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The App Store (also known as the Mac App Store) is a
digital distribution Digital distribution, also referred to as content delivery, online distribution, or electronic software distribution, among others, is the delivery or distribution of digital media content (media), content such as Sound recording and reproductio ...
platform for
macOS macOS (; previously OS X and originally Mac OS X) is a Unix operating system developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac (computer), Mac computers. Within the market of ...
apps, often referred to as Mac apps, created and maintained by Apple Inc. The platform was announced on October 20, 2010, at Apple's "Back to the Mac" event. Apple began accepting app submissions from registered developers on November 3, 2010, in preparation for its launch. The Mac App Store was launched on January 6, 2011, as part of the free Mac OS X 10.6.6 update for all current
Snow Leopard The snow leopard (''Panthera uncia''), also known as the ounce, is a Felidae, felid in the genus ''Panthera'' native to the mountain ranges of Central Asia, Central and South Asia. It is listed as Vulnerable species, Vulnerable on the IUCN Red ...
users. After 24 hours of release, Apple announced that there were over one million downloads.


Regulations

Like the
App Store An App Store (or app marketplace) is a type of digital distribution Digital distribution, also referred to as content delivery, online distribution, or electronic software distribution, among others, is the delivery or distribution of digital ...
on
iOS iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system A mobile operating system is an operating system for mobile phones, tablet computer, tablets, smartwatches, smartglasses, or other non-laptop personal computing, personal mobile computin ...
and
iPadOS iPadOS is a mobile operating system developed by Apple Inc. for its iPad line of tablet computers. It is a rebranded variant of iOS, the operating system used by Apple's iPhones, renamed to reflect the diverging features of the two product li ...
, the Mac App Store is regulated by Apple. To submit an app for consideration, the developer must be a member of the Apple Developer Program. As of June 2019, the membership fee is US$99 a year. Apps must be approved by Apple before becoming available on the store. Disallowed types of apps revealed by Apple include apps that: * change the native user interface elements or behaviors of macOS. * do not comply with Apple Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines. * are similar in look or function to current Apple products (e.g. the Mac App Store itself, Finder,
iTunes iTunes () is a software program that acts as a Media player (software), media player, media library, mobile device management utility, and the client app for the iTunes Store. Developed by Apple Inc., it is used to purchase, play, download, ...
, and
iChat iChat (previously iChat AV) is a discontinued instant messaging software application developed by Apple Inc. for use on its macOS, Mac OS X operating system. It supported instant text messaging over Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol, XM ...
). * are similar to other apps that are already present in the Mac App Store (e.g. Adobe Illustrator and CorelDraw, Photoshop Lightroom and Apple Aperture, Cinema 4D and 3D Max). * contain or display pornographic material. * are or install shared components ( kernel extensions, browser plugins,
QuickTime QuickTime is an extensible multimedia framework A multimedia framework is a software framework that handles Electronic media, media on a computer and through a network. A good multimedia framework offers an intuitive Application programming ...
components, etc.). * provide contents or services that expire. * do not run on the currently shipping version of macOS. * are beta, demo, trial, or test versions of software. * reference
trademark A trademark (also written trade mark or trade-mark) is a type of intellectual property consisting of a recognizable sign (semiotics), sign, design, or expression (language), expression that identifies Good (economics and accounting), product ...
s for which the developer does not have explicit use permission. * are
free software Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions. Free software is a matter of liberty, no ...
licensed only under
GPL The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a series of widely used free software license A free-software license is a notice that grants the recipient of a piece of software extensive rights to modify and software distribut ...
(because the App Store Terms of Service imposes additional restrictions incompatible with the GPL). * use software libraries that are either optionally installed or deemed
deprecated In several fields, especially computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computer, computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes, and development of both ...
by Apple for macOS users. Examples given: ** Apple's implementation of
Java SE 6 The Java language has undergone several changes since JDK 1.0 as well as numerous additions of classes and packages to the standard library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are accessible for use and not ...
(although the
OpenJDK OpenJDK (Open Java Development Kit) is a free and open-source software, free and open-source implementation of the Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE). It is the result of an effort Sun Microsystems began in 2006. The implementation is lice ...
implementation of Java SE 7 is permitted if bundled into the app). **
PowerPC PowerPC (with the backronym Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC – Performance Computing, sometimes abbreviated as PPC) is a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) created by the 1991 Apple Inc., App ...
code requiring
Rosetta Rosetta or Rashid (; ar, رشيد ' ; french: Rosette  ; cop, ϯⲣⲁϣⲓⲧ ''ti-Rashit'', Ancient Greek: Βολβιτίνη ''Bolbitinē'') is a port city of the Nile Delta, east of Alexandria, in Egypt's Beheira Governorate, Beheir ...
. * are not sandboxed (as of June 1, 2012). At WWDC 2013, Apple announced that this rule no longer applied, and that so-called "temporary exceptions" may be used when the app has a reason not to be sandboxed. * are not
64-bit In computer architecture, 64-bit Integer (computer science), integers, memory addresses, or other Data (computing), data units are those that are 64 bits wide. Also, 64-bit central processing unit, CPUs and arithmetic logic unit, ALUs are those ...
apps (as of January 1, 2018) * contain malicious code. As with the iOS and iPadOS App Store, Apple rates applications worldwide based on their content, and determines the age group for which each is appropriate. macOS will allow blocking of objectionable apps in System Settings. The following are the ratings that Apple has detailed:


Usage by Apple

Since the opening of the Mac App Store, Apple has increasingly used it as the primary means of distribution of its own in-house software products at the expense of boxed versions being sold at its
retail stores The retail format (also known as the retail formula) influences the consumer's store choice and addresses the consumer's expectations. At its most basic level, a retail format is a simple marketplace A marketplace or market place is a locatio ...
. This position was increased with the July 2011 release of OS X Lion, which was the first release of OS X not sold in the form of
DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical disc data storage format. It was invented and developed in 1995 and first released on November 1, 1996, in Japan. The medium can store any k ...
boxes. This method limited the reach of distribution of the operating system to those who currently use Mac OS X 10.6.6+, although other means offered by Apple after the release included a USB flash drive containing the operating system and a digital in-store download of the operating system through Apple Store locations. Starting from
OS X Mountain Lion OS X Mountain Lion (version 10.8) is the ninth software versioning, major release of macOS, Apple Inc.'s desktop and Server (computing), server operating system for Macintosh computers. OS X Mountain Lion was released on July 25, 2012, for purch ...
, Apple's operating systems can only be downloaded from the Mac App Store. This has also affected Apple's prior means of distribution through its own website, with the Downloads gallery being removed in July 2011 and replaced with links to the Mac App Store information page. However, it has not affected the
Dashboard For business applications, see Dashboard (business). A dashboard (also called dash, instrument panel (IP), or fascia) is a control panel set within the central console of a vehicle or small aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is ab ...
widget gallery, nor has it affected the Safari Extensions gallery, both of which remain online and web-based (however, in Safari 12, the old kind of extensions was deprecated and replaced by the new, more safe, one, available exclusively on the Mac App Store). Apple Support Download section also remains online, as it provides mostly security updates for current and older software applications and operating systems, many dating back to before 1998.


Counterfeit apps

Not long after independent game developer Wolfire Games placed its game, '' Lugaru'', on the Mac App Store, as ''Lugaru HD'' for $9.99, the developer noticed a counterfeit copy of their game also being sold on the App Store for US$0.99. The developer contacted Apple on January 31, 2011, and on February 10, 2011, the counterfeit copy of the game was removed from the App Store. A number of news sites have remarked that for all the scrutiny Apple places on apps listed in their store, a counterfeit copy of an existing app should not have made it through the process, and the days it had been since the developer had alerted Apple to the counterfeit software is disconcerting to developers.


History

The Mac App Store launched with over 1000 apps on January 6, 2011, including Apple's own iWork '09, iLife '11,
Aperture In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels. More specifically, the aperture and focal length of an optical system determine the cone angle of a bundle of ray (optics), rays that come to a focus (optics), focus ...
, and third-party applications ported from
iOS iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system A mobile operating system is an operating system for mobile phones, tablet computer, tablets, smartwatches, smartglasses, or other non-laptop personal computing, personal mobile computin ...
, such as
Angry Birds ''Angry Birds'' is a Finnish action-based media franchise A media franchise, also known as a multimedia franchise, is a collection of related Media (communication), media in which several derivative works have been produced from an original c ...
,
Flight Control A conventional Fixed-wing aircraft, fixed-wing aircraft flight control system consists of flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkages, and the necessary operating mechanisms to control an aircraft's direction ...
, Things and Twitter for Mac. Most of the apps belonged to the Games category, which had nearly three times as many apps in the next largest category, Utilities. The most common price point was $20–50. ''
Angry Birds ''Angry Birds'' is a Finnish action-based media franchise A media franchise, also known as a multimedia franchise, is a collection of related Media (communication), media in which several derivative works have been produced from an original c ...
'', a popular video game on iOS App Store, was the number one paid app on the Mac App Store on the first day. An update to the Mac App Store for
OS X Mountain Lion OS X Mountain Lion (version 10.8) is the ninth software versioning, major release of macOS, Apple Inc.'s desktop and Server (computing), server operating system for Macintosh computers. OS X Mountain Lion was released on July 25, 2012, for purch ...
introduced an
Easter egg Easter eggs, also called Paschal eggs, are eggs that are Egg decorating, decorated for the Christian feast of Easter, which celebrates the resurrection of Jesus. As such, Easter eggs are common during the season of Eastertide (Easter season). ...
in which, if one downloads an app from the Mac App Store and goes to one's app folder before the app has finished downloading, one will see the app's timestamp as "January 24, 1984, at 2:00 AM," the date the original
Macintosh The Mac (known as Macintosh until 1999) is a family of personal computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc., Apple Inc. Macs are known for their ease of use and minimalist designs, and are popular among students, creative professionals, and ...
went on sale. This is the first time an Easter egg has appeared in a piece of Apple software since
Steve Jobs Steven Paul Jobs (February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) was an American Entrepreneurship, entrepreneur, industrial designer, media proprietor, and investor. He was the co-founder, chairman, and chief executive officer, CEO of Apple Inc., Appl ...
had declared a ban on Easter eggs when he returned to Apple in 1997. On November 11, 2015, a number of apps purchased through the Mac App Store began to fail at launch. Users worldwide got error messages and were forced to delete and re-download affected apps. It was discovered the next day by Tapbots developer Paul Haddad that the issue had to do with an expired security certificate. On November 17, Apple sent an email with explanations to developers. The company stated that most of the issues were resolved and that troubleshooting information was provided to the AppleCare support team. On December 17, 2015, responsibility for overseeing App Store was given to Phil Schiller, Apple's senior vice president of Worldwide Marketing. Previously App Store was led by
Eddy Cue Eddy Cue (born Eduardo H. Cue; October 23, 1964) is Apple An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (''Malus domestica''). Apple fruit tree, trees are agriculture, cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species ...
, Apple's senior vice president of Internet Software and Services. On January 1, 2018, Apple announced it was no longer accepting 32-bit apps on the Mac App Store, while existing 32-bit apps on the App Store must be updated to fit the
64-bit In computer architecture, 64-bit Integer (computer science), integers, memory addresses, or other Data (computing), data units are those that are 64 bits wide. Also, 64-bit central processing unit, CPUs and arithmetic logic unit, ALUs are those ...
architecture by June 1, 2018. On June 4, 2018, Apple announced that a new version of the App Store would be included in
macOS Mojave macOS Mojave ( ; version 10.14) is the fifteenth software versioning, major release of macOS, Apple Inc.'s desktop operating system for Macintosh computers. Mojave was announced at Apple's Apple Worldwide Developers Conference, Worldwide Devel ...
.


See also

* List of Macintosh software *
Microsoft Store Microsoft Store (formerly known as Windows Store) is a digital distribution platform operated by Microsoft. It started as an app store for Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012 as the primary means of distributing Universal Windows Platform apps ...
, equivalent platform on Windows


References


External links

* {{Apple Inc. 2011 software Apple Inc. services Computer-related introductions in 2011 MacOS Software distribution platforms