Madurai is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
It is the administrative headquarters of
Madurai District, the third
largest city in Tamil Nadu, and the 25th most populated city in
India. Located on the banks of River Vaigai,
Madurai has been a
major settlement for two millennia.
Madurai is closely associated with the Tamil language, and the third
Tamil Sangam, a major congregation of Tamil scholars said to have been
held in the city. The recorded history of the city goes back to the
3rd century BCE, being mentioned by Megasthenes, the Greek ambassador
to the Maurya empire, and Kautilya, a minister of the Mauryan emperor
Chandragupta Maurya. Signs of human settlements and Roman trade links
dating back to 300BC are evident from excavations by Archeological
India in Manalur. The city is believed to be of
significant antiquity and has been ruled, at different times, by the
Madurai Sultanate, Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai
Nayaks, Carnatic kingdom, and the British East
India Company British
The city has a number of historical monuments, with the Meenakshi
Amman Temple and
Tirumalai Nayak Palace
Tirumalai Nayak Palace being the most prominent.
Madurai is an important industrial and educational hub in South Tamil
Nadu. The city is home to various automobile, rubber, chemical and
granite manufacturing industries.
Madurai has important government educational institutes such as the
Madurai Medical College, Homeopathic Medical College,
College, Agricultural College and Research Institute.
Madurai city is
administered by a municipal corporation established in 1971 as per the
Municipal Corporation Act. The city covers an area of 147.97 km2
and had a population of 1,017,865 in 2011. The city is also the
seat of a bench of the Madras High Court.
4 Geography and climate
6 Administration and politics
10 Religious sites
11 Culture, tourism and entertainment
12 Media and utility services
13 See also
16 External links
The city is referred by various names including "Madurai", "Koodal",
"Malligai Maanagar", "Naanmadakoodal" and "Thirualavai". The word
Madurai may be derived from Madhura (sweetness) arising out of the
divine nectar showered on the city by the Hindu god Siva from his
matted hair. Another theory is that
Madurai is the derivative of
the word Marutham, which refers to the type of landscape of the Sangam
age. A town in the neighbouring
Dindigul district is called Vada
Madurai (North Madurai) and another in
Sivagangai district is called
Manamadurai. The different names by which the city has been referred
to historically are listed in the 7th-century poem Thiruvilayaadal
puraanam written by Paranjothi Munivar.
Koodal means an assembly or congregation of scholarly people,
referring to the three Tamil Sangams held at Madurai. Naanmadakoodal,
meaning the junction of four towers, refers to the four major temples
Madurai was known for. Tevaram, the 7th- or 8th-century
Tamil compositions on
Shiva by the three prominent Nayanars
(Saivites), namely Appar, Sundarar and
Thirugnanasambandar, address the city as Thirualavai.
As per Iravatham Mahadevan, a 2nd-century BCE
refers to the city as matiray, an Old Tamil word meaning a "walled
Hand coloured antique wood engraving drawn by W. Purser (1858) shows
Madurai city as seen from the north bank of the
Madurai has been inhabited since at least the 3rd century BCE.
Megasthenes may have visited
Madurai during the 3rd century BCE, with
the city referred as "Methora" in his accounts. The view is
contested by some scholars who believe "Methora" refers to the north
Indian city of Mathura, as it was a large and established city in the
Madurai is also mentioned in Kautilya's (370–283
Sangam literature like Maturaikkāñci
records the importance of
Madurai as a capital city of the Pandyan
Madurai is mentioned in the works of Roman historians
Pliny the Younger
Pliny the Younger (61 – c. 112 CE),
Ptolemy (c. 90 – c.
CE 168), those of the Greek geographer
Strabo (64/63 BCE – c.
24 CE), and also in Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.
Pandyan dynasty Map at its greatest extent
Coin of Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan, first ruler of the Sultanate of
Madurai, 1335–1339 CE
After the Sangam age, most of present-day Tamil Nadu, including
Madurai, came under the rule of the Kalabhra dynasty, which was ousted
by the Pandyas around 590 CE. The Pandyas were outsted from
Madurai by the
Chola dynasty during the early 9th century. The
city remained under the control of the
Cholas until the early 13th
century, when the second Pandyan empire was established with Madurai
as its capital. After the death of Kulasekara Pandian (1268–1308
Madurai came under the rule of the
Delhi Sultanate. The
Madurai Sultanate then seceded from
Delhi and functioned as an
independent kingdom until its gradual annexation by the Vijayanagar
Empire in 1378 CE.
Madurai became independent from Vijayanagar in
1559 CE under the Nayaks. Nayak rule ended in 1736 CE and Madurai
was repeatedly captured several times by
Chanda Sahib (1740 –
1754 CE), Arcot Nawab and
Muhammed Yusuf Khan (1725 – 1764 CE)
in the middle of 18th century.
Madurai came under the direct control of the British East
India Company and was annexed to the Madras Presidency. The
British government made donations to the
Meenakshi temple and
participated in the Hindu festivals during the early part of their
rule. The city evolved as a political and industrial complex
through the 19th and 20th centuries to become a district headquarters
of a larger
Madurai district. In 1837, the fortifications around
the temple were demolished by the British. The moat was drained
and the debris was used to construct new streets – Veli, Marat
and Perumaal Mesthiri streets. The city was constituted as a
municipality in 1866 CE. The British government faced initial
hiccups during the earlier period of the establishment of municipality
in land ceiling and tax collection in
under the direct administration of the officers of the government.
The city, along with the district, was resurveyed between 1880 and
1885 CE and subsequently, five municipalities were constituted in the
two districts and six taluk boards were set up for local
administration. Police stations were established in
housing the headquarters of the District Superintendent. Under the
It was in Madurai, in 1921, that Mahatma Gandhi, pre-eminent leader of
Indian nationalism in British-ruled India, first adopted the loin
cloth as his mode of dress after seeing agricultural labourers wearing
it. Leaders of the independence movement in
N.M.R. Subbaraman and Mohammad Ismail Sahib. The Temple
Entry Authorization and Indemnity Act passed by the government of
Madras Presidency under
C. Rajagopalachari in 1939 removed
Dalits from entering Hindu
temples. The temple entry movement was first led in
temple by independence activist
A. Vaidyanatha Iyer in 1939.
Madurai showing centre of the city and some important landmarks
Madurai is built around the
Meenakshi Amman Temple, which acted as the
geographic and ritual centre of the ancient city of Madurai. The
city is divided into a number of concentric quadrangular streets
around the temple.
Vishwanatha Nayak (1529–64 CE), the first
Madurai Nayak king, redesigned the city in accordance with the
principles laid out by
Shilpa Shastras (Sanskrit: śilpa śāstra,
also anglicised as silpa sastra meaning rules of architecture) related
to urban planning. These squares retain their traditional names of
Aadi, Chittirai, Avani-moola and Masi streets, corresponding to the
Tamil month names and also to the festivals associated. The temple
prakarams (outer precincts of a temple) and streets accommodate an
elaborate festival calendar in which dramatic processions
circumambulate the shrines at varying distances from the centre. The
temple chariots used in processions are progressively larger in size
based on the size of the concentric streets. Ancient Tamil
classics record the temple as the centre of the city and the
surrounding streets appearing liken a lotus and its petals. The
city's axes were aligned with the four quarters of the compass, and
the four gateways of the temple provided access to it. The wealthy
and higher echelons of the society were placed in streets close to the
temple, while the poorest were placed in the fringe streets. With
the advent of British rule during the 19th century,
Madurai became the
headquarters of a large colonial political complex and an industrial
town; with urbanisation, the social hierarchical classes became
Geography and climate
Vaigai river in Madurai
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Madurai is located at 9°56′N 78°07′E / 9.93°N 78.12°E
/ 9.93; 78.12. It has an average elevation of 101 metres. The city
Madurai lies on the flat and fertile plain of the river Vaigai,
which runs in the northwest-southeast direction through the city,
dividing it into two almost equal halves. The Sirumalai and
Nagamalai hills lie to the north and west of Madurai. The land in
Madurai is utilised largely for agricultural activity,
which is fostered by the Periyar Dam.
Madurai lies southeast of
the western ghats, and the surrounding region occupies the plains of
India and contains several mountain spurs. The soil type in
Madurai is predominantly clay loam, while red loam and black
cotton types are widely prevalent in the outer fringes of the
city. Paddy is the major crop, followed by pulses, millet, oil
seed, cotton and sugarcane.
The municipal corporation of
Madurai has an area of
Madurai is hot and dry for eight months of
the year. Cold winds are experienced during February and March as
in the neighbouring Dindigul. The hottest months are from March to
July. The city experiences a moderate climate from August to
October, tempered by heavy rain and thundershowers, and a slightly
cooler climate from November to February. Fog and dew are rare,
occurring only during the winter season. Being equidistant from
mountains and the sea, it experiences similar monsoon pattern with
Northeast monsoon and Southwest monsoon, with the former providing
more rain during October to December. The average annual rainfall
Madurai district is about 85.76 cm.
Temperatures during summer generally reach a maximum of 40 °C
and a minimum of 26.3 °C, although temperatures up to
42 °C are not uncommon. Winter temperatures range between
29.6 °C and 18 °C. A study based on the data available
with the Indian Meteorological Department on
Madurai over a period of
62 years indicate rising trend in atmospheric temperature over Madurai
city, attributed to urbanisation, growth of vehicles and industrial
activity. The maximum temperature of 42 °C for the decade of
2001 – 2010 was recorded in 2004 and in 2010.
Climate data for Madurai,
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days
Source: Indian Meteorological Department Mean data from
1951 – 1981:
According to 2011 census based on per-expansion limits, the area
covered under the
Madurai Municipal Corporation
Madurai Municipal Corporation had a population of
1,017,865 with a sex-ratio of 999 females for every 1,000 males,
much above the national average of 929. A total of 100,324 were
under the age of six, constituting 51,485 males and 48,839 females.
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 6.27% and .31% of
the population respectively. The average literacy of the city was
81.95%, compared to the national average of 72.99%. The urban
Madurai had a population of 1,465,625, and is the
third largest in
Tamil Nadu and the 31st in India.
According to the religious census of 2011,
Madurai had 85.8% Hindus,
8.5% Muslims, 5.2%
Christians and 0.5% others. Tamil is spoken by
most, and the standard dialect is the
dialect. Saurashtra is also spoken by some significant
minorities. Roman Catholics in
Madurai are affiliated with the
Roman Catholic Diocese of Madurai, while Protestants are
affiliated with the Madurai-Ramnad Diocese of the Church of South
In 2001, Slum-dwellers comprise 32.6 per cent of the total population,
much higher than the national average of 15.05 per cent. The
increase in growth rate to 50 per cent from 1971 to 1981 is due to the
city's upgrade to a municipal corporation in 1974 and the subsequent
inclusion of 13 Panchayats into the corporation limits. The
decline in the population growth rate between 1981 and 2001 is due to
the bifurcation of
Madurai district into two,
1984, and the subsequently of part of the city into the Theni district
in 1997. The compounded annual growth rate dropped from 4.10 per
cent during 1971–81 to 1.27 per cent during 1991–2004.
Administration and politics
Municipal Corporation Officials
Seat vacant 
Dr Aneesh Sekhar 
Members of Legislative Assembly
P.T.R. Palanivel Thiagarajan
V. V. Rajan Chellappa
Sellur K. Raju
Member of Parliament
Building of the
Madurai Bench of Madras High court
The municipality of
Madurai was constituted on 1 November 1866 as per
the Town Improvement Act of 1865. The municipality was headed by a
chairperson and elections were regularly conducted for the post except
during the period 1891 to 1896, when no elections were held due to
violent factionalism. During the early years of independent India, the
Madurai municipality was dominated by reformists of the Indian
Madurai was upgraded to a municipal corporation
on 1 May 1971 as per the
Madurai City Municipal Corporation Act,
1971. It is the second oldest municipal corporation in Tamil Nadu,
after Chennai. The functions of the municipality are devolved into
six departments: General, Engineering, Revenue, Public Health, Town
planning and the Computer Wing. All these departments are under
the control of a Municipal Commissioner, who is the supreme executive
head. The legislative powers are vested in a body of 100 members,
one each from the 100 wards. The legislative body is headed by an
elected Mayor assisted by a Deputy Mayor. The corporation received
several awards in 2008 for implementing development works.
Front view of the corporation office
The city of
Madurai is represented in the
Tamil Nadu Legislative
Assembly by six elected members, one each for the
Madurai South and
Madurai is also a part of the
Lok Sabha constituency and elects a member to the Lok Sabha,
the lower house of the Parliament of India, once every five
years. From 1957, the
Madurai parliament seat was held by the
Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress seven times in the 1962–67,
1971–77, 1977–80, 1980–84, 1984–89,
1989–91 and 1991 elections. The Communist Party of India
(Marxist) won the seat three times during 1967–71,
1999–2004 and 2004–09 general elections. The Communist
India (1957–61), Tamil Maanila Congress (Moopanar)
Janata Party (1998), Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
(2009–2014) and All
India Anna Dravida Munnertra Kazhagam
(2014–2019)  have each won once.
Law and order is enforced by the
Tamil Nadu Police, which, for
administrative purposes, has constituted
Madurai city as a separate
district. The district is divided into four sub-divisions, namely
Thallakulam, Anna Nagar, Thilagar Thidal and Town, with a total
of 27 police stations. The
Madurai city police force is headed by
a Commissioner of police, assisted by Deputy Commissioners.
Enforcement of law and order in the suburban areas are handled by the
Madurai district police. In 2008, the crime rate in the city was
283.2 per 100,000 people, accounting for 1.1 per cent of all crimes
reported in major cities in India, and it was ranked 19th among 35
major cities in India. As of 2008,
Madurai recorded the second highest
Special and Local Laws) crimes, at 22,728, among cities in Tamil
Madurai had the second lowest crime rate at 169.1
of all the cities in Tamil Nadu. The city is also the seat of a
bench of the Madras High Court, one of only a few outside the state
capitals of India. It started functioning in July 2004.
Main article: Transport in Madurai
Mattuthavani Bus Stand
Madurai Railway junction, the main railway station of Madurai
A view of
The National Highways NH 7, NH 45B,
NH 208 and NH 49 pass through
Madurai. The state highways passing through the city are SH-33,
SH-72, SH-72A, SH-73 and SH-73A which connect various parts of Madurai
Madurai is one of the seven circles of the Tamil Nadu
State Highway network.
Madurai is the headquarters of the Tamil
Nadu State Transport Corporation (Madurai) and provides local and
inter-city bus transport across the districts of Madurai, Dindigul,
Sivagangai, Theni, Virudhunagar.
Madurai has three bus terminals,
Mattuthavani Bus Terminus
Mattuthavani Bus Terminus (MIBT) and
Arappalayam (for inter
city buses) and Periyar Bus stand (for intra city buses). There
are 12,754 registered three-wheeled vehicles called auto rickshaws,
which are commercially available for renting within the city. In
addition to the government operated city buses, there are 236
registered private mini-buses that support local transportation.
Madurai Junction is the major railway station serving the city. It is
an important railway junction in southern
Tamil Nadu and is one of the
top 100 booking stations in Indian Railways. It is the
headquarters of the
Madurai division of the Southern Railway.
There are direct trains from connecting
Madurai with major cities and
towns across India. The state government announced a Mono rail
Madurai in 2011, which is in planning stages. There
are ten other sub urban railway stations serving the city.
Madurai airfield was first used by the
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force in World War II
in 1942. The first passenger flight was a Fokker Friendship
aircraft from Madras in 1956.
Madurai Airport was established in
1957 and is located at Avaniyapuram, about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi)
from the city. The airport was declared a customs airport in
2012 allowing limited number of international flights. It offers
domestic flights to some cities in
India and international services to
Dubai and Singapore. The carriers operating from the
airport are Air India, Air
India Express, Jet Airways, SpiceJet,
Srilankan Airlines . The airport handled 842,300
passengers between April 2015 and March 2016. The
airport was identified as one of 35 non-metro airports for
modernisation and a new integrated terminal building was inaugurated
on 12 September 2010.
The American college in Madurai, started in 1881 CE – the oldest
college in Madurai
Madurai has been an academic centre of learning for Tamil culture,
literature, art, music and dance for centuries. All three
assemblies of the Tamil language, the
Tamil Sangam (about the 3rd
century BCE to the 3rd century CE), were said to have been held at
Madurai. Tamil poets of different epochs participated in these
assemblies, and their compositions are referred to as Sangam
literature. During the third Tamil sangam, the comparative merit
of the poets was decided by letting the works float in the lotus tank
of the temple. It was believed that a divine force would cause the
work of superior merit to float on the surface, while the inferior
ones would sink.
The American College is the oldest college in Madurai, and was
established in 1881 by American Christian missionaries. The Lady
Doak college, established in 1948, is the oldest women's college in
Thiagarajar College (established in 1949), Madura
College (established in 1889),
Fatima College (established in
M.S.S.Wakf Board College (established in 1964) are
among the oldest educational institutions of the city.
University (originally called
Madurai University), established in
1966, is a state-run university which has 109 affiliated arts and
science colleges in
Madurai and neighbouring districts. There are
47 approved institutions of the university in and around the city,
consisting of autonomous colleges, aided colleges, self-financing
colleges, constituent colleges, evening colleges and other approved
institutions. There are seven polytechnical schools and five
Industrial training institutes
Industrial training institutes (ITIs) in Madurai, with the Government
ITI and the Government Polytechnic for Women being the most prominent
of them all. There are two government medical institutes in
Madurai Medical College and Homoeopathic Medical College,
Thirumangalam and 11 paramedical institutes. There are fifteen
engineering colleges in
Madurai affiliated to Anna University, with
Thiagarajar College of Engineering being the oldest. The
Madurai Law College, established in 1979, is one of the seven
government law colleges in the state. It is administered by the Tamil
Nadu Government Department of Legal Studies, and affiliated with the
Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University. There are three
teacher training institutes, two music colleges, three management
institutes and 30 arts and sciences colleges in Madurai. The
agricultural college and research institute in Madurai, started in
1965 by the state government, provides agricultural education to
aspirants in the southern districts of Tamil Nadu. There are a
total of 369 primary, secondary and higher secondary schools in the
Harvey Mills, circa 1914
A software company at Thirupparankundram
Madurai was traditionally an agrarian society, with rice paddies as
the main crop. Cotton crop cultivation in the regions with black soil
Madurai district was introduced during the Nayaka rule during the
16th century to increase the revenue from agriculture. The paddy
fields cultivated in the
Vaigai delta across
Madurai North, Melur,
Nilakottai and Uthamapalayam are known as "double-crop paddy
belts". Farmers in the district supplement their income with
subsidiary occupations like dairy farming, poultry-farming, pottery,
brick making, mat-weaving and carpentry.
Madurai is famed for its
jasmine plantations, called "
Madurai Malli", primarily carried out at
the foothills of
Kodaikanal hills and traded at the
flower market. An average of 2,000 farmers sell flowers daily at
the flower market.
With the advent of Small Scale Industries (SSI) after 1991, the
Madurai increased employment in the sector across
the district from 63,271 in 1992–93 to 166,121 persons in
Madurai is one of the few rubber growing areas in
South India, and there are rubber-based industries in
Madurai. Gloves, sporting goods, mats, other utility products and
automobile rubber components are the most produced items by these
industries.TVS rubber Template:TVS GROUP factory is pioneer in Rubber
industries.They manufacture TVS tyres and tubes from
Madurai.Automobile manufacturers are the major consumers of rubber
components produced in the city. There are numerous textile,
granite and chemical industries operating in Madurai.The city has
a vast economic development as well with people buying swanky cars.The
car manufacturers found this as opportunity and has setup showrooms
here in Template:Kappalur.
Kappalur has seen a tremendous development
with Template:SIDCO tag and governments constant efforts to revive
this place.It has automobile showrooms like
Leyland,Volkswagen,Mahindra,Fiat(FCA),Jeep,Mitsubhishi. and many
independent service centres.Lots of Cargo services started its
Kappalur for its connectivity with city.The proposed
AIIMS hospital site is 1 km away from Kappalur. Thoppur-Utchapatti
Satellite Township is developed in
Kappalur and the real estate has
just started picking up.
Madurai is promoted as a tier II city for IT and some software
companies have opened their offices in Madurai. Software
Technology Parks of India, an agency of the Government of India, has
authorised several such companies to receive benefits under its
national information technology development program. The state
government proposed two IT-based
Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in
Madurai, and these have been fully occupied by various IT
Meenakshi Amman Temple
Meenakshi Amman Temple North Tower - Street
Kazimar Big Mosque, the oldest Muslim place of worship in the city
Meenakshi Amman Temple
Meenakshi Amman Temple is a historic
Hindu temple located on the south
side of the
Vaigai River in
Madurai and is one of the most prominent
landmarks of the city. It is dedicated to
Meenakshi and her
consort, Sundareswarar. The complex houses 14 gopurams (gateway
towers) ranging from 45–50 metres (148–164 ft) in height, the
tallest being the southern tower, 51.9 metres (170 ft) high.
There are also two golden sculptured vimana (shrines) over the sanctum
of the main deities. The temple is a significant symbol for
has been mentioned since antiquity in Tamil literature, though the
present structure was built between 1623 and 1655 CE. The
temple attracts on average 15,000 visitors a day, which grows to
around 25,000 on Fridays. There are an estimated 33,000 sculptures in
the temple, and it was in the list of top 30 nominees for the
"New7Wonders of the World".
Koodal Azhagar Temple
Koodal Azhagar Temple is a
Vishnu temple located in the city. It has
idols of the
Navagraha (nine planet deities), which are otherwise
found only in
Alagar Koyil is a celebrated
Vishnu temple 21 kilometres (13 mi) northeast of
on the foothills of Solaimalai. The deity, Azhagar, is believed
to be the brother of Meenakshi, the presiding deity at the Meenakshi
temple. The festival calendars of these two temples overlap during
Meenakshi Thirukalyanam festival.
Pazhamudircholai, one of the other six abodes of the Hindu god
Murugan, is located atop the Solaimalai hill.
a hill 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) away from
Madurai where the Hindu
Murugan is said to have married Deivanai. The temple is the first
Six Abodes of Murugan
Six Abodes of Murugan and is one of the most visited tourist
spots in Madurai, next only to the
Meenakshi Amman Temple.
The temple has a wide range of Hindu gods carved on the walls.
Kazimar Big Mosque is the oldest Islamic place of worship in the
city. It was constructed under the supervision of Kazi Syed
Tajuddin, who is a descendant of Islamic Prophet
Muhammad and the
Madurai Maqbara the grave of Meer Ahmad Ibrahim Periya Hazrat, Meer
Amjad Ibrahim Chinna Hazrat and Syed Abdus Salam Ibrahim Saalim Hazrat
is located inside the mosque. Kazi Syed Tajuddin came from
Oman and received the piece of land as a gift from the Pandyan ruler
Kulasekara Pandyan I, during the 13th century for the construction of
the mosque. Since its inception till today the mosque
is being managed by descendants of Kazi Syed Tajuddin and
traditionally the Kazis of
Madurai city to the Govt. of Tamilnadu are
appointed from the descendants family. 
is located in Gorippalayam, the name of which is derived from the
Persian word gor ("grave") and the graves of erstwhile Sultanate
rulers Alauddin, Shamsuddeen and Habibuddin are found here.
Tirupparankunram Dargah is located at the top of the Thiruparankundram
hill where the cemetery of Sultan Sikandhar Badushah the then ruler of
Madurai who travelled to
India along with Sulthan Syed
Ibrahim Shaheed of Ervadi during 12th century is located. St.
Mary's Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of
Culture, tourism and entertainment
Pillared halls of Thirumalai Nayakar Palace, built during 1636 CE and
a national monument
Madurai is popularly called Thoonga Nagaram meaning the city that
never sleeps, on account of the active night life. The city
attracts a large number of tourists from within the country and
abroad. About 9,100,000 tourists visited
Madurai in 2010, including
Madurai is now attracting medical tourism
also. The palace complex of Thirumalai Nayak Palace was
constructed in the Indo-Saracenic style by Thirumalai Nayakar in 1636
CE. It is a national monument maintained by the Tamil Nadu
Archaeological Department. The daily sound and light show organised by
the department explains the virtues of King Thirumalai and the
features of the palace. The palace of Rani Mangamma has been
renovated to house one of the five Gandhi Sangrahalayas (Gandhi
Memorial Museum, Madurai) in the country. It includes a part of the
blood-stained garment worn by
Mahatma Gandhi when he was assassinated
by Nathuram Godse. A visit by Dr.
Martin Luther King
Martin Luther King Jr. to the
museum inspired him to lead peaceful protests against
discrimination. The Eco park, situated in Tallakulam, features
fountains and lighting in trees using optical fibres. Rajaji
children's park, maintained by the
Madurai Municipal Corporation, is
situated between the Gandhi museum and the Tamukkam grounds. It has a
visitor average of 5000 per day during holidays and 2000–3000 on
Madurai also has Theme Park,
Athisayam which is situated
Madurai – Dindugal main road.  MGR Race Course
Stadium is an athletic stadium which has a synthetic track and a
swimming pool. Several national meets are held here. It also
hosts several international and national level kabbadi
Gandhi Memorial Museum, one of the five Gandhi Sangrahalayas in India
The people of
Madurai celebrate numerous festivals, including
Meenakshi Tirukkalyanam, the Chittirai Festival and the Car
Festival. The annual 10-day
Meenakshi Tirukalyanam festival, also
called Chittirai festival, is celebrated during April–May every year
and attracts one million visitors. Legend has it that the Hindu god
Vishnu, as Alagar, rode on a golden horse to
Madurai to attend the
celestial wedding of
Meenakshi (Parvati) and Sundareswarar (Shiva).
During the Cradle festival, the festive idols of
Sundareswarar are taken in procession to a mirror chamber and set on a
rocking swing for nine days. Avanimoolam festival is celebrated during
September when the 64 sacred games of Shiva, thiruvilayadal, are
Thepporchavam festival, or float festival, is
celebrated on the full moon day of the Tamil month Thai, which falls
around January – February, to celebrate the birth anniversary of
King Thirumalai Nayak. The decorated icons of
Meenakshi and her
consort are taken out in a procession from the
Meenakshi Temple to the
Mariamman Teppakulam. The icons are floated in the tank on a raft
decked with flowers and flickering lamps.
Jallikattu is one of
the most popular historical sport in Tamil Nadu, and is a part of the
Pongal festival (harvest festival) Mattu
Pongal celebrated during
January. The bull taming event is held in the villages surrounding
Madurai, and people from the neighbouring villages throng to the open
grounds to watch man and bull pitting their strength against each
other. The event was banned in the years 2014, 2015 and 2016
following an order by the Supreme Court of India. Santhanakoodu
Madurai are celebrated on various days during the Islamic
calendar year to commemorate Islamic saints.
Media and utility services
The city hosts several radio stations, including the state-owned All
India Radio and private channels like Hello FM, Radio
Mirchi, Suryan FM and Radio City. The Hindu, The New
Indian Express and The Times of India are the three
principal English language daily newspapers which have Madurai
editions. Deccan Chronicle, though not printed in the city, is another
English language daily newspaper available in the city. The most
Tamil language daily morning newspapers include Dina Malar,
Dina Thanthi, Dina Mani and Dinakaran – all
these newspapers have editions from Madurai. There are also daily
Tamil evening newspapers like Tamil Murasu, Malai Murasu and
Malai Malar published in Madurai. Television broadcasting from
Chennai for whole of
Tamil Nadu was started on 15 August 1975.
Direct-to-home cable television services are provided by DD Direct
Plus and other private service providers.
Electricity supply to the city is regulated and distributed by the
Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB). The city is the headquarters
Madurai region of TNEB and along with its suburbs, forms the
Madurai Metro Electricity Distribution Circle, which is further
divided into six divisions. Water supply is provided by the
Madurai City Corporation with overhead tanks and power pumps. In
the period 2010–2011, a total of 950.6 lakh litres of water was
supplied to 87,091 connections for households in Madurai.
About 400 metric tonnes of solid waste are collected from the city
every day by door-to-door collection, and the subsequent source
segregation and dumping is carried out by the sanitary department of
Madurai Municipal corporation All the major channels in
Madurai are linked by the corporation to receive the flood water from
primary, secondary and tertiary drains constructed along the roadsides
to dispose of rain water. The sewer system was first established by
the British in
Madurai in 1924 to cover the core city area, which
covers 30 per cent of the present city area. It was further expanded
in 1959 and 1983 by a corporation plan. The 2011 Jawaharlal Nehru
National Urban Renewal Mission covered 90 per cent of households with
underground drainage system.
Madurai comes under the
Madurai telecom district of the Bharat Sanchar
Nigam Limited (BSNL), India's state-owned telecom and internet
services provider. Both Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)
Code division multiple access
Code division multiple access (CDMA) mobile services are
available. Apart from telecom, BSNL also provides broadband internet
service and Caller Line Identification (CLI) based internet service
A regional passport office was opened on 17 December 2007 and caters
to the needs of nine districts. The city is served by the
Government Rajaji Hospital.
People from Madurai
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Lat. and Long.9°55′9″N 78°7′10″E / 9.91917°N
78.11944°E / 9.91917; 78.11944
Early Pandyan Kingdom
Impalement of the Jains
Invasion of Malik Kafur
Geography & Architecture
Geography of Madurai
Azhagar Kovil Range
Rock Mountain of Thirupparankundram
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The American College
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St Mary's Church
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Thirumalai Nayakkar Mahal
Vishaal de Mal
MGR Race Course Stadium
Madurai Tamil Sangam
Jil jil jigarthanda
Tamil Nadu Assembly Constituencies
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Other topics: People from Madurai
Places of Worship
Meenakshi Amman Temple
Kazimar Big Mosque
Koodal Azhagar Temple
othakadai narasimhar temple
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Gandhi Memorial Museum
Thirumalai Nayakkar Mahal
Madurai Kamaraj University
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