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Madurai
Madurai
is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is the administrative headquarters of Madurai
Madurai
District, the third largest city in Tamil Nadu, and the 25th most populated city in India.[5] Located on the banks of River Vaigai, Madurai
Madurai
has been a major settlement for two millennia. Madurai
Madurai
is closely associated with the Tamil language, and the third Tamil Sangam, a major congregation of Tamil scholars said to have been held in the city. The recorded history of the city goes back to the 3rd century BCE, being mentioned by Megasthenes, the Greek ambassador to the Maurya empire, and Kautilya, a minister of the Mauryan emperor Chandragupta Maurya. Signs of human settlements and Roman trade links dating back to 300BC are evident from excavations by Archeological Survey of India
India
in Manalur.[6][7][8] The city is believed to be of significant antiquity and has been ruled, at different times, by the Pandyas, Cholas, Madurai
Madurai
Sultanate, Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai Nayaks, Carnatic kingdom, and the British East India
India
Company British Raj The city has a number of historical monuments, with the Meenakshi Amman Temple and Tirumalai Nayak Palace
Tirumalai Nayak Palace
being the most prominent. Madurai
Madurai
is an important industrial and educational hub in South Tamil Nadu. The city is home to various automobile, rubber, chemical and granite manufacturing industries.[9] Madurai
Madurai
has important government educational institutes such as the Madurai
Madurai
Medical College, Homeopathic Medical College,[10] Madurai
Madurai
Law College, Agricultural College and Research Institute. Madurai
Madurai
city is administered by a municipal corporation established in 1971 as per the Municipal Corporation Act. The city covers an area of 147.97 km2 and had a population of 1,017,865 in 2011.[11] The city is also the seat of a bench of the Madras High Court.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Architecture 4 Geography and climate 5 Demographics 6 Administration and politics 7 Transport

7.1 Road 7.2 Rail 7.3 Air

8 Education 9 Economy 10 Religious sites 11 Culture, tourism and entertainment 12 Media and utility services 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 External links

Etymology[edit] The city is referred by various names including "Madurai", "Koodal", "Malligai Maanagar", "Naanmadakoodal" and "Thirualavai". The word Madurai
Madurai
may be derived from Madhura (sweetness) arising out of the divine nectar showered on the city by the Hindu god Siva from his matted hair.[12] Another theory is that Madurai
Madurai
is the derivative of the word Marutham, which refers to the type of landscape of the Sangam age. A town in the neighbouring Dindigul
Dindigul
district is called Vada Madurai
Madurai
(North Madurai) and another in Sivagangai district
Sivagangai district
is called Manamadurai. The different names by which the city has been referred to historically are listed in the 7th-century poem Thiruvilayaadal puraanam written by Paranjothi Munivar.[12][13] Koodal means an assembly or congregation of scholarly people, referring to the three Tamil Sangams held at Madurai. Naanmadakoodal, meaning the junction of four towers, refers to the four major temples for which Madurai
Madurai
was known for.[12] Tevaram, the 7th- or 8th-century Tamil compositions on Shiva
Shiva
by the three prominent Nayanars (Saivites), namely Appar,[14] Sundarar and Thirugnanasambandar,[15][16] address the city as Thirualavai.[12][17] As per Iravatham Mahadevan, a 2nd-century BCE Tamil-Brahmi
Tamil-Brahmi
inscription refers to the city as matiray, an Old Tamil word meaning a "walled city".[18] History[edit]

Hand coloured antique wood engraving drawn by W. Purser (1858) shows Madurai
Madurai
city as seen from the north bank of the Vaigai
Vaigai
river

Madurai
Madurai
has been inhabited since at least the 3rd century BCE.[19] Megasthenes
Megasthenes
may have visited Madurai
Madurai
during the 3rd century BCE, with the city referred as "Methora" in his accounts.[12] The view is contested by some scholars who believe "Methora" refers to the north Indian city of Mathura, as it was a large and established city in the Mauryan Empire.[20] Madurai
Madurai
is also mentioned in Kautilya's (370–283 BCE)[21] Arthashastra.[12] Sangam literature
Sangam literature
like Maturaikkāñci records the importance of Madurai
Madurai
as a capital city of the Pandyan dynasty.[22][23] Madurai
Madurai
is mentioned in the works of Roman historians Pliny the Younger
Pliny the Younger
(61 – c. 112 CE), Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(c. 90 – c. CE 168), those of the Greek geographer Strabo
Strabo
(64/63 BCE – c. 24 CE),[24] and also in Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.[13]

Pandyan dynasty Map at its greatest extent

Coin of Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan, first ruler of the Sultanate of Madurai, 1335–1339 CE

After the Sangam age, most of present-day Tamil Nadu, including Madurai, came under the rule of the Kalabhra dynasty, which was ousted by the Pandyas around 590 CE.[25][26] The Pandyas were outsted from Madurai
Madurai
by the Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
during the early 9th century.[27] The city remained under the control of the Cholas
Cholas
until the early 13th century, when the second Pandyan empire was established with Madurai as its capital.[27] After the death of Kulasekara Pandian (1268–1308 CE), Madurai
Madurai
came under the rule of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate.[27] The Madurai Sultanate
Madurai Sultanate
then seceded from Delhi
Delhi
and functioned as an independent kingdom until its gradual annexation by the Vijayanagar Empire in 1378 CE.[28] Madurai
Madurai
became independent from Vijayanagar in 1559 CE under the Nayaks.[28] Nayak rule ended in 1736 CE and Madurai was repeatedly captured several times by Chanda Sahib
Chanda Sahib
(1740 – 1754 CE), Arcot Nawab and Muhammed Yusuf Khan (1725 – 1764 CE) in the middle of 18th century.[12] In 1801, Madurai
Madurai
came under the direct control of the British East India
India
Company and was annexed to the Madras Presidency.[29][30] The British government made donations to the Meenakshi
Meenakshi
temple and participated in the Hindu festivals during the early part of their rule.[31] The city evolved as a political and industrial complex through the 19th and 20th centuries to become a district headquarters of a larger Madurai
Madurai
district.[31] In 1837, the fortifications around the temple were demolished by the British.[32] The moat was drained and the debris was used to construct new streets – Veli, Marat and Perumaal Mesthiri streets.[33] The city was constituted as a municipality in 1866 CE.[34] The British government faced initial hiccups during the earlier period of the establishment of municipality in land ceiling and tax collection in Madurai
Madurai
and Dindigul
Dindigul
districts under the direct administration of the officers of the government.[35] The city, along with the district, was resurveyed between 1880 and 1885 CE and subsequently, five municipalities were constituted in the two districts and six taluk boards were set up for local administration.[35] Police stations were established in Madurai
Madurai
city, housing the headquarters of the District Superintendent.[35] Under the British Madurai
Madurai
prospered. It was in Madurai, in 1921, that Mahatma Gandhi, pre-eminent leader of Indian nationalism
Indian nationalism
in British-ruled India, first adopted the loin cloth as his mode of dress after seeing agricultural labourers wearing it.[36] Leaders of the independence movement in Madurai
Madurai
included N.M.R. Subbaraman[37][38] and Mohammad Ismail Sahib.[39] The Temple Entry Authorization and Indemnity Act passed by the government of Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
under C. Rajagopalachari
C. Rajagopalachari
in 1939 removed restrictions prohibiting Shanars
Shanars
and Dalits
Dalits
from entering Hindu temples. The temple entry movement was first led in Madurai
Madurai
Meenakshi temple by independence activist A. Vaidyanatha Iyer in 1939.[40][41] Architecture[edit]

Map of Madurai
Madurai
showing centre of the city and some important landmarks

Madurai
Madurai
is built around the Meenakshi
Meenakshi
Amman Temple, which acted as the geographic and ritual centre of the ancient city of Madurai.[42] The city is divided into a number of concentric quadrangular streets around the temple.[42] Vishwanatha Nayak
Vishwanatha Nayak
(1529–64 CE), the first Madurai
Madurai
Nayak king, redesigned the city in accordance with the principles laid out by Shilpa Shastras
Shilpa Shastras
(Sanskrit: śilpa śāstra, also anglicised as silpa sastra meaning rules of architecture) related to urban planning. These squares retain their traditional names of Aadi, Chittirai, Avani-moola and Masi streets, corresponding to the Tamil month names and also to the festivals associated.[42] The temple prakarams (outer precincts of a temple) and streets accommodate an elaborate festival calendar in which dramatic processions circumambulate the shrines at varying distances from the centre. The temple chariots used in processions are progressively larger in size based on the size of the concentric streets.[43] Ancient Tamil classics record the temple as the centre of the city and the surrounding streets appearing liken a lotus and its petals.[13] The city's axes were aligned with the four quarters of the compass, and the four gateways of the temple provided access to it.[44] The wealthy and higher echelons of the society were placed in streets close to the temple, while the poorest were placed in the fringe streets.[44] With the advent of British rule during the 19th century, Madurai
Madurai
became the headquarters of a large colonial political complex and an industrial town; with urbanisation, the social hierarchical classes became unified.[45] Geography and climate[edit]

Vaigai river
Vaigai river
in Madurai

Madurai

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    20     30 20

    14     32 21

    18     35 23

    55     37 25

    70     38 26

    40     38 26

    50     36 25

    104     35 25

    119     34 24

    188     32 24

    145     30 23

    51     29 21

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    0.8     86 68

    0.5     90 70

    0.7     95 73

    2.2     99 77

    2.8     100 79

    1.6     100 79

    1.9     96 77

    4.1     95 77

    4.7     93 75

    7.4     90 75

    5.7     86 73

    2     84 70

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Madurai
Madurai
is located at 9°56′N 78°07′E / 9.93°N 78.12°E / 9.93; 78.12.[46] It has an average elevation of 101 metres. The city of Madurai
Madurai
lies on the flat and fertile plain of the river Vaigai, which runs in the northwest-southeast direction through the city, dividing it into two almost equal halves.[47] The Sirumalai and Nagamalai
Nagamalai
hills lie to the north and west of Madurai.[48] The land in and around Madurai
Madurai
is utilised largely for agricultural activity, which is fostered by the Periyar Dam.[48] Madurai
Madurai
lies southeast of the western ghats, and the surrounding region occupies the plains of South India
India
and contains several mountain spurs.[49] The soil type in central Madurai
Madurai
is predominantly clay loam, while red loam and black cotton types are widely prevalent in the outer fringes of the city.[50] Paddy is the major crop, followed by pulses, millet, oil seed, cotton and sugarcane.[50] The municipal corporation of Madurai
Madurai
has an area of 147.97 km2.[47][51] Madurai
Madurai
is hot and dry for eight months of the year.[52] Cold winds are experienced during February and March as in the neighbouring Dindigul.[52] The hottest months are from March to July.[52] The city experiences a moderate climate from August to October, tempered by heavy rain and thundershowers, and a slightly cooler climate from November to February.[52] Fog and dew are rare, occurring only during the winter season.[52] Being equidistant from mountains and the sea, it experiences similar monsoon pattern with Northeast monsoon
Northeast monsoon
and Southwest monsoon, with the former providing more rain during October to December.[52] The average annual rainfall for the Madurai district
Madurai district
is about 85.76 cm.[53] Temperatures during summer generally reach a maximum of 40 °C and a minimum of 26.3 °C, although temperatures up to 42 °C are not uncommon.[54] Winter temperatures range between 29.6 °C and 18 °C. A study based on the data available with the Indian Meteorological Department on Madurai
Madurai
over a period of 62 years indicate rising trend in atmospheric temperature over Madurai city, attributed to urbanisation, growth of vehicles and industrial activity.[54] The maximum temperature of 42 °C for the decade of 2001 – 2010 was recorded in 2004 and in 2010.[54]

Climate data for Madurai, India
India
(1971–2000)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 39.1 (102.4) 38.5 (101.3) 41.7 (107.1) 42.1 (107.8) 45.5 (113.9) 42.2 (108) 40.6 (105.1) 40.0 (104) 39.8 (103.6) 40.0 (104) 38.0 (100.4) 37.0 (98.6) 44.5 (112.1)

Average high °C (°F) 30.6 (87.1) 33.2 (91.8) 35.8 (96.4) 37.3 (99.1) 41.18 (106.12) 36.8 (98.2) 36.0 (96.8) 35.7 (96.3) 34.8 (94.6) 32.7 (90.9) 30.6 (87.1) 29.7 (85.5) 34.2 (93.6)

Average low °C (°F) 20.1 (68.2) 21.1 (70) 23.0 (73.4) 25.4 (77.7) 26.1 (79) 26.1 (79) 25.6 (78.1) 25.3 (77.5) 24.3 (75.7) 23.6 (74.5) 22.6 (72.7) 21.1 (70) 23.7 (74.7)

Record low °C (°F) 15.6 (60.1) 10.5 (50.9) 16.9 (62.4) 19.4 (66.9) 17.8 (64) 17.8 (64) 19.4 (66.9) 20.6 (69.1) 18.5 (65.3) 18.9 (66) 17.2 (63) 16.7 (62.1) 10.5 (50.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 7.4 (0.291) 11.8 (0.465) 14.1 (0.555) 37.1 (1.461) 72.6 (2.858) 32.0 (1.26) 83.2 (3.276) 80.3 (3.161) 146.9 (5.783) 159.4 (6.276) 140.3 (5.524) 53.0 (2.087) 838.0 (32.992)

Average precipitation days 0.9 1.1 1.1 2.4 4.4 2.0 3.6 4.1 7.8 8.1 6.3 3.4 45.1

Source: Indian Meteorological Department Mean data from 1971–2000[55][56]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1951 361,781 —    

1961 424,810 +17.4%

1971 549,114 +29.3%

1981 820,891 +49.5%

1991 940,989 +14.6%

2001 928,869 −1.3%

2011 1,017,865 +9.6%

Source:

1951 – 1981:[57] 1991:[58] 2001:[59] 2011:[60]

According to 2011 census based on per-expansion limits, the area covered under the Madurai Municipal Corporation
Madurai Municipal Corporation
had a population of 1,017,865[60] with a sex-ratio of 999 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929.[61] A total of 100,324 were under the age of six, constituting 51,485 males and 48,839 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
accounted for 6.27% and .31% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the city was 81.95%, compared to the national average of 72.99%.[62] The urban agglomeration of Madurai
Madurai
had a population of 1,465,625,[4] and is the third largest in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and the 31st in India.[63][2]

Religion in Madurai
Madurai
(2011)

Religion

Percent(%)

Hinduism

85.8%

Islam

8.5%

Christianity

5.2%

Others

0.5%

According to the religious census of 2011, Madurai
Madurai
had 85.8% Hindus, 8.5% Muslims, 5.2% Christians
Christians
and 0.5% others.[64] Tamil is spoken by most, and the standard dialect is the Madurai
Madurai
Tamil dialect.[12][65][66] Saurashtra is also spoken by some significant minorities.[67] Roman Catholics in Madurai
Madurai
are affiliated with the Roman Catholic Diocese of Madurai,[68] while Protestants are affiliated with the Madurai-Ramnad Diocese of the Church of South India.[69] In 2001, Slum-dwellers comprise 32.6 per cent of the total population, much higher than the national average of 15.05 per cent.[70][71] The increase in growth rate to 50 per cent from 1971 to 1981 is due to the city's upgrade to a municipal corporation in 1974 and the subsequent inclusion of 13 Panchayats into the corporation limits.[72] The decline in the population growth rate between 1981 and 2001 is due to the bifurcation of Madurai district
Madurai district
into two, Madurai
Madurai
and Dindigul
Dindigul
in 1984, and the subsequently of part of the city into the Theni district in 1997.[72] The compounded annual growth rate dropped from 4.10 per cent during 1971–81 to 1.27 per cent during 1991–2004.[72] Administration and politics[edit]

Municipal Corporation Officials

Mayor Seat vacant [73]

Commissioner Dr Aneesh Sekhar [74]

Deputy Mayor K.Thiraviam[75]

Members of Legislative Assembly

Madurai
Madurai
Central P.T.R. Palanivel Thiagarajan[76]

Madurai
Madurai
East P.Moorthy[76]

Madurai
Madurai
North V. V. Rajan Chellappa[76]

Madurai
Madurai
South S.S.Saravanan[76]

Madurai
Madurai
West Sellur K. Raju[76]

Thiruparankundram A.K.Bose[77]

Member of Parliament

Madurai R. Gopalakrishnan[78]

Building of the Madurai
Madurai
Bench of Madras High court

The municipality of Madurai
Madurai
was constituted on 1 November 1866 as per the Town Improvement Act of 1865.[34] The municipality was headed by a chairperson and elections were regularly conducted for the post except during the period 1891 to 1896, when no elections were held due to violent factionalism. During the early years of independent India, the Madurai
Madurai
municipality was dominated by reformists of the Indian National Congress.[79] Madurai
Madurai
was upgraded to a municipal corporation on 1 May 1971[80] as per the Madurai
Madurai
City Municipal Corporation Act, 1971.[81] It is the second oldest municipal corporation in Tamil Nadu, after Chennai.[80] The functions of the municipality are devolved into six departments: General, Engineering, Revenue, Public Health, Town planning and the Computer Wing.[82] All these departments are under the control of a Municipal Commissioner, who is the supreme executive head.[82] The legislative powers are vested in a body of 100 members, one each from the 100 wards. The legislative body is headed by an elected Mayor assisted by a Deputy Mayor.[83] The corporation received several awards in 2008 for implementing development works.[84]

Front view of the corporation office

The city of Madurai
Madurai
is represented in the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Legislative Assembly by six elected members, one each for the Madurai
Madurai
East, Madurai
Madurai
West, Madurai
Madurai
North, Madurai
Madurai
Central, Madurai
Madurai
South and thirupparankundram constituencies.[85] Madurai
Madurai
is also a part of the Madurai
Madurai
Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
constituency and elects a member to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India, once every five years.[85][86] From 1957, the Madurai
Madurai
parliament seat was held by the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
seven times in the 1962–67,[87] 1971–77,[88] 1977–80,[89] 1980–84,[90] 1984–89,[91] 1989–91[92] and 1991 elections.[93] The Communist Party of India (Marxist) won the seat three times during 1967–71,[94] 1999–2004[95] and 2004–09[96] general elections. The Communist Party of India
India
(1957–61[97]), Tamil Maanila Congress (Moopanar) (1996–98[98]), Janata Party (1998[99]), Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (2009–2014[100]) and All India
India
Anna Dravida Munnertra Kazhagam (2014–2019) [78] have each won once. Law and order is enforced by the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Police, which, for administrative purposes, has constituted Madurai
Madurai
city as a separate district.[101] The district is divided into four sub-divisions, namely Thallakulam, Anna Nagar, Thilagar Thidal and Town,[101] with a total of 27 police stations.[102] The Madurai
Madurai
city police force is headed by a Commissioner of police, assisted by Deputy Commissioners. Enforcement of law and order in the suburban areas are handled by the Madurai district
Madurai district
police.[103] In 2008, the crime rate in the city was 283.2 per 100,000 people, accounting for 1.1 per cent of all crimes reported in major cities in India, and it was ranked 19th among 35 major cities in India. As of 2008, Madurai
Madurai
recorded the second highest SLL ( Special
Special
and Local Laws) crimes, at 22,728, among cities in Tamil Nadu.[104] However, Madurai
Madurai
had the second lowest crime rate at 169.1 of all the cities in Tamil Nadu.[104] The city is also the seat of a bench of the Madras High Court, one of only a few outside the state capitals of India. It started functioning in July 2004.[105] Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Madurai

Mattuthavani
Mattuthavani
Bus Stand

Madurai
Madurai
Railway junction, the main railway station of Madurai

A view of Madurai
Madurai
Airport

Road[edit] The National Highways NH 7, NH 45B, NH 208
NH 208
and NH 49 pass through Madurai.[106] The state highways passing through the city are SH-33, SH-72, SH-72A, SH-73 and SH-73A which connect various parts of Madurai district.[107] Madurai
Madurai
is one of the seven circles of the Tamil Nadu State Highway network.[107] Madurai
Madurai
is the headquarters of the Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation (Madurai) and provides local and inter-city bus transport across the districts of Madurai, Dindigul, Sivagangai, Theni, Virudhunagar.[108] Madurai
Madurai
has three bus terminals, namely, Mattuthavani Bus Terminus
Mattuthavani Bus Terminus
(MIBT) and Arappalayam (for inter city buses) and Periyar Bus stand (for intra city buses).[109] There are 12,754 registered three-wheeled vehicles called auto rickshaws, which are commercially available for renting within the city.[110] In addition to the government operated city buses, there are 236 registered private mini-buses that support local transportation.[110] Rail[edit] Madurai Junction
Madurai Junction
is the major railway station serving the city. It is an important railway junction in southern Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and is one of the top 100 booking stations in Indian Railways.[111] It is the headquarters of the Madurai
Madurai
division of the Southern Railway.[112] There are direct trains from connecting Madurai
Madurai
with major cities and towns across India.[111] The state government announced a Mono rail project for Madurai
Madurai
in 2011, which is in planning stages.[113] There are ten other sub urban railway stations serving the city. Air[edit] Madurai
Madurai
airfield was first used by the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
in World War II in 1942.[114] The first passenger flight was a Fokker Friendship aircraft from Madras in 1956.[115] Madurai Airport
Madurai Airport
was established in 1957 and is located at Avaniyapuram, about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from the city.[116][117] The airport was declared a customs airport in 2012 allowing limited number of international flights.[118] It offers domestic flights to some cities in India
India
and international services to Colombo, Dubai
Dubai
and Singapore.[119] The carriers operating from the airport are Air India, Air India
India
Express, Jet Airways, SpiceJet, Indigo
Indigo
and Srilankan Airlines
Srilankan Airlines
.[120] The airport handled 842,300 passengers between April 2015 and March 2016.[121][122][123] The airport was identified as one of 35 non-metro airports for modernisation and a new integrated terminal building was inaugurated on 12 September 2010.[124] Education[edit]

The American college in Madurai, started in 1881 CE – the oldest college in Madurai

Madurai
Madurai
has been an academic centre of learning for Tamil culture, literature, art, music and dance for centuries.[125] All three assemblies of the Tamil language, the Tamil Sangam
Tamil Sangam
(about the 3rd century BCE to the 3rd century CE), were said to have been held at Madurai.[126] Tamil poets of different epochs participated in these assemblies, and their compositions are referred to as Sangam literature.[24] During the third Tamil sangam, the comparative merit of the poets was decided by letting the works float in the lotus tank of the temple. It was believed that a divine force would cause the work of superior merit to float on the surface, while the inferior ones would sink.[125][127] The American College is the oldest college in Madurai, and was established in 1881 by American Christian missionaries.[128] The Lady Doak college, established in 1948, is the oldest women's college in Madurai.[129] Thiagarajar College (established in 1949), Madura College (established in 1889),[130] Fatima College
Fatima College
(established in 1953),[131] and M.S.S.Wakf Board College (established in 1964) are among the oldest educational institutions of the city. Madurai
Madurai
Kamaraj University (originally called Madurai
Madurai
University), established in 1966, is a state-run university which has 109 affiliated arts and science colleges in Madurai
Madurai
and neighbouring districts.[132] There are 47 approved institutions of the university in and around the city, consisting of autonomous colleges, aided colleges, self-financing colleges, constituent colleges, evening colleges and other approved institutions.[133] There are seven polytechnical schools and five Industrial training institutes
Industrial training institutes
(ITIs) in Madurai, with the Government ITI and the Government Polytechnic for Women being the most prominent of them all.[10] There are two government medical institutes in Madurai, Madurai Medical College and Homoeopathic Medical College, Thirumangalam and 11 paramedical institutes.[10] There are fifteen engineering colleges in Madurai
Madurai
affiliated to Anna University, with the Thiagarajar College of Engineering being the oldest.[10] The Madurai
Madurai
Law College, established in 1979, is one of the seven government law colleges in the state. It is administered by the Tamil Nadu Government Department of Legal Studies, and affiliated with the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Dr. Ambedkar Law University.[10][134] There are three teacher training institutes, two music colleges, three management institutes and 30 arts and sciences colleges in Madurai.[10] The agricultural college and research institute in Madurai, started in 1965 by the state government, provides agricultural education to aspirants in the southern districts of Tamil Nadu.[135] There are a total of 369 primary, secondary and higher secondary schools in the city.[136] Economy[edit]

Harvey Mills, circa 1914

A software company at Thirupparankundram

Madurai
Madurai
was traditionally an agrarian society, with rice paddies as the main crop. Cotton crop cultivation in the regions with black soil in Madurai district
Madurai district
was introduced during the Nayaka rule during the 16th century to increase the revenue from agriculture.[137] The paddy fields cultivated in the Vaigai
Vaigai
delta across Madurai
Madurai
North, Melur, Nilakottai and Uthamapalayam are known as "double-crop paddy belts".[138] Farmers in the district supplement their income with subsidiary occupations like dairy farming, poultry-farming, pottery, brick making, mat-weaving and carpentry.[138] Madurai
Madurai
is famed for its jasmine plantations, called " Madurai
Madurai
Malli", primarily carried out at the foothills of Kodaikanal
Kodaikanal
hills and traded at the Madurai
Madurai
morning flower market.[125] An average of 2,000 farmers sell flowers daily at the flower market.[125] With the advent of Small Scale Industries (SSI) after 1991, the industrialisation of Madurai
Madurai
increased employment in the sector across the district from 63,271 in 1992–93 to 166,121 persons in 2001–02.[139] Madurai
Madurai
is one of the few rubber growing areas in South India,[140] and there are rubber-based industries in Madurai.[141] Gloves, sporting goods, mats, other utility products and automobile rubber components are the most produced items by these industries.TVS rubber Template:TVS GROUP factory is pioneer in Rubber industries.They manufacture TVS tyres and tubes from Madurai.Automobile manufacturers are the major consumers of rubber components produced in the city.[9] There are numerous textile, granite and chemical industries operating in Madurai.[141]The city has a vast economic development as well with people buying swanky cars.The car manufacturers found this as opportunity and has setup showrooms here in Template:Kappalur. Kappalur has seen a tremendous development with Template:SIDCO tag and governments constant efforts to revive this place.It has automobile showrooms like BMW,Toyota,Isuzu,Tata,Maruti,Ashok Leyland,Volkswagen,Mahindra,Fiat(FCA),Jeep,Mitsubhishi. and many independent service centres.Lots of Cargo services started its operation in Kappalur for its connectivity with city.The proposed AIIMS hospital site is 1 km away from Kappalur. Thoppur-Utchapatti Satellite Township is developed in Kappalur and the real estate has just started picking up. Madurai
Madurai
is promoted as a tier II city for IT and some software companies have opened their offices in Madurai.[142] Software Technology Parks of India, an agency of the Government of India, has authorised several such companies to receive benefits under its national information technology development program.[143] The state government proposed two IT-based Special
Special
Economic Zones (SEZ) in Madurai, and these have been fully occupied by various IT companies.[144][145] Religious sites[edit]

Meenakshi Amman Temple
Meenakshi Amman Temple
North Tower - Street

Kazimar Big Mosque, the oldest Muslim place of worship in the city

Meenakshi Amman Temple
Meenakshi Amman Temple
is a historic Hindu temple
Hindu temple
located on the south side of the Vaigai River
Vaigai River
in Madurai
Madurai
and is one of the most prominent landmarks of the city.[126] It is dedicated to Meenakshi
Meenakshi
and her consort, Sundareswarar.[125] The complex houses 14 gopurams (gateway towers) ranging from 45–50 metres (148–164 ft) in height, the tallest being the southern tower, 51.9 metres (170 ft) high. There are also two golden sculptured vimana (shrines) over the sanctum of the main deities. The temple is a significant symbol for Tamils
Tamils
and has been mentioned since antiquity in Tamil literature, though the present structure was built between 1623 and 1655 CE.[42][146] The temple attracts on average 15,000 visitors a day, which grows to around 25,000 on Fridays. There are an estimated 33,000 sculptures in the temple,[147] and it was in the list of top 30 nominees for the "New7Wonders of the World".[148] Koodal Azhagar Temple
Koodal Azhagar Temple
is a Vishnu
Vishnu
temple located in the city. It has idols of the Navagraha
Navagraha
(nine planet deities), which are otherwise found only in Shiva
Shiva
temples.[149][150] Alagar Koyil
Alagar Koyil
is a celebrated Vishnu
Vishnu
temple 21 kilometres (13 mi) northeast of Madurai
Madurai
situated on the foothills of Solaimalai.[151] The deity, Azhagar, is believed to be the brother of Meenakshi, the presiding deity at the Meenakshi temple.[24] The festival calendars of these two temples overlap during the Meenakshi
Meenakshi
Thirukalyanam festival.[152] Pazhamudircholai, one of the other six abodes of the Hindu god Murugan, is located atop the Solaimalai hill.[151] Tirupparankunram
Tirupparankunram
is a hill 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) away from Madurai
Madurai
where the Hindu god Murugan
Murugan
is said to have married Deivanai. The temple is the first among the Six Abodes of Murugan
Six Abodes of Murugan
and is one of the most visited tourist spots in Madurai, next only to the Meenakshi
Meenakshi
Amman Temple.[151][153] The temple has a wide range of Hindu gods carved on the walls.[150] Kazimar Big Mosque is the oldest Islamic place of worship in the city.[154] It was constructed under the supervision of Kazi Syed Tajuddin, who is a descendant of Islamic Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Madurai Maqbara
Madurai Maqbara
the grave of Meer Ahmad Ibrahim Periya Hazrat, Meer Amjad Ibrahim Chinna Hazrat and Syed Abdus Salam Ibrahim Saalim Hazrat is located inside the mosque.[154][155] Kazi Syed Tajuddin came from Oman
Oman
and received the piece of land as a gift from the Pandyan ruler Kulasekara Pandyan I, during the 13th century for the construction of the mosque.[125][154][156] Since its inception till today the mosque is being managed by descendants of Kazi Syed Tajuddin and traditionally the Kazis of Madurai
Madurai
city to the Govt. of Tamilnadu are appointed from the descendants family.[157] [158] Goripalayam Mosque is located in Gorippalayam, the name of which is derived from the Persian word gor ("grave") and the graves of erstwhile Sultanate rulers Alauddin, Shamsuddeen and Habibuddin are found here.[159] Tirupparankunram
Tirupparankunram
Dargah is located at the top of the Thiruparankundram hill where the cemetery of Sultan Sikandhar Badushah the then ruler of Jeddah
Jeddah
and Madurai
Madurai
who travelled to India
India
along with Sulthan Syed Ibrahim Shaheed of Ervadi during 12th century is located.[159] St. Mary's Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Madurai.[160] Culture, tourism and entertainment[edit]

Pillared halls of Thirumalai Nayakar Palace, built during 1636 CE and a national monument

Madurai
Madurai
is popularly called Thoonga Nagaram meaning the city that never sleeps, on account of the active night life.[161] The city attracts a large number of tourists from within the country and abroad. About 9,100,000 tourists visited Madurai
Madurai
in 2010, including 524,000 foreigners.[162] Madurai
Madurai
is now attracting medical tourism also.[163] The palace complex of Thirumalai Nayak Palace was constructed in the Indo-Saracenic style by Thirumalai Nayakar in 1636 CE. It is a national monument maintained by the Tamil Nadu Archaeological Department. The daily sound and light show organised by the department explains the virtues of King Thirumalai and the features of the palace.[151] The palace of Rani Mangamma has been renovated to house one of the five Gandhi Sangrahalayas (Gandhi Memorial Museum, Madurai) in the country. It includes a part of the blood-stained garment worn by Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
when he was assassinated by Nathuram Godse.[164] A visit by Dr. Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King
Jr. to the museum inspired him to lead peaceful protests against discrimination.[165] The Eco park, situated in Tallakulam, features fountains and lighting in trees using optical fibres.[166] Rajaji children's park, maintained by the Madurai
Madurai
Municipal Corporation, is situated between the Gandhi museum and the Tamukkam grounds. It has a visitor average of 5000 per day during holidays and 2000–3000 on working days. Madurai
Madurai
also has Theme Park, Athisayam
Athisayam
which is situated in Paravai, Madurai
Madurai
– Dindugal main road. [167] MGR Race Course Stadium is an athletic stadium which has a synthetic track and a swimming pool.[168] Several national meets are held here.[169] It also hosts several international and national level kabbadi championships.[170]

Gandhi Memorial Museum, one of the five Gandhi Sangrahalayas in India

The people of Madurai
Madurai
celebrate numerous festivals, including Meenakshi
Meenakshi
Tirukkalyanam, the Chittirai Festival and the Car Festival.[152] The annual 10-day Meenakshi
Meenakshi
Tirukalyanam festival, also called Chittirai festival, is celebrated during April–May every year and attracts one million visitors. Legend has it that the Hindu god Vishnu, as Alagar, rode on a golden horse to Madurai
Madurai
to attend the celestial wedding of Meenakshi
Meenakshi
(Parvati) and Sundareswarar (Shiva). During the Cradle festival, the festive idols of Meenakshi
Meenakshi
and Sundareswarar are taken in procession to a mirror chamber and set on a rocking swing for nine days. Avanimoolam festival is celebrated during September when the 64 sacred games of Shiva, thiruvilayadal, are recited.[152] The Thepporchavam festival, or float festival, is celebrated on the full moon day of the Tamil month Thai, which falls around January – February, to celebrate the birth anniversary of King Thirumalai Nayak. The decorated icons of Meenakshi
Meenakshi
and her consort are taken out in a procession from the Meenakshi
Meenakshi
Temple to the Mariamman Teppakulam. The icons are floated in the tank on a raft decked with flowers and flickering lamps.[151] Jallikattu
Jallikattu
is one of the most popular historical sport in Tamil Nadu, and is a part of the Pongal
Pongal
festival (harvest festival) Mattu Pongal
Pongal
celebrated during January. The bull taming event is held in the villages surrounding Madurai, and people from the neighbouring villages throng to the open grounds to watch man and bull pitting their strength against each other.[152] The event was banned in the years 2014, 2015 and 2016 following an order by the Supreme Court of India.[171] Santhanakoodu festivals in Madurai
Madurai
are celebrated on various days during the Islamic calendar year to commemorate Islamic saints.[172][173][159] Media and utility services[edit] The city hosts several radio stations, including the state-owned All India
India
Radio[174] and private channels like Hello FM, Radio Mirchi,[175] Suryan FM[176] and Radio City. The Hindu,[177] The New Indian Express[178] and The Times of India[179] are the three principal English language daily newspapers which have Madurai editions. Deccan Chronicle, though not printed in the city, is another English language daily newspaper available in the city.[180] The most read Tamil language
Tamil language
daily morning newspapers include Dina Malar,[181] Dina Thanthi,[182] Dina Mani[178] and Dinakaran[183] – all these newspapers have editions from Madurai. There are also daily Tamil evening newspapers like Tamil Murasu, Malai Murasu[184] and Malai Malar[184] published in Madurai. Television broadcasting from Chennai
Chennai
for whole of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
was started on 15 August 1975.[185] Direct-to-home cable television services are provided by DD Direct Plus[186][187] and other private service providers.[188] Electricity supply to the city is regulated and distributed by the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Electricity Board (TNEB).[189] The city is the headquarters of the Madurai
Madurai
region of TNEB and along with its suburbs, forms the Madurai
Madurai
Metro Electricity Distribution Circle, which is further divided into six divisions.[189] Water supply is provided by the Madurai
Madurai
City Corporation with overhead tanks and power pumps.[190] In the period 2010–2011, a total of 950.6 lakh litres of water was supplied to 87,091 connections for households in Madurai.[190] About 400 metric tonnes of solid waste are collected from the city every day by door-to-door collection, and the subsequent source segregation and dumping is carried out by the sanitary department of the Madurai
Madurai
Municipal corporation[191] All the major channels in Madurai
Madurai
are linked by the corporation to receive the flood water from primary, secondary and tertiary drains constructed along the roadsides to dispose of rain water. The sewer system was first established by the British in Madurai
Madurai
in 1924 to cover the core city area, which covers 30 per cent of the present city area. It was further expanded in 1959 and 1983 by a corporation plan. The 2011 Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission covered 90 per cent of households with underground drainage system.[191] Madurai
Madurai
comes under the Madurai
Madurai
telecom district of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), India's state-owned telecom and internet services provider. Both Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code division multiple access
Code division multiple access
(CDMA) mobile services are available. Apart from telecom, BSNL also provides broadband internet service and Caller Line Identification (CLI) based internet service Netone.[192][193] A regional passport office was opened on 17 December 2007 and caters to the needs of nine districts.[194] The city is served by the Government Rajaji Hospital.[195] See also[edit]

Madurai
Madurai
portal

People from Madurai Naganakulam saptur T.Kallupatti

Notes[edit]

^ Chapter 3, Metro cities of India
India
(PDF) (Report). Central Pollution Control Board, Govt of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ a b Largest metropolitan areas. ^ The Hindu
The Hindu
& 15 May 2016. ^ a b "Primary Census Abstract - Urban Agglomeration". Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Archived from the original (XLS) on 15 March 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2015.  ^ Tamil Nādu – City Population – Cities, Towns & Provinces – Statistics & Map 2011. ^ The Times of India
India
& 13 October 2015. ^ The Times of India
India
& 12 October 2015. ^ The Hindu
The Hindu
& 12 October 2015. ^ a b The Hindu
The Hindu
& 25 October 2007. ^ a b c d e f List of Colleges in Madurai. ^ Madurai
Madurai
2011 census data. ^ a b c d e f g h Harman 1992, pp. 30–36. ^ a b c Reynolds & Bardwell 1987, pp. 12–25. ^ Thirunavukkarasar 2004, pp. 44–47. ^ Campantar Tirumurai 1 2004, p. 61. ^ Campantar Tirumurai 3 2004, pp. 56–58. ^ Prentiss 1999, p. 43. ^ Mahadevan. ^ Zvelebil 1992, p. 27. ^ Quintanilla 2007, p. 2. ^ Agarwal 2008, p. 17. ^ Mangudi Marudanar 2004. ^ Gopal 1990, p. 181. ^ a b c Bandopadhyay 2010, pp. 93–96. ^ Dalal 1997, p. 128. ^ Kersenboom Story 1987, p. 16. ^ a b c Salma Ahmed 2011, p. 26. ^ a b V. 1995, p. 115. ^ Markovits 2004, p. 253. ^ B.S., S. & C. 2011, p. 582. ^ a b King 2005, pp. 73–75. ^ Reynolds & Bardwell 1987, p. 18. ^ Narasaiah 2009, p. 85. ^ a b Madurai Corporation
Madurai Corporation
– citizen charter. ^ a b c Imperial gazetteer of India: Provincial series, Volume 18 1908, pp. 229–230. ^ Gandhi Memorial Museum, Madurai. ^ Kamat Research Database, Biography: N.M.R.Subbaraman. ^ David Arnold 1977, p. 128. ^ More J. B. P 1977, p. 106. ^ Press Information Bureau archives, Government of India. ^ The Hindu
The Hindu
& 26 February 2011. ^ a b c d King 2005, p. 72. ^ Selby & Peterson 2008, p. 149. ^ a b King 2005, p. 73. ^ King 2005, p. l 73. ^ Maps, Weather, and Airports for Madurai, India. ^ a b Madurai Corporation
Madurai Corporation
– General information. ^ a b Imperial Gazetter of India, Volume 16 1908, p. 404. ^ Pletcher 2011, p. 192. ^ a b Department of Agriculture. ^ TN Govt GO #220. ^ a b c d e f Annesley 1841, p. 68. ^ Water year – District ground water brochure, Madurai
Madurai
district. ^ a b c The Hindu
The Hindu
& 21 April 2010. ^ Climatology of Madurai
Madurai
2011. ^ Record highs and lows of Madurai
Madurai
2015. ^ Singh, Dube & Singh 1988, p. 407. ^ Students' Britannica India, p. 319. ^ Primary Census Abstract – Census 2001. ^ a b " Madurai District
Madurai District
census handbook" (PDF). Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 29 June 2016.  ^ National Sex Ratio 2011. ^ Madurai
Madurai
2011 census. ^ Madurai
Madurai
UA 2011 census data. ^ "Population By Religious Community - Tamil Nadu" (XLS). Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2011. Archived from the original on 13 September 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2015.  ^ Deccan Chronicle
Deccan Chronicle
& 25 March 2011. ^ Primary Census data – religion. ^ Thurston 1913, p. 123. ^ Catholic Diocese of Madurai. ^ Madurai
Madurai
Ramnad Diocese. ^ Stanley 2004, p. 631. ^ City Development Plan of Madurai
Madurai
2004, p. 31. ^ a b c City Development Plan of Madurai
Madurai
2004, p. 43. ^ The Hindu
The Hindu
& 22 October 2011. ^ Corporation Commissioner. ^ The Hindu
The Hindu
& 19 May 2014. ^ a b c d e List of Members Constituency name wise 2011. ^ " Madurai
Madurai
South Assembly Constituency". elections.in. Archived from the original on 23 May 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.  ^ a b MP of Madurai
Madurai
2014. ^ Lal 1972, p. 151. ^ a b Civic affairs 1970, p. 80. ^ Palanithurai 2007, p. 80. ^ a b Commissionerate of Municipal Administration. ^ Economic and political weekly, Volume 30 1995, p. 2396. ^ The Hindu
The Hindu
& 9 December 2008. ^ a b Map showing the new assembly constituencies. ^ List of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1962 to the Third Lok Sabha. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1971 to the Fifth Lok Sabha. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1977 to the Sixth Lok Sabha. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1980 to the Seventh Lok Sabha. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1984 to the Eighth Lok Sabha. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1989 to the Ninth Lok Sabha. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1991 to the Tenth Lok Sabha. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1967 to the Fourth Lok Sabha. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1999 to the Thirteenth Lok Sabha. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 2004 to the Fourteenth Lok Sabha. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1957 to the Second Lok Sabha. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1996 to the Eleventh Lok Sabha. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1998 to the Twelfth Lok Sabha. ^ Notification No. 308/2009/EPS. ^ a b Madurai
Madurai
City Police district. ^ Madurai
Madurai
– List of Police Stations. ^ Madurai District
Madurai District
Police. ^ a b Crimes in cities of Tamil Nadu. ^ Madras High Court. ^ National Highways passing through Madurai. ^ a b Highways Circle of Highways Department, Tamilnadu. ^ Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
State Transport Corporation (Madurai) Limited 2011. ^ Madurai
Madurai
bus stand. ^ a b Regional Transport Office – Registered commercial vehicles in Tamil Nadu. ^ a b Train Running Information. ^ Southern Railway Madurai
Madurai
division. ^ ibnlive & 6 June 2011. ^ Dinamalar & 4 July 2015. ^ airport history. ^ customs airport. ^ Madurai
Madurai
Airport. ^ TOI & 9 August 2011. ^ The Hindu
The Hindu
& 29 August 2012. ^ Airports Authority of India
India
Madurai
Madurai
Airport. ^ Air traffic statistics. ^ International Air traffic movement. ^ International Air freight movement. ^ The Hindu
The Hindu
& 4 July 2015. ^ a b c d e f National Geographic 2008, p. 155. ^ a b Soundara Rajan 2001, p. 51. ^ Ramaswamy 2007, p. 271. ^ The Times of India
India
& 1 September 2011. ^ The Lady Doak College. ^ The Madura College. ^ Fatima College. ^ Madurai
Madurai
Kamarajar University. ^ List of Colleges affiliated to Madurai
Madurai
Kamarajar University. ^ The Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Dr. Ambedkar Law University – Affiliated Government law colleges. ^ Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai. ^ Schools in Madurai. ^ Parthasarathi 2007, p. 53. ^ a b Ganapathy 1987, pp. 14–16. ^ Soundarapandian 2009, pp. 151–152. ^ Bansal 2005, p. 47. ^ a b Industries in Madurai. ^ 36 cities that will shape India's future. ^ ELCOT, Madurai. ^ ELCOT website. ^ The Hindu
The Hindu
& 7 December 2008. ^ Brockman 2011, pp. 326–327. ^ Abram et al. 2011, pp. 996–1002. ^ Meenakshi
Meenakshi
Temple, India. ^ Ayyar 1991, p. 490. ^ a b Tourist places in Madurai. ^ a b c d e Tourism in Madurai. ^ a b c d Welcome to Madurai
Madurai
– Festivals. ^ The Times of India
India
& 28 November 2012. ^ a b c Shokoohy 2003, p. 52. ^ Maqbara. ^ The Times of India
India
& 27 April 2014. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 February 2018. Retrieved 9 February 2018.  ^ http://epaper.newindianexpress.com/1527835/The-New-Indian-Express-Madurai/02022018#page/20/1 Archived 10 February 2018 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c Shokoohy 2003, p. 57. ^ Catholic hierarchy. ^ The Hindu
The Hindu
& 3 September 2013. ^ The Hindu
The Hindu
& 5 November 2007. ^ The Hindu
The Hindu
& 6 November 2013. ^ Tha Indian & 5 March 2009. ^ The Hindu
The Hindu
& 1 July 2006. ^ The Times of India
India
& 11 June 2012. ^ The Hindu
The Hindu
& 15 May 2005. ^ The Hindu
The Hindu
& 29 May 2004. ^ The Times of India
India
& 22 June 2012. ^ The Hindu
The Hindu
& 1 March 2010. ^ "SC refuses to review ban". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 21 January 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.  ^ Shokoohy 2003, p. 54. ^ Shokoohy 2003, p. 34. ^ All India
India
Radio Stations. ^ Radio Mirchi
Radio Mirchi
Madurai. ^ Suriyan FM Madurai. ^ The Hindu
The Hindu
Madurai. ^ a b The Indian Express Group. ^ The Times of India. ^ Deccan 2013. ^ Dinamalar e-paper Madurai. ^ Dinathanthi e-paper Madurai. ^ Dinakaran
Dinakaran
Madurai. ^ a b Malaimalar Madurai. ^ The Hindu
The Hindu
& 9 October 2009. ^ The Hindu
The Hindu
& 19 December 2004. ^ DD News. ^ The Hindu
The Hindu
& 24 September 2007. ^ a b Important Address of TNEB. ^ a b Water Supply Details. ^ a b Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission. ^ List of cities where Calling Line Identification (CLI) Based Internet Service is available. ^ List of cities where BSNL broadband service is available (As on 1 January 2007). ^ Regional passport office. ^ The Hindu
The Hindu
& 23 August 2007.

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Kamarajar University". Madurai Kamarajar University. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "List of Colleges in Madurai". Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "List of Dealers in Tamil Nadu". DD News. Retrieved 21 May 2011.  "List of Members Constituency name wise". Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Archived from the original on 6 October 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "List of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2008. Retrieved 26 June 2012.  "Madras High Court". Madras High Court. 24 July 2004. Archived from the original on 23 August 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2009.  " Madurai
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airport all set to get international flights". The Times of India. 9 August 2011.  " Madurai
Madurai
Airport's History". Retrieved 4 July 2015.  " Madurai
Madurai
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Madurai
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Madurai
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Madurai
Kamarajar University". Madurai
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Meenakshi
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Muslims
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Madurai
threaten to boycott polls". Deccan Chronicle. Madurai. 25 March 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2012.  "National Highways passing through Madurai" (PDF). National Highways Authority of India. Retrieved 17 April 2011.  "New Commissioner for Corporation". Madurai
Madurai
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Madurai". Radio Mirchi. Retrieved 29 June 2012.  "Rajaji Park to be spruced up at a cost of Rs.10 lakhs". The Hindu. Madurai. 15 May 2005. Retrieved 29 June 2012.  "Rajan Chellappa is Mayor". The Hindu. 22 October 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2012.  "Region's earliest interface with Islam
Islam
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Tamil Nadu
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Madurai
News: Efforts on to get mega hospital for Madurai". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 23 August 2007. Retrieved 18 June 2010.  " Tamil Nadu
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Madurai
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Madurai
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Madurai.

Madurai
Madurai
travel guide from Wikivoyage Official government website of Madurai
Madurai
District Official website of Madurai
Madurai
Corporation

 Geographic locale

Lat. and Long.9°55′9″N 78°7′10″E / 9.91917°N 78.11944°E / 9.91917; 78.11944

v t e

Madurai

History

Pandyan Dynasty Early Pandyan Kingdom Sangam period Kalabhras Pallavas Medieval Cholas Later Cholas Impalement of the Jains Later Pandyas Invasion of Malik Kafur Madurai
Madurai
Sultanate Vijayanagar Empire Madurai
Madurai
Nayaks Company Raj British Raj

Geography & Architecture

Geography of Madurai Yanaimalai Nagamalai Pasumalai Azhagar Kovil Range Rock Mountain of Thirupparankundram

Zones

Madurai-East Madurai-South Madurai-West Madurai-North

Neighbourhoods and suburbs

Alagappan Nagar Andalpuram Anna Nagar, Madurai Anuppanadi Arappalayam Arasaradi Avaniapuram Balarangapuram Bethaniyapuram Chinthamani Madurai Chokkikulam DRO Colony Ellis Nagar Goripalayam Iyer Bungalow Jaihindpuram K. Pudur K.K. Nagar, Madurai Kamarajapuram Kappalur Karimedu Karuppayurani Keerathurai Kochadai Koodal Nagar Lakshmipuram Madurai Managiri Mathichiyam Mattuthavani Melamadai Melur Nagamalai Narimedu Nelpettai Otthakadai Palanganatham Pasumalai Paravai Ponmeni Shenoy Nagar Madurai Simmakkal SS Colony Tallakulam Thabalthandi Nagar Thathaneri Therkuvasal Thirunagar Thiruppalai Thiruparankundram Tirumangalam, Madurai TVS Nagar Umachikulam Uthangudi Vilachery Vilangudi Villapuram

Transport

Road

Aarapalayam bus Terminus Anna bus stand Mattuthavani
Mattuthavani
Bus Terminus Periyar bus stand

Rail

Madurai
Madurai
Junction Koodal Nagar Madurai
Madurai
East Thirumangalam Samayanallur Sholavandan Thirupparankundram

Air

Madurai
Madurai
Airport

Educational institutions

University

Madurai
Madurai
Kamaraj University

Arts & Science

Ambiga College of Arts and Science Arul Anandar College Fatima College E.M.G. Yadava Women's College Lady Doak College Madura College Mannar Thirumalai Naicker College Meenakshi
Meenakshi
College M.S.S.Wakf Board College Saraswathy Narayanan College Sermathai Vasan College for Women Sourastra College Sourastra College for Women Nadar Mahajana Sangam S. Vellaichamy Nadar College The American College Thiagarajar College Vivekananda College Yadava College

Engineering

Fatima Michael College of Engineering and Technology Latha Mathavan Engineering College Kamaraj College of Engineering and Technology K. L. N. College of Engineering KLN College of Information Technology Madurai
Madurai
Institute of Engineering & Technology Pandiyan Saraswathi Yadav Engineering College PTR College of Engineering Raja College of Engineering and Technology SACS MAVMM Engg College Sethu Institute of Technology Thiagarajar College of Engineering Ultra College of Engineering and Technology for Women Vaigai
Vaigai
College of Engineering Velammal College of Engineering and Technology Vickram College of Engineering

Medical

Madurai
Madurai
Medical College Velammal Medical College Hospital & Research Institute CSI Dental college

Others

Agricultural College and Research Institute Government Law College Tamilnadu polytechnic college Tata-Dhan Academy Thiagarajar School Of Management

Places of worship

Temples

Meenakshi
Meenakshi
Amman Temple Vandiyur Mariamman Temple Thiruparankundram Alagar Koyil Pazhamudircholai Koodal Azhagar Temple Thirumohoor Kalamegaperumal Temple Madapuram Thiru Aappanoor Edaganathar temple

Churches

St Mary's Church

Mosques

Kazimar Big Mosque Goripalayam Mosque Thiruparankundram
Thiruparankundram
Dargah Madurai
Madurai
Maqbara

Places

Thirumalai Nayakkar Mahal Tamukkam Palace Gandhi Museum Athisayam Milan'em Mall Vishaal de Mal Tamukkam Ground MGR Race Course Stadium

Culture

Chithirai Thiruvizha Jallikattu Madurai
Madurai
Tamil Madurai Tamil Sangam Madurai
Madurai
Malli

Cuisine

Chili parotha Jil jil jigarthanda Murugan
Murugan
Idli Parotta

Politics

Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Assembly Constituencies

Madurai
Madurai
South Madurai
Madurai
North Madurai
Madurai
Central Madurai
Madurai
East Madurai
Madurai
West Melur Madurai
Madurai
East Sholavandan Thirupparankundram Tirumangalam Usilampatti

Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
constituencies

Madurai

Other topics: People from Madurai

v t e

Madurai
Madurai
district

District Headquarters

Madurai

Country

India

State

Tamil Nadu

Region

Pandya
Pandya
Nadu

Taluks

Melur Madurai-North Madurai-South Usilampatti Vadipatti Peraiyur Thirumangalam

Revenue blocks

Alanganallur Chellampatti Kallikudi Kottampatti Madurai
Madurai
East Madurai
Madurai
West Melur Sedapatti T.Kallupatti Thirumangalam Thirupparankunram Usilampatti Vadipatti

History

Early Cholas Kalabhras Medieval Cholas Later Cholas Madurai
Madurai
Sultanate Vijayanagar Empire British Raj

Places of Worship

Meenakshi
Meenakshi
Amman Temple Edaganathar temple Goripalayam Mosque Kazimar Big Mosque Thiruvedagam Alagar Koyil Koodal Azhagar Temple Pazhamudircholai Thirupparamkunram Murugan
Murugan
Temple othakadai narasimhar temple

Places of interest

Gandhi Memorial Museum Thirumalai Nayakkar Mahal Athisayam

Universities

Madurai
Madurai
Kamaraj University

Cities and towns People Villages

v t e

Municipalities of Tamil Nadu

Municipal Corporations

Greater Chennai · Coimbatore · Madurai · Erode · Salem · Thoothukudi · Tiruchirappalli  · Tirunelveli · Thanjavur  · Tiruppur
Tiruppur
 · Vellore  · Dindigul

Municipalities

Special
Special
grade

Avadi Cuddalore Hosur Kancheepuram Karaikudi Karur Kodaikanal Kovilpatti Kumbakonam Maraimalainagar Nagercoil Pallavapuram Pollachi Rajapalayam Sivakasi Tambaram Thiruvannamalai Udhagamandalam

Selection grade

Ambur Alandur Attur Chidambaram Coonoor Dharmapuri Gobichettipalayam Mannargudi Mayiladuthurai Mettupalayam Mettur Nagapattinam Namakkal Palani Pammal Pattukkottai Pudukkottai Ranipet Theni Allinagaram Thiruverkadu Thuraiyur Tindivanam Tiruchengode Tiruppattur Udumalaipettai Valparai Vaniyambadi Viluppuram Virudhunagar

First grade

Arakkonam Arani Aranthangi Arcot Aruppukkottai Bodinayakanur Chengalpattu Colachel Cumbum Devakottai Dharapuram Edappadi Gudiyatham Kadayanallur Kallakurichi Komarapalayam Krishnagiri Manapparai Palladam Panruti Paramakudi Poonamallee Ramanathapuram Rasipuram Sankarankovil Sembakkam Sathyamangalam Sivagangai Srivilliputhur Thiruthangal Tiruvallur tenkasi Tiruvarur Virudhachalam

Second grade

Ambasamudram Anakaputhur Ariyalur Bhavani Chinnamanur Gudalur (Nilgiris district) Gudalur (Theni district) Jayankondam Jolarpet Kangeyam Kayalpattinam Keelakarai Koothanallur Kulithalai Kuzhithurai Maduranthakam Melur Melvisharam Nellikuppam Nelliyalam Oddanchatram Padmanabhapuram Pallipalayam Perambalur Periyakulam Pernampattu Puliyankudi Punjai Puliampatti Rameswaram Sattur Sengottai Sirkazhi Thiruthani Thiruthuraipoondi Thiruvathipuram Thuvakudi Tirumangalam Usilampatti Vandavasi Vedaranyam Vellakoil Vikramasingapuram Walajapet

v t e

Million-plus agglomerations in India

North

Chandigarh Delhi Haryana: Faridabad Jammu and Kashmir: Srinagar Punjab: Ludhiana Amritsar Rajasthan: Jaipur Jodhpur Kota

Central

Chhattisgarh: Raipur Bhilai Madhya Pradesh: Indore Bhopal Jabalpur Gwalior Uttar Pradesh: Kanpur Lucknow Ghaziabad Agra Varanasi Meerut Allahabad

Eastern

Bihar: Patna Jharkhand: Jamshedpur Dhanbad Ranchi West Bengal: Kolkata Asansol

Western

Gujarat: Ahmedabad Surat Vadodara Rajkot Maharashtra: Mumbai Pune Nagpur Nashik Vasai-Virar Aurangabad

Southern

Andhra Pradesh: Visakhapatnam Vijayawada Karnataka: Bangalore Kerala: Kochi Kozhikode Thrissur Malappuram Thiruvananthapuram Kannur Kollam Tamil Nadu: Chennai Coimbatore Madurai Tiruchirappalli Telangana: Hyderabad

v t e

 State of Tamil Nadu

Capital: Chennai

State symbols

Seal: Srivilliputhur
Srivilliputhur
Andal Temple Gopuram Animal: Nilgiri tahr Bird: Emerald dove Flower: Gloriosa lily Fruit: Jackfruit Tree: Palm tree

Governance

Governors Chief Ministers Legislative Assembly Political parties Raj Bhavan High Court Police

Topics

Cinema Cuisine Economy Government History Language Literature Music People Education Politics Temples Protected areas Highest point Wildlife Sexual Minorities Tourism

Districts

Ariyalur Chennai Coimbatore Cuddalore Dharmapuri Dindigul Erode Kanchipuram Kanyakumari Karur Krishnagiri Madurai Nagapattinam Namakkal Perambalur Pudukkottai Ramanathapuram Salem Sivaganga Thanjavur The Nilgiris Theni Thoothukudi Tiruchirapalli Tirunelveli Tiruppur Tiruvallur Tiruvannamalai Tiruvarur Vellore Viluppuram Virudhunagar

Major cities

Chennai Coimbatore Madurai Tiruchirapalli Tiruppur

Tamil Nadu

India
India
portal Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
portal Madurai
Madurai
portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 158274678 GND: 4275927-4 BNF:

.