give any information regarding the raids of Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud, so that what follows is based solely on the testimony of Muslim authors.[27]

Thapar also argued against the prevalent narrative:

Yet in a curiously contradictory manner, the Turko-Persian narratives were accepted as historically valid and even their internal contradictions were not given much attention, largely because they approximated more closely to the current European sense of history than did the other sources.[28]

Silver jitals of Mahmud of Ghazna with bilingual Arabic and Sanskrit minted in Lahore
Lahore
1028. avyaktam-eka (La ilaha illAllah) Muhammada avtāra (Muhammad Rasulullah Sal ALLAHu alayhi wasallam) Nrpati Mahamuda ..

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Verse to Mahmud of Ghazni

Legacy[edit]

Coins of Mahmud with the Islamic declaration of faith. Obverse legend with the name of the caliph al-Qadir bi-llah (in the fifth line). Reverse legend: Muhammad Rasul/Allah Yamin al-Daw/la wa-Amin al-Milla/Mahmud.

Under the reign of Mahmud of Ghazni, the region broke away from the Samanid
Samanid
sphere of influence. While he acknowledged the Abbasids
Abbasids
as caliph as a matter of form, he was also granted the title Sultan
Sultan
in recognition of his independence. By the end of his reign, the Ghaznavid Empire extended from Ray in the west to Samarkand
Samarkand
in the north-east, and from the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
to the Yamuna. Although his raids carried his forces across the Indian subcontinent, only a portion of the Punjab and of Sindh
Sindh
in modern-day Pakistan
Pakistan
came under his semi-permanent rule; Kashmir, the Doab, Rajasthan, and Gujarat
Gujarat
remained under the control of the local Hindu dynasties. The booty brought back to Ghazni
Ghazni
was enormous, and contemporary historians (e.g. Abolfazl Beyhaghi, Ferdowsi) give descriptions of the magnificence of the capital, as well as of the conqueror's munificent support of literature. He transformed Ghazni, the first centre of Persian literature,[29] into one of the leading cities of Central Asia, patronizing scholars, establishing colleges, laying out gardens, and building mosques, palaces, and caravansaries. Mahmud brought whole libraries from Ray and Isfahan
Isfahan
to Ghazni. He even demanded that the Khwarizmshah court send its men of learning to Ghazni.[30] Mahmud patronized the notable poet Ferdowsi, who after laboring 27 years, went to Ghazni
Ghazni
and presented the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
to him. There are various stories in medieval texts describing the lack of interest shown by Mahmud to Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
and his life's work. According to historians, Mahmud had promised Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
a dinar for every distich written in the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
(which would have been 60,000 dinars), but later retracted his promise and presented him with dirhams (20,000 dirhams), at that time the equivalent of only 200 dinars. His expedition across the Gangetic plains in 1017 inspired Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
to compose his Tarikh Al-Hind in order to understand the Indians and their beliefs. During Mahmud's rule, universities were founded to study various subjects such as mathematics, religion, the humanities, and medicine. On 30 April 1030 Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud died in Ghazni
Ghazni
at the age of 58. Sultan Mahmud had contracted malaria during his last invasion. The medical complication from malaria had caused lethal tuberculosis. The Ghaznavid Empire was ruled by his successors for 157 years. The expanding Seljuk empire absorbed most of the Ghaznavid west. The Ghorids captured Ghazni
Ghazni
in 1150, and Mu'izz al-Din
Mu'izz al-Din
(also known as Muhammad of Ghori) captured the last Ghaznavid stronghold at Lahore
Lahore
in 1187. The military of Pakistan
Pakistan
has named its short-range ballistic missile the Ghaznavi Missile
Ghaznavi Missile
in honour of Mahmud of Ghazni.[31] In addition, the Pakistan
Pakistan
Military Academy, where cadets are trained to become officers of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army, also gives tribute to Mahmud of Ghazni by naming one of its twelve companies Ghaznavi Company. See also[edit]

Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent

Footnotes[edit]

^ http://www.gallery.am/en/database/item/35/ ^ a b Saunders 1947, p. 162. ^ a b Heathcote 1995, p. 6. ^ Anjum 2007, p. 234. ^ Bosworth 1991, p. 65. ^ Neill 2008, p. 308. ^ Bosworth 1963, p. 89. ^ a b Holt, Lambton & Lewis 1977, p. 3-4. ^ a b Barnett 1999, p. 74-78. ^ Khan 2007, p. 66. ^ Blank 2001, p. 37. ^ Hanifi 1964, p. 21. ^ Daftary 2005, p. 68. ^ a b c Barua 2005, p. 27. ^ Chandra 2006, p. 18. ^ Kumar 2008, p. 127. ^ Qassem 2009, p. 19. ^ Virani 2007, p. 100. ^ Eaton 2000, p. 63. ^ Thapar 2005, p. 40. ^ Habib 1965, p. 77. ^ Yagnik & Sheth 2005, pp. 39–40. ^ Thapar 2005, pp. 36–37. ^ Thapar 2005, p. 75. ^ Thapar 2005, Chapter 3. ^ Meenakshi Jain (21 March 2004). "Review of Romila Thapar's "Somanatha, The Many Voices of a History"". The Pioneer. Retrieved 2014-12-15.  ^ A. K. Majumdar, Chalukyas of Gujarat
Gujarat
(Bombay, 1956), quoted in Thapar 2005, p. 16 ^ Thapar 2005, p. 14. ^ "Arts, Islamic". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 20 October 2006.  ^ Bosworth 1963, p. 132. ^ Ramachandran 2005.

References[edit]

Anjum, Tanvir (Summer 2007). "The Emergence of Muslim Rule in India: Some Historical Disconnects and Missing Links". Islamic Studies. 46 (2).  Barnett, Lionel (1999). Antiquities of India. Atlantic.  Barua, Pradeep P. (2005). The State at War in South Asia. University of Nebraska Press.  Blank, Jonah (2001). Mullahs on the mainframe: Islam and modernity among the Daudi Bohras. University of Chicago Press.  Bosworth, C.E. (1963). The Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
994–1040. Edinburgh University Press.  Bosworth, C.E. (1991). "Mahmud bin Sebuktigin". Encyclopedia of Islam. E.J.Brill. VI.  Grockelmann, Carl; Perlmann, Moshe; Carmichael, Joel (1947). History of the Islamic Peoples: With a Review of Events, 1939-1947. G.P. Putnam's sons.  – via  Questia (subscription required) Chandra, Satish (2006). Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals- Delhi
Delhi
Sultanat (1206–1526) Part 1. Har-Anand Publication Pvt Ltd.  Daftary, Farhad (2005). Ismailis in Medieval Muslim societies. I B Taurus and company.  Eaton, Richard M. (December 22, 2000). " Temple
Temple
Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Part I". Frontline. [1] Habib, Mohammad (1965). Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud of Ghaznin. S. Chand & Co.  Hanifi, Manzoor Ahmad (1964). A Short History of Muslim rule in Indo-Pakistan. Ideal Library.  Heathcote, T.A. (1995). The Military in British India: The Development of British Forces in South Asia:1600-1947. Manchester University Press.  Holt, P. M.; Lambton, Ann K. S.; Lewis, Bernard (1977). The Cambridge History of Islam:. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29138-5.  Khan, Iqtidar Alam (2007). "Ganda Chandella". Historical Dictionary of Medieval India. Scarecrow Press.  Kumar, Raj (2008). History Of The Chamar Dynasty : (From 6Th Century A.D. To 12Th Century A.D.). Kalpaz Publications.  Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra (2003) [first published 1952]. Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass.  Neill, James (2008). The Origins and Role of Same-Sex Relations In Human Societies. McFarland.  Qassem, Ahmad Shayeq (2009). Afghanistan's Political Stability: A Dream Unrealised. Ashgate Publishing.  Ramachandran, Sudha (Sep 3, 2005). "Asia's missiles strike at the heart". Asia Times Online.  Ritter, Hellmut (2003). Handbook of Oriental studies: Near and Middle East. 69. Brill.  Saunders, Kenneth (1947). A Pageant of India. Oxford University Press.  Thapar, Romila (2005). Somanatha:The Many Voices of a History. Penguin Books India.  Virani, Shafique N. (2007). The Ismailis in the Middle Ages: A History of Survival, A Search for Salvation. New York: Oxford University Press.  Yagnik, Achyut; Sheth, Suchitra (2005), Shaping of Modern Gujarat, Penguin UK, ISBN 8184751850 

External links[edit]

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UCLA website Mahmud of Ghazna Columbia Encyclopedia (Sixth Edition) Mahmud Encyclopædia Britannica (Online Edition) Ghaznavid Dynasty
Dynasty
Encyclopædia Britannica (Online Edition) Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
and Ghurids Encyclopædia Britannica (Online Edition) Mahmud Ghazni History of Iran: Ghaznevid Dynasty Rewriting history and Mahmud of Ghazni [2] Online Copy:Last Accessed 11 October 2007 Elliot, Sir H. M., Edited by Dowson, John. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period Tarikh Yamini, or Kitabu-l Yami of Abu Nasr Muhammad
Abu Nasr Muhammad
ibn Muhammad al Jabbaru-l 'Utbi.

Preceded by: Ismail of Ghazni Ghaznavid Sultan 997–1030 Followed by: Mohammad Ghaznavi

v t e

Ghaznavid sultans

Sabuktigin Ismail Mahmud Muhammad Mas'ud I Muhammad Maw'dud Mas'ud II Ali Abd al-Rashid Toghrul Farrukh-Zad Ibrahim Mas'ud III Shir-Zad Arslan-Shah Bahram-Shah Khusrau-Shah Khusrau Malik

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 77557786 LCCN: n50038620 GND: 119069970 SELIBR: 260676 SUDO

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