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Dramalı Mahmud Pasha,(Greek: Μαχμούτ πασάς Δράμαλης, c. 1770 Istanbul
Istanbul
- Corinth, 26 October 1822) was an Ottoman statesman and military leader. A descendant of Sultan Ahmed III, he was a Sultanzade,[1] vizier, Serdar-ı Ekrem,[2] and a pasha, and served as governor (wali) of Larissa, Drama, and the Morea. In 1822, he was tasked with suppressing the Greek War of Independence, but was defeated at the Battle of Dervenakia
Battle of Dervenakia
and died shortly after.

Contents

1 Early life and career 2 The Morea
Morea
Campaign 3 Notes and references 4 Sources

Early life and career[edit] Mahmud Pasha
Pasha
was born in 1770 in Istanbul, He came from a distinguished family, because his maternal grandfather was Sultan Ahmed III
Ahmed III
by his mother, Zeynep Sultan. His father Damat Melek Mehmed Paşa, son of İzmirli Süleyman Paşa, was the Silahdar Agha
Silahdar Agha
of Sultan Selim III, after having commanded an Albanian regiment in Egypt against Napoleon. Mahmud was raised and educated at the Topkapi Palace
Topkapi Palace
at Istanbul. He participated in various campaigns throughout the Empire, rising to the post of Vizier
Vizier
and acquiring significant military skills. Enjoying the patronage of the Valide Sultan, he was eventually posted in his home province of Drama, succeeding his father Melek Mehmed Paşa as governor. In 1820 he was Pasha
Pasha
of Thessaly at Larissa
Larissa
and participated in the army of Hursid Pasha
Pasha
that was operating against the rebel Ali Pasha
Pasha
of Yannina.[3] In the summer 1821, as the Greek uprising began, he crushed the first rebellions by Greeks in the City Drama,[4], from where he got his nickname. After the disgrace and suicide of Hursid, took over as Mora Valisi, with the task of destroying the Greek revolt in its heart, the Morea. He assembled a well-equipped army of well over 20,000 men, a huge force by Balkan standards, and the largest Ottoman army to enter Greece since the Ottoman invasion of the Morea
Morea
in 1715. These comprised among others ca. 8,000 cavalry, predominantly from Macedonia and Thrace, and several thousand veterans of the campaign against Ali Pasha.[5] The Morea
Morea
Campaign[edit] Main article: Battle of Dervenakia At the head of his army, Dramali set off from Larissa
Larissa
in late June 1822, and swept practically unmolested through eastern Greece: his forces marched unopposed through Boeotia, where they razed Thebes, and Attica, where however he did not attempt to retake the Acropolis, which had only shortly before surrendered to the Greeks. He passed through the defiles of the Megaris
Megaris
unmolested, and entered the Peloponnese. He arrived at Corinth
Corinth
in mid-July, and found the strong fort of Acrocorinth
Acrocorinth
abandoned without a fight by its Greek garrison. He wed the widow of the fort's murdered former commander, Kiamil Bey, and was joined by Yusuf Pasha
Pasha
of Patras, who advised him to remain in Corinth, using it as a base, and to build up strong naval forces in the Corinthian Gulf and isolate the Morea, before advancing on Tripoli. But Dramali, by now utterly self-confident by the Greeks' apparent reluctance to oppose him, decided to march at once to the south, towards the Argolis. His advance caused a panic among the Greeks: the siege of Nafplio
Nafplio
was abandoned just as the garrison was preparing to surrender, and the provisional government fled Argos
Argos
and embarked on ships for safety. However, on arriving at Argos
Argos
on 11 July, Dramali made two critical mistakes: he did not secure his main supply and retreat route through the Dervenakia Pass, and ignored the fact that the absence of the Ottoman Navy
Ottoman Navy
meant that he could not be supplied by sea. Instead, he focused on taking the town's fort, stubbornly defended by a 700-strong Greek garrison under Demetrios Ypsilantis, which held out for twelve vital days, before breaking through the besiegers' lines and escaping. During that time, the Greeks, under Theodoros Kolokotronis, rallied their forces, and occupied the surrounding hills and defiles, including the Dervenakia. The Greeks systematically looted the villages of the Argolic plain, even setting fire to the crops and damaging the springs, so as to starve the Turkish army. Trapped in the sweltering summer heat of the Argolic plain, without water and food, Dramali was forced to plan withdrawing back to Corinth. On 26 July he sent out his cavalry as an advance guard towards the Dervenakia pass. But the Greeks were expecting the move, and had taken up positions there. The resulting battle was a complete Greek victory, with few Ottomans managing to escape. Finally, two days later, Dramali set out with his main army. Although he and his bodyguard managed to pass, the majority of his army, as well as the treasury and most baggage and equipment, were trapped in the pass and massacred. The result of Dramali's campaign, which had started so well, was a complete disaster: out of more than 30,000 soldiers, only 6,000 returned to Corinth, where Dramali died of high fever. Dramali's defeat saved the Greek uprising from an early failure. The extent of the defeat was such that it entered into the modern Greek language as a proverb: "η νίλα του Δράμαλη" (Dramali's fiasco), which is used to denote a complete disaster. His Descendant's live today in Egypt and Turkey. Notes and references[edit]

^ from Turkish/Persian; a title indicating a prince without the right of succession, given to the son of a daughter or sister of an Ottoman Sultan. ^ from Persian/Arabic, "Generous Lord", a title given to viziers who acted as commanders-in-chief of an army. ^ Finlay, pp. 95-99 ^ Finlay, pp. 242-249 ^ Finlay, p. 350

Sources[edit]

Finlay, George (1861). History of the Greek Revolution. London: William Blackwood and Sons.  Zenakos, Augoustinos (2003-03-02). Η Μάχη στα Δερβενάκια 1822 - Οι Αντίπαλοι (in Greek). To Vima. Retrieved 2008-08-24. 

v t e

Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
(1821–29)

Background

Ottoman Greece

People

Ali Pasha Armatoloi Proestoi Klephts Daskalogiannis Cosmas of Aetolia Dionysius the Philosopher Lambros Katsonis Maniots Phanariotes Souliotes

Events

Orlov Revolt Souliote War (1803)

Greek Enlightenment

People

Athanasios Christopoulos Theoklitos Farmakidis Rigas Feraios Anthimos Gazis Theophilos Kairis Adamantios Korais Eugenios Voulgaris

Organizations

Ellinoglosso Xenodocheio Filiki Eteria Filomousos Eteria Society of the Phoenix Serene Grand Orient of Greece

Publications

Adelphiki Didaskalia Asma Polemistirion Hellenic Nomarchy Pamphlet of Rigas Feraios Salpisma Polemistirion Thourios or Patriotic hymn

European intervention

Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774) Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca Greek Plan
Greek Plan
of Catherine the Great Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792) French Revolution Fall of the Republic of Venice Napoleonic Wars

Septinsular Republic Adriatic campaign of 1807–14 Albanian Regiment 1st Regiment Greek Light Infantry

United States of the Ionian Islands

Ideas

Nationalism Eastern Orthodox Christianity Liberalism Constitutionalism

Events

Battles

Kalamata Patras Wallachian uprising Alamana 1st Acropolis Gravia Valtetsi Doliana Dragashani Sculeni Vasilika Trench Tripolitsa Peta Dervenakia 1st Messolonghi Karpenisi 2nd Messolonghi Greek civil wars Sphacteria Neokastro Maniaki Lerna Mills 3rd Messolonghi Mani 2nd Acropolis Arachova Kamatero Phaleron Chios expedition Petra

Massacres

Constantinople Thessaloniki Navarino Tripolitsa Naousa Samothrace Chios Psara Kasos

Naval conflicts

Nauplia Psara Samos Andros Sphacteria Gerontas Souda Alexandria Itea Navarino

Ships

Greek sloop Karteria Greek brig Aris

Greek regional councils and statutes

Messenian Senate Directorate of Achaea Peloponnesian Senate Senate of Western Continental Greece Areopagus of Eastern Continental Greece Provisional Regime of Crete Military-Political System of Samos

Greek national assemblies

First (Epidaurus) Second (Astros) Third (Troezen) Fourth (Argos) Fifth (Nafplion)

International Conferences, Treaties and Protocols

Congress of Laibach Congress of Verona Protocol of St. Petersburg Treaty of London Conference of Poros London Protocol of 1828 London Protocol of 1829 Treaty of Adrianople London Protocol of 1830 London Conference Treaty of Constantinople

Personalities

Greece

Chian Committee Odysseas Androutsos Anagnostaras Markos Botsaris Laskarina Bouboulina Constantin Denis Bourbaki Hatzimichalis Dalianis Athanasios Diakos Germanos III of Old Patras Dimitrios Kallergis Athanasios Kanakaris Constantine Kanaris Ioannis Kapodistrias Stamatios Kapsas Georgios Karaiskakis Nikolaos Kasomoulis Ioannis Kolettis Theodoros Kolokotronis Georgios Kountouriotis Antonios Kriezis Nikolaos Kriezotis Kyprianos of Cyprus Georgios Lassanis Lykourgos Logothetis Andreas Londos Yannis Makriyannis Manto Mavrogenous Alexandros Mavrokordatos Petrobey Mavromichalis Andreas Metaxas Andreas Miaoulis Theodoros Negris Nikitaras Antonis Oikonomou Ioannis Orlandos Papaflessas Dimitrios Papanikolis Emmanouel Pappas Ioannis Papafis Christoforos Perraivos Nikolaos Petimezas Georgios Sachtouris Iakovos Tombazis Anastasios Tsamados Ioannis Varvakis Demetrios Ypsilantis

Philhellenes

London Philhellenic Committee Lord Byron François-René de Chateaubriand Richard Church Lord Cochrane Jean-Gabriel Eynard Vincenzo Gallina Charles Fabvier Thomas Gordon Frank Abney Hastings Carl von Heideck Johann Jakob Meyer Karl Normann Maxime Raybaud Giuseppe Rosaroll Santorre di Santa Rosa Friedrich Thiersch Ludwig I of Bavaria German Legion (el) Serbs

Moldavia
Moldavia
and Wallachia (Danubian Principalities)

Alexander Ypsilantis Sacred Band Alexandros Kantakouzinos Georgios Kantakouzinos Giorgakis Olympios Yiannis Pharmakis Dimitrie Macedonski Tudor Vladimirescu

Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Egypt

Sultan Mahmud II Hurshid Pasha Nasuhzade Ali Pasha (tr) Omer Vrioni Kara Mehmet Mahmud Dramali Pasha Koca Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha Reşid Mehmed Pasha Yussuf Pasha Ibrahim Pasha Soliman Pasha
Pasha
al-Faransawi

Britain, France and Russia

Stratford Canning Edward Codrington Henri de Rigny Nicholas I of Russia Login Geiden

Morea
Morea
expedition

Military

Nicolas Joseph Maison Louis-Eugène Cavaignac Antoine Virgile Schneider Amédée Despans-Cubières Auguste Regnaud de Saint-Jean d'Angély Camille Alphonse Trézel

Scientific

Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent Gabriel Bibron Gaspard Auguste Brullé Gérard Paul Deshayes Eugène Emmanuel Amaury Duval Pierre-Narcisse Guérin Edgar Quinet

Impact

Art

Eugène Delacroix Louis Dupré Peter von Hess Victor Hugo François Pouqueville Alexander Pushkin Karl Krazeisen Andreas Kalvos Dionysios Solomos Theodoros Vryzakis Hellas The Reception of Lord Byron
Lord Byron
at Missolonghi Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi The Massacre at Chios The Free Besieged Hymn to Liberty The Archipelago on Fire The Apotheosis of Athanasios Diakos

Remembrance

25 March (Independence Day) Hymn to Liberty Eleftheria i thanatos Pedion tou Areos Propylaea (Munich) Garden of Heroes (Missolonghi) Royal Phalanx Evzones
Evzones
(Presidential Guard

.