The Info List - MGM

Studios Inc. (abbreviated as MGM or M-G-M, also known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Pictures, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
or simply Metro, and for a former interval known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer/United Artists, or MGM/UA) is an American media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of feature films and television programs. One of the world's oldest film studios, MGM's headquarters are located at 245 North Beverly Drive in Beverly Hills, California.[3] Once the largest, most glamorous, and most revered film studio in Hollywood, MGM was founded in 1924 when the entertainment entrepreneur Marcus Loew
Marcus Loew
gained control of Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures, and Louis B. Mayer
Louis B. Mayer
Pictures.[4][page needed][5] In 1971, it was announced that MGM would merge with 20th Century Fox, a plan which never came into fruition.[6] Over the next 39 years, the studio was bought and sold at various points in its history until, on November 3, 2010, MGM filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.[7][8][9] MGM emerged from bankruptcy on December 20, 2010, at which time the executives of Spyglass Entertainment, Gary Barber and Roger Birnbaum, became co-chairmen and co-CEOs of the holding company of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.[10] As of 2017, MGM co-produces, co-finances, and co-distributes a majority of its films with Sony Pictures,[11][12] Paramount Pictures[13][14] and Warner Bros. MGM Resorts International, a Las Vegas-based hotel and casino company listed on the New York Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange
under the symbol "MGM",[15] is not currently affiliated with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.


1 Overview 2 History

2.1 Loews 2.2 MGM cartoon shorts 2.3 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Inc. 2.4 MGM/UA Entertainment 2.5 MGM Entertainment 2.6 MGM/UA Communications 2.7 MGM- Pathé
Communications 2.8 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Pictures 2.9 MGM Holdings

3 Headquarters 4 Leo logo and mottos 5 The MGM library

5.1 Turner Entertainment
Turner Entertainment
Co. 5.2 Acquired libraries

6 Films 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links


This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (August 2014)

MGM was the last studio to convert to sound pictures, but in spite of this fact, from the end of the silent film era through the late 1950s, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
was the dominant motion picture studio in Hollywood.[16][page needed][17][page needed] Always slow to respond to the changing legal, economic, and demographic nature of the motion picture industry during the 1950s and 1960s,[18][page needed][19][page needed][20][page needed] and although at times its films did well at the box office, the studio lost significant amounts of money throughout the 1960s.[19][20] In 1966, MGM was sold to Canadian investor Edgar Bronfman Sr., whose son Edgar Jr. would later buy Universal Studios.[citation needed] Three years later, an increasingly unprofitable MGM was bought by Kirk Kerkorian, who slashed staff and production costs, forced the studio to produce low-budget fare, and then shut down theatrical distribution in 1973.[20] The studio continued to produce five to six films a year that were released through other studios, mostly United Artists. Kerkorian did, however, commit to increased production and an expanded film library when he bought United Artists
United Artists
in 1981.[citation needed] MGM ramped up internal production, as well as keeping production going at UA, which included the lucrative James Bond film franchise.[21][page needed] It also incurred significant amounts of debt to increase production.[22][page needed] The studio took on additional debt as a series of owners took charge in the 1980s and early 1990s. In 1986, Ted Turner
Ted Turner
bought MGM, but a few months later, sold the company back to Kerkorian to recoup massive debt, while keeping the library assets for himself. The series of deals left MGM even more heavily in debt.[23] MGM was bought by Pathé
Communications (led by Italian publishing magnate Giancarlo Parretti) in 1990, but Parretti lost control of Pathé
and defaulted on the loans used to purchase the studio.[20][23] The French banking conglomerate Crédit Lyonnais, the studio's major creditor, then took control of MGM.[20][23][24] Even more deeply in debt, MGM was purchased by a joint venture between Kerkorian, producer Frank Mancuso, and Australia's Seven Network
Seven Network
in 1996.[25] The debt load from these and subsequent business deals negatively affected MGM's ability to survive as an independent motion picture studio. After a bidding war which included Time Warner
Time Warner
(the current parent of Turner Broadcasting) and General Electric, MGM was acquired on September 23, 2004, by a partnership consisting of Sony Corporation of America, Comcast, Texas Pacific Group
Texas Pacific Group
(now TPG Capital, L.P.), Providence Equity Partners, and other investors.[26][27] History

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Loews Main article: Loews Cineplex Entertainment In 1924, movie theater magnate Marcus Loew
Marcus Loew
had a problem. He had bought Metro Pictures
Metro Pictures
Corporation in 1919 for a steady supply of films for his large Loew's Theatres chain. With Loew's lackluster assortment of Metro films, Loew purchased Goldwyn Pictures
Goldwyn Pictures
in 1924 to improve the quality. However, these purchases created a need for someone to oversee his new Hollywood
operations, since longtime assistant Nicholas Schenck was needed in New York headquarters to oversee the 150 theaters. Approached by Louis B. Mayer, Loew addressed the situation by buying Louis B. Mayer Pictures
Louis B. Mayer Pictures
on April 17, 1924. Mayer became head of the renamed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, with Irving Thalberg as head of production.[28][page needed] MGM produced more than 100 feature films in its first two years. In 1925, MGM released the extravagant and successful Ben-Hur, taking a $4.7 million profit that year, its first full year.[28] When Samuel Goldwyn left he sued over the use of his name.[29] Marcus Loew
Marcus Loew
died in 1927, and control of Loew's passed to Nicholas Schenck. In 1929, William Fox of Fox Film
Fox Film
Corporation bought the Loew family's holdings with Schenck's assent. Mayer and Thalberg disagreed with the decision. Mayer was active in the California
Republican Party and used his political connections to persuade the Justice Department to delay final approval of the deal on antitrust grounds. During this time, in the summer of 1929, Fox was badly hurt in an automobile accident. By the time he recovered, the stock market crash in the fall of 1929 had nearly wiped Fox out and ended any chance of the Loew's merger going through. Schenck and Mayer had never gotten along (Mayer reportedly referred to his boss as "Mr. Skunk"),[30][page needed] and the abortive Fox merger increased the animosity between the two men.

Clark Gable

From the outset, MGM tapped into the audience's need for glamor and sophistication. Having inherited few big names from their predecessor companies, Mayer and Thalberg began at once to create and publicize a host of new stars, among them Greta Garbo, John Gilbert, William Haines, Joan Crawford, and Norma Shearer
Norma Shearer
(who followed Thalberg from Universal). Established names like Lon Chaney, William Powell, Buster Keaton, and Wallace Beery
Wallace Beery
were hired from other studios. They also hired top directors such as King Vidor, Clarence Brown, Erich von Stroheim, Tod Browning, and Victor Seastrom. The arrival of talking pictures in 1928–29 gave opportunities to other new stars, many of whom would carry MGM through the 1930s: Clark Gable, Jean Harlow, Robert Montgomery, Spencer Tracy, Myrna Loy, Jeanette MacDonald, and Nelson Eddy
Nelson Eddy
among them. MGM was one of the first studios to experiment with filming in Technicolor. Using the two-color Technicolor
process then available, MGM filmed portions of The Uninvited Guest (1923), The Big Parade (1925), and Ben–Hur (1925), among others, in the process. In 1928, MGM released The Viking, the first complete Technicolor
feature with sound (including a synchronized score and sound effects, but no spoken dialogue). With the arrival of talkies, MGM moved slowly and reluctantly into sound, releasing features like White Shadows in the South Seas with music and sound effects, and Alias Jimmy Valentine
Alias Jimmy Valentine
with limited dialogue sequences. Their first full-fledged talkie, the musical The Broadway Melody in 1929, however, was both a box-office success and won the Academy Award
Academy Award
as Best Picture of the Year; and brought MGM into the sound era. MGM, however, was the very last studio to convert to "talkies" with its first all-color, "all-talking" sound feature with dialogue The Rogue Song, a 1930 musical. In 1934, MGM included a sequence made in Technicolor's superior new three-color process, a musical number in the otherwise black-and-white The Cat and the Fiddle, starring Jeanette MacDonald
Jeanette MacDonald
and Ramon Novarro. The studio then produced a number of three-color short subjects including 1935's musical La Fiesta de Santa Barbara, but waited until 1938 to film a complete feature in the process, Sweethearts with MacDonald and Nelson Eddy, the earlier of the popular singing team's two films in color. From then on, MGM regularly produced several films a year in Technicolor with Northwest Passage being one of the most notable.

Marie Dressler
Marie Dressler
and Wallace Beery
Wallace Beery
in Min and Bill
Min and Bill

In addition to a large short-subjects program of its own, MGM also released the shorts and features produced by Hal Roach
Hal Roach
Studios, including comedy shorts starring Laurel and Hardy, Our Gang
Our Gang
and Charley Chase. MGM's distribution deal with Roach lasted from 1927 to 1938, and MGM benefited in particular from the success of the popular Laurel and Hardy
Laurel and Hardy
films. In 1938, MGM purchased the rights to Our Gang and moved the production in-house,[31] continuing production of the successful series of children's comedies until 1944. From 1929 to 1931, MGM produced a series of comedy shorts called All Barkie Dogville Comedies, in which trained dogs were dressed up to parody contemporary films and were voiced by actors. One of the shorts, The Dogway Melody (1930), spoofed MGM's hit 1929 musical The Broadway Melody. MGM entered the music industry by purchasing the "Big Three" starting with Miller Music Publishing Co. in 1934 then Robbins Music Corporation.[32] In 1935, MGM acquired a controlling interest in the capital stock of Leo Feist, Inc., the last of the "Big Three".[32] MGM produced approximately 50 pictures a year, though it never met its goal of releasing a new motion picture each and every week (It was only able to release one feature film every nine days). Loew's 153 theatres were mostly located in New York, the Northeast, and Deep South; Gone with the Wind had its world premiere at Loew's Grand Theatre in Atlanta, Georgia. A fine reputation was gained for lavish productions that were sophisticated and polished to cater to an urban audience. Still, as the Great Depression
Great Depression
deepened, MGM began to economize by "recycling" existing sets, costumes, and furnishings from yesteryear projects. This recycling practice never let up once started. In addition, MGM saved money because it was the only one of the big five studios that did not own an off-site movie ranch. Until the mid-1950s, MGM could make a claim its rivals could not: it never lost money, although it did have an occasional disaster like Parnell (1937), Clark Gable's biggest flop. It was the only Hollywood
studio that continued to pay dividends during the 1930s.

Spencer Tracy
Spencer Tracy
in Fury (1936)

MGM stars dominated the box office during the 1930s, and the studio was credited for inventing the Hollywood
stable of stars system, as well. MGM contracted with the American Musical Academy of Arts Association to handle all of their press and artist development. The AMAAA's main function was to develop the budding stars and to make them appealing to the public. Stars such as Norma Shearer, Joan Crawford, Greta Garbo, Myrna Loy
Myrna Loy
and Jeanette MacDonald
Jeanette MacDonald
reigned as the top-paid figures at the studio. Another MGM sex symbol actress, Jean Harlow, who had previously appeared in the Howard Hughes
Howard Hughes
film Hell's Angels, now had a big break and became one of MGM's most admired stars, as well. Despite Miss Harlow's gain, Garbo still was a big star for MGM. Shearer was still a money maker despite screen appearances becoming scarce, and Crawford continued her box-office power until 1937. MGM would also receive a boost through the man who would become "King of Hollywood", Clark Gable. Gable's career took off to new heights after he won an Oscar for the 1934 Columbia film It Happened One Night. Mayer and Irving Thalberg's relationship began warmly, but eventually the two became estranged; Thalberg preferred literary works to the crowd-pleasers Mayer wanted. Thalberg, always physically frail, was removed as head of production in 1932. Mayer encouraged other staff producers, among them his son-in-law David O. Selznick, but no one seemed to have the sure touch of Thalberg. As Thalberg fell increasingly ill in 1936, Louis Mayer could now serve as his temporary replacement. Rumors began circulating that Thalberg was leaving to set up his own independent company;[citation needed] his early death in 1936, at age 37, cost MGM dearly.[28] After Thalberg's untimely death, Mayer became head of production, as well as studio chief, becoming the first million-dollar executive in American history. The company remained profitable, although a change toward "series" pictures ( Andy Hardy
Andy Hardy
starring Mickey Rooney, Maisie starring Ann Sothern, Thin Man starring William Powell
William Powell
and Myrna Loy, et al.) is seen by some as evidence of Mayer's restored influence. Also playing a huge role was Ida Koverman, Mayer's secretary and right hand.[33] In 1937, Mayer had hired Mervyn LeRoy, a former Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
(WB) producer/director as MGM's top producer and Thalberg's replacement.[34] LeRoy talked Mayer into purchasing the film right to the popular book The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, which MGM did on June 3, 1938, from Sam Goldwyn for $75,000.[35] Hits in 1939 included The Wizard of Oz, Boys Town and Gone with the Wind, starring Vivien Leigh
Vivien Leigh
as Scarlett O'Hara and Clark Gable
Clark Gable
as Rhett Butler. Although Gone With the Wind was produced by Selznick International Pictures, it was distributed by MGM as part of a deal for producer David O. Selznick, Mayer's son-in-law, to obtain the services of Gable as well as financial assistance to complete the film.[28] MGM acquired all rights to Gone With the Wind in 1944 after the foundering of Selznick International.[citation needed] While The Wizard of Oz was a critical hit, the film took 20 years before turning a profit.[36]</ref> Within one year, beginning in 1942, Mayer released his five highest-paid actresses from their studio contracts: Joan Crawford, Norma Shearer, Greta Garbo, Myrna Loy
Myrna Loy
and Jeanette MacDonald. After a two-year hiatus, Crawford moved to WB, where her career took a dramatic upturn. Shearer and Garbo never made another film after leaving the lot. Of the five stars, Loy and MacDonald were the only two whom Mayer rehired, in 1947 and 1948 respectively. Increasingly, before and during World War II, Mayer came to rely on his "College of Cardinals" — senior producers who controlled the studio's output. This management-by-committee resulted in MGM losing its momentum, developing few new stars and relying on the safety of sequels and bland material. ( Dorothy Parker
Dorothy Parker
memorably referred to it as "Metro-Goldwyn-Merde."[37][page needed]) Production values remained high, and even "B" pictures carried a polish and gloss that made them expensive to mount. After 1940, production was cut from 50 pictures a year to a more manageable 25 features per year. During this time, MGM released very successful musicals with players such as Judy Garland, Fred Astaire, Gene Kelly, and Frank Sinatra. Audiences began drifting to television in the late Forties. MGM found it difficult to attract them to theaters. With its high overhead expenses, MGM's profit margins continued to decrease. Word came from Nicholas Schenck in New York: find "a new Thalberg" who could improve quality while paring costs. Mayer thought he had found this savior in Dore Schary, a writer and producer who had found success at running RKO. Top notch musicals were Schary's focus, with hits like Easter Parade and the various films of Mario Lanza
Mario Lanza
(most famously, The Great Caruso) keeping MGM afloat.[28] In August 1951, Mayer was fired by MGM's East Coast executives[38] and was replaced by Schary. Gradually cutting loose expensive contract players (most famously, $6,000-a-week Judy Garland
Judy Garland
in 1950), saving money by recycling existing movie sets instead of building costly new scenery, and reworking pricey old costumes, Schary managed to keep the studio running much as it had through the early 1940s though his sensibilities for hard-edged, message movies would never bear much fruit. One bright spot was MGM musical pictures, under the aegis of producer Arthur Freed, who was operating what amounted to an independent unit within the studio. MGM produced some well-regarded and profitable musicals that would be later acknowledged as classics, among them An American in Paris (1951), Singin' in the Rain
Singin' in the Rain
(1952), and Seven Brides for Seven Brothers
Seven Brides for Seven Brothers
(1954). However, Brigadoon (1954), Deep in My Heart (1954), It's Always Fair Weather
It's Always Fair Weather
(1955), and Invitation to the Dance (1956), were extravagant song and dance flops, and even the now-classic The Band Wagon
The Band Wagon
(1953) lost money in its initial release. Movie audiences more and more were staying home and watching television. In 1952, as a settlement of the government's restraint-of-trade action, United States
United States
v. Paramount Pictures, Inc. 334 US 131 (1948), Loews, Inc. gave up control of MGM.[28] It would take another five years before the interlocking arrangements were completely undone, by which time both Loews and MGM were sinking. Schary bowed out of MGM in 1956 in another power struggle against the New York-based executives.[39] As the studio system faded in the late 1950s and 1960s, MGM's prestige faded with it. In 1957 (by coincidence, the year Mayer died), the studio lost money for the first time in its 34-year history.[28] Cost overruns and the failure of the 1957 big-budget epic Raintree County prompted the studio to release Schary from his contract. Schary's reign at MGM had been marked with few bona-fide hits, but his departure (along with the retirement of Schenck in 1955) left a power vacuum that would prove difficult to fill. Initially Joseph Vogel became president and Sol Siegel
Sol Siegel
head of production. By 1960, MGM had released all of its contract players, with many either retiring or moving on to television. MGM's first TV programs, The MGM Parade, was produced by MGM's trailer department as one of the compilation and promotional shows that imitated Disney's series Disneyland[40] which was also on ABC. Parade was canceled by ABC in the 2nd quarter of 1956.[41] MGM took bids for its movie library in 1956 from Lou Chesler, PRM, Inc. owner (the WB pre-1948 library purchaser), and others, but decided on entering the TV market itself. Chesler had offered $50 million for the film library.[41] MGM-TV was started with the hiring of Bud Barry to head up the operation in June 1956. MGM-TV was to distribute its films to TV (starting with the networks), TV production and purchasing TV stations. TV production was expect to start with the 1957-58 season and was to include half-hour remakes of or series based on its pictures. Initial feature film sales focused on selling to the networks.[41] The year 1957 also marked the end of MGM's animation department, as the studio determined it could generate the same amount of revenue by reissuing older cartoons as it could by producing and releasing new ones.[42] William Hanna
William Hanna
and Joseph Barbera, by then the heads of the MGM cartoon studio, took most of their unit and made their own company, Hanna-Barbera
Productions, a successful producer of television animation. In 1956, MGM sold the television rights for The Wizard of Oz to CBS, which scheduled it to be shown in November of that year. In a landmark event, the film became the first American theatrical fiction film to be shown complete in one evening on prime time television over a major American commercial network. (Olivier's version of Hamlet was shown on prime time network TV a month later, but split in half over two weeks, and the 1950 film, The Titan: Story of Michelangelo was telecast by ABC in 1952, but that was a documentary.) Beginning in 1959, and lasting until 1991, telecasts of The Wizard of Oz became an annual tradition, drawing huge audiences in homes all over the U.S. and earning additional profits for MGM. The studio was all too happy to see Oz become, through television, one of the two or three most famous films MGM has ever made, and one of the few films that nearly everybody in the U.S. has seen at least once. Today The Wizard of Oz is regularly shown on the Turner-owned channels, no longer just once a year. In 1958, MGM released what is generally considered its last great musical, Arthur Freed's Cinemascope color production of Gigi, starring Leslie Caron, Maurice Chevalier, and Louis Jourdan. It was adapted from the novel by Colette, and written by the team of Lerner and Loewe, who also wrote My Fair Lady and Camelot. Gigi was a box-office and critical success which won nine Academy Awards, including Best Picture. From it came several hit songs, including Thank Heaven For Little Girls, I Remember It Well, the Waltz at Maxim's, and the Oscar-winning title song. The film was the last MGM musical to win a Best Picture Oscar, an honor that had previously gone to The Broadway Melody (1929), The Great Ziegfeld
The Great Ziegfeld
(1936), and An American in Paris (1951). The very last musical film produced by the "Freed Unit" was an adaptation of the Broadway musical Bells Are Ringing (1960) with Judy Holliday and Dean Martin. However, MGM did release later musical films, including an adaptation of Meredith Willson's The Unsinkable Molly Brown (1964) with Debbie Reynolds
Debbie Reynolds
and Harve Presnell. MGM cartoon shorts Main article: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
cartoon studio In animation, MGM purchased the rights in 1930 to distribute a series of cartoons that starred a character named Flip the Frog, produced by Ub Iwerks. The first cartoon in this series (entitled Fiddlesticks) was the first sound cartoon to be produced in two-color Technicolor. In 1933, Ub Iwerks
Ub Iwerks
cancelled the unsuccessful Flip the Frog
Flip the Frog
series and MGM began to distribute its second series of cartoons, starring a character named Willie Whopper, that was also produced by Ub Iwerks.[citation needed] In 1934, after Iwerks' distribution contract expired, MGM contracted with animation producers/directors Hugh Harman and Rudolph Ising to produce a new series of color cartoons. Harman and Ising came to MGM after breaking ties with Leon Schlesinger
Leon Schlesinger
and Warner Bros., and brought with them their popular Looney Tunes
Looney Tunes
character, Bosko. These were known as Happy Harmonies, and in many ways resembled the Looney Tunes' sister series, Merrie Melodies. The Happy Harmonies regularly ran over budget, and MGM dismissed Harman-Ising in 1937 to start its own animation studio.[citation needed] After initial struggles with a poorly received series of The Captain and the Kids cartoons, the studio rehired Harman and Ising in 1939, and Ising created the studio's first successful animated character, Barney Bear. However, MGM's biggest cartoon stars would come in the form of the cat-and-mouse duo Tom and Jerry, created by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera
Joseph Barbera
in 1940. The Tom and Jerry
Tom and Jerry
cartoons won seven Academy Awards
Academy Awards
between 1943 and 1953. In 1941, Tex Avery, another Schlesinger alumnus, joined the animation department. Avery gave the unit its image, with successes like Red Hot Riding Hood, Swing Shift Cinderella, and the Droopy
series. Avery left the studio in 1953, leaving Hanna and Barbera to focus on the popular Tom and Jerry
Tom and Jerry
and Droopy
series. After 1955, all cartoons were filmed in CinemaScope
until MGM closed its cartoon division in 1957.[43] Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Inc. In 1959, MGM enjoyed what is quite probably its greatest financial success of later years, with the release of its nearly four-hour Technicolor
epic Ben–Hur, a remake of its 1925 silent film hit, loosely based on the novel by General Lew Wallace. Starring Charlton Heston in the title role, the film was critically acclaimed, and won 11 Academy Awards, including Best Picture, a record that held until Titanic matched it in 1997 and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King in 2003. In 1961, MGM resumed the release of new Tom and Jerry
Tom and Jerry
shorts, and production moved to Rembrandt Films in Prague, Czechoslovakia
(now the Czech Republic) under the supervision of Gene Deitch. Deitch's Tom and Jerry cartoons are vastly inferior to the original Hanna and Barbera style of animation.[original research?] In 1963, the production of Tom and Jerry returned to Hollywood
under Chuck Jones
Chuck Jones
and his Sib Tower 12 Productions studio (later absorbed by MGM and renamed MGM Animation/Visual Arts). Jones' group also produced its own works, winning an Oscar for The Dot and the Line, as well as producing the classic television version of Dr. Seuss's How the Grinch Stole Christmas! (with the voice of Boris Karloff) in 1966. Tom and Jerry folded in 1967, and the animation department continued with television specials and one feature film, The Phantom Tollbooth. During this period, MGM fell into a habit that would eventually sink the studio: an entire year's production schedule relied on the success of one big-budget epic each year.[citation needed] This policy began in 1959, when Ben–Hur was profitable enough to carry the studio through 1960. However, four succeeding big-budget epics — like Ben–Hur, each a remake — failed: Cimarron (1960), King of Kings (1961), Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1961), and, most notoriously, the 1962 Mutiny on the Bounty. The 1962 Cinerama
film The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm, the first film in Cinerama
to actually tell a story, was also a flop. But one other epic that was a success, however, was the MGM- Cinerama
co-production How the West Was Won, with a huge all-star cast. King of Kings, while a commercial and critical flop at the time, has since come to be regarded as a film classic. The losses caused by these films led to the resignations of Sol Siegel
Sol Siegel
and Joseph Vogel who were replaced by Robert M. Weitman (head of production) and Robert O'Brien (president). The combination of O'Brien and Weitman seemed to temporarily revive the studio. In 1965 MGM released David Lean's immensely popular Doctor Zhivago,[44] later followed by such hits as The Dirty Dozen
The Dirty Dozen
(1967) and 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968). However the company's time was taken up fighting off proxy attacks by corporate raiders, and then MGM backed a series of flops, including Ryan's Daughter
Ryan's Daughter
(1970). Weitman moved over to Columbia in 1967 and O'Brien was forced to resign a few years later. In the mid-1960s, MGM began to diversify by investing in real estate.[28] Edgar Bronfman Sr.
Edgar Bronfman Sr.
purchased a controlling interest in MGM in 1966 (and was briefly chairman of the board in 1969),[45][page needed][46][page needed] and in 1967 Time Inc. became the company's second-largest shareholder.[47][page needed][48] In 1969, Kirk Kerkorian
Kirk Kerkorian
purchased 40 percent of MGM from Bronfman and Time, Inc.,[19][page needed] What appealed to Kerkorian was MGM's Culver City real estate, and the value of 45 years' worth of glamour associated with the name, which he attached to a Las Vegas hotel and casino. As for film-making, that part of the company was quickly and severely downsized under the supervision of James T. Aubrey Jr.
James T. Aubrey Jr.
With changes in its business model including fewer pictures per year, more location shooting and more distribution of independent productions, MGM's operations were reduced. Aubrey sold off MGM's accumulation of props, furnishings and historical memorabilia, including a pair of Dorothy's ruby slippers from The Wizard of Oz. Lot 3, 40 acres (160,000 m2) of back-lot property, was sold off for real-estate development. In 1971, it was announced that MGM was in talks with 20th Century Fox about a possible merger, a plan which never came into fruition.[6] Under Aubrey, MGM also sold off MGM Records and its overseas theater holdings.[28] Through the 1970s, studio output slowed considerably as Aubrey preferred four or five medium-budget pictures each year along with a smattering of low-budget fare.[28] In October 1973 and in decline in output, MGM closed MGM's distribution offices then outsourced distribution for its library for a ten-year period along with selling its music publishing arm, Robbins, Feist & Miller plus half of Quality Records of Canada, to United Artists.[28][49] Kerkorian now distanced himself from the operations of the studio, focusing on MGM Grand Hotel by investing $120 million.[28] Another portion of the backlot was sold in 1974. The last shooting done on the backlot was the introductory material for That's Entertainment!, a retrospective documentary that became a surprise hit for the studio. That's Entertainment! was authorized by Dan Melnick, who was appointed head of production in 1972. Under Melnick's regime, MGM made a number of successful films, including Westworld, Soylent Green, The Sunshine Boys, and Network, which they co-produced with United Artists. However, MGM never reclaimed its former status. The MGM Recording Studios were sold in 1975. In 1979, Kerkorian declared that MGM was now primarily a hotel company. The company hit a symbolic low point in 1980 when David Begelman, earlier let go by Columbia following the discovery of his acts of forgery and embezzlement, was installed as MGM's President and CEO. In 1980, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Inc. split its production and casino units into separate companies: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Film Co. and MGM Grand Hotels, Inc.[50] The rise of ancillary markets was enough to allow MGM Film Co. to increase production to 10-15 films a year compared to three to six in the previous decade, but first it needed its own distribution unit. MGM/UA Entertainment MGM proceeded to get back into theatrical distribution in 1981 with its purchase of United Artists, as UA's parent company Transamerica Corporation decided to let go of the studio following the failure of Heaven's Gate.[20][23][page needed] Because of this, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Film Co. was renamed "MGM/UA Entertainment Company."[28] WarGames
and Octopussy
were MGM/UA's only early 1980s hits, but did not push MGM into the profit range that Kerkorian wanted. MGM/UA formed a trio of subsidiaries, the MGM/UA Home Entertainment Group, MGM/UA Classics, and the MGM/UA Television Group in 1982. Kerkorian offered to purchase the remaining outstanding MGM shares he did not own to take the company private but was met with resistance.[28] After the purchase of United Artists, David Begelman's duties were transferred to that unit. Under Begelman, MGM/UA produced a number of unsuccessful films, and he was fired in July 1982. Out of the 11 films he put into production, by the time of his release from the studio, only one film, Poltergeist, proved to be a clear hit.[51] Not even MGM's greatest asset - its library - was enough to keep the studio afloat.[50] After 1982, the studio relied more on distribution, picking up independent productions, rather than financing their own.[50] MGM Entertainment

The MGM sign being dismantled once Lorimar took control of the studio lot

On August 7, 1985, Turner Broadcasting System
Turner Broadcasting System
offered to buy MGM/UA. As film licensing to television became more complicated, Ted Turner saw the value of acquiring MGM's film library for his Superstation WTBS.[50] On March 25 of the following year, the deal was finalized in a cash-stock deal for $1.5 billion,[23][50][52][page needed][53][page needed] and the company was renamed "MGM Entertainment Co.".[54][55] Turner immediately sold MGM's United Artists
United Artists
subsidiary back to Kerkorian for roughly $480 million.[23][52] But since they were quite unable to find financing for the rest of the deal, and because of these concerns in the financial community over the debt-load of his companies on August 26, 1986, Turner was forced to sell MGM's production and distribution assets to United Artists
United Artists
for $300 million.[23][52][56][57] The MGM lot and lab facilities were sold to Lorimar-Telepictures.[56] Turner kept the pre-May 1986 library of MGM films, along with the RKO Radio Pictures and pre-1950 Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
films which United Artists had previously purchased.[56] How much of MGM's back catalog Turner actually obtained was a point of conflict for a time; eventually, it was determined that Turner owned all of the pre-May 1986 MGM library, as well as the pre-1950 Warner Bros. catalog,[58][59][note 1] the Popeye
cartoons released by Paramount (both the pre-1950 WB library and Popeye
cartoons were sold to Associated Artists Productions, which was later bought by United Artists), and the US/Canadian rights to the RKO library, in addition to MGM's television series. Turner began broadcasting MGM films through his Turner Network Television, and caused a controversy when he began "colorizing" many black-and-white classics.[citation needed] MGM/UA Communications After Kerkorian reclaimed MGM in August 1986, the MGM/UA name continued to be used, but the company changed its name, this time to MGM/UA Communications Co., now using MGM and UA as separate brands.[60] In July 1988, Kerkorian announced plans to split MGM and UA into separate studios. Under this deal, Kerkorian, who owned 82% of MGM/UA Communications, would have sold 25% of MGM to Barris Industries (controlled by producers Burt Sugarman, Jon Peters, and Peter Guber).[61] The proposition to spin off MGM was called off a few weeks later.[62] In 1989, Australian-based Qintex attempted to buy MGM from Kerkorian, but the deal collapsed.[63] On November 29, 1989, Turner (owners of the pre-May 1986 MGM library) attempted to buy Tracinda's entertainment assets such as MGM/UA Communications Co. but every time the deal had failed.[64] MGM- Pathé
Communications Main article: MGM- Pathé
Communications In 1990, Italian financier Giancarlo Parretti announced he was about to buy MGM/UA. Although the French government had scuttled Parretti's bid to buy Pathé
due to concerns about his character, background, and past dealings, Parretti got backing from Crédit Lyonnais
Crédit Lyonnais
and bought MGM/UA from Kirk Kerkorian. To finance the purchase, Parretti licensed the MGM/UA library to Time Warner
Time Warner
for home video and Turner for domestic television rights[50] until 2003.[65] He then merged it with his Pathé
Communications Corporation (formerly Cannon Group, a distributor that Parretti had renamed before his aborted bid for Pathé) to form MGM–Pathe Communications Co. The well-respected executive, Alan Ladd Jr., a former president of MGM/UA, was brought on board as CEO of MGM in 1991. However, a year later, Parretti's ownership of MGM– Pathé
dissolved in a flurry of lawsuits and a default by Crédit Lyonnais, and Parretti faced securities-fraud charges in the United States
United States
and Europe. On the verge of bankruptcy and failure, Crédit Lyonnais
Crédit Lyonnais
took full control of MGM– Pathé
via loan default in mid-1992 and converted its name back to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. The bank fired Ladd and replaced him with former Paramount executive Frank Mancuso Sr.. Mancuso then hired Michael Marcus as chairman, MGM Pictures and former Warner Bros. executive John Calley as United Artists
United Artists
head. A television production division was started up.[66] As part of his exit package, Ladd took some of the top properties, including Braveheart. MGM Holdings, Inc. was formed to take on about $1 billion in MGM's liabilities off MGM's balance sheet in the third quarter of 1993. Credit Lyonnais extended a $400 million line of credit allowing a Chemical Bank lead bank group to extend a $350 million line of credit in 1994. In 1994, MGM had a hit in Stargate.[66] Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Pictures Because of the way it had acquired control of the company, Crédit Lyonnais soon put the studio up for sale, with the highest bidder being Kirk Kerkorian. Now the owner of MGM for the third time, Kerkorian's deal with Mancuso quickly angered John Calley, who quit United Artists
United Artists
and was named head of Sony Pictures
Sony Pictures
Entertainment. By selling a portion of the studio to Australia's Seven Network, Kerkorian was able to convince Wall Street that a revived MGM was worthy of a place on the stock market, where it languished until he sold the company to a group of hedge funds tied to Sony, which wanted to control the studio library to promote the Blu-ray Disc
Blu-ray Disc
format. On April 11, 1997, MGM bought Metromedia's film subsidiaries (Orion Pictures, The Samuel Goldwyn
Samuel Goldwyn
Company, and the Motion Picture Corporation of America) for US$573 million, substantially enlarging its library of films and television series and acquiring additional production capacity.[67] The deal closed in July of that year.[68] This catalog, along with the James Bond franchise, was considered to be MGM's primary asset.[69][70] In the same year, MGM's long-running cable television series, Stargate SG-1, first aired.[71] Kerkorian bought out Seven Network
Seven Network
the following year.[72] In December 1997, MGM attempted to purchase 1,000 films held by Consortium de Réalisation, but was outbid by PolyGram.[73] However, they ultimately succeeded when they acquired the 2/3 of pre-1996 PolyGram
Filmed Entertainment library from Seagram
in 1999 for $250 million, increasing their library holdings to 4,000. Prior to that, MGM had held a home video license for 100 of the films since spring 1997.[74][75] The PolyGram
libraries were purchased by its Orion Pictures
Orion Pictures
subsidiary so as to avoid its 1990 video distribution agreement with Warner.[65] The studio also obtained the broadcast rights to more than 800 of its films previously licensed to Turner Broadcasting.[76][77] By 1998, MGM had started a specialty film unit using The Samuel Goldwyn Company under the Goldwyn Films name. Samuel Goldwyn
Samuel Goldwyn
Jr. sued Metromedia
over salary and damages when he work at Goldwyn Company under Metromedia
and sued MGM over the used of the Goldwyn name claiming trademark infringement and unfair competition. MGM and Metromedia
settled on January 10, 1999 with MGM's Goldwyn Films changing its name to G2 Films.[29] In 2000, MGM changed the way it distributed its products internationally. MGM had until that time distributed its films internationally through United International Pictures
United International Pictures
(UIP), a joint venture of MGM, Universal Pictures, DreamWorks Pictures and Paramount Pictures. UIP was accused by the European Union
European Union
of being an illegal cartel,[78] and effective November 2000 MGM severed its ties with UIP and distributed films internationally through 20th Century Fox.[79] MGM purchased 20% of Rainbow Media Group from Cablevision
Systems for $825 million in 2001.[80] MGM attempted to take over Universal Studios in 2003, but failed, and was forced to sell several of its cable channel investments (taking a $75-million loss on the deal).[81][82] MGM Holdings Main article: MGM Holdings In 2004, many of MGM's competitors started to make bids to purchase the studio, beginning with Time Warner. It was not unexpected that Time Warner
Time Warner
would bid, since the largest shareholder in the company was Ted Turner. His Turner Entertainment
Turner Entertainment
Group had risen to success in part through its ownership of the pre-May 1986 MGM library. After a short period of negotiation with MGM, Time Warner
Time Warner
was unsuccessful. The leading bidder proved to be Sony Corporation of America, backed by Comcast
and private equity firms Texas Pacific Group
Texas Pacific Group
(now TPG Capital, L.P.), DLJ and Providence Equity Partners. Sony's primary goal was to ensure Blu-ray Disc
Blu-ray Disc
support at MGM; cost synergies with Sony Pictures Entertainment were secondary. Time Warner
Time Warner
made a counter-bid (which Ted Turner
Ted Turner
reportedly tried to block), but on September 13, 2004, Sony increased its bid of US$11.25/share (roughly $4.7 billion) to $12/share ($5 billion), and Time Warner
Time Warner
subsequently withdrew its bid of $11/share ($4.5 billion). MGM and Sony agreed on a purchase price of nearly $5 billion, of which about $2 billion was to pay off MGM debt.[83][84] From 2005 to 2006, the Columbia TriStar Motion Picture Group domestically distributed films by MGM and UA. In 2006, MGM announced it would return as a theatrical distribution company. MGM struck deals with The Weinstein Company, Lakeshore Entertainment, Bauer Martinez, and many other independent studios, and then announced its plans to release 14 feature films for 2006 and early 2007. MGM also hoped to increase the amount to over 20 by 2007. Lucky Number Slevin, released April 7, was the first film released under the new MGM era. Other recent films under the MGM/Weinstein deal include Clerks II
Clerks II
and Bobby. Upon the MGM/Weinstein films' release on home video, however, full distribution rights revert to Weinstein (under Genius Products). On May 31, 2006, MGM announced it would transfer the majority of its home video output from Sony Pictures
Sony Pictures
Home Entertainment to 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment.[85][86] MGM also announced plans to restructure its worldwide television distribution operation.[87] In addition, MGM signed a deal with New Line Television in which MGM would handle New Line's U.S. film and series television syndication packages. MGM served as New Line's barter sales representative in the television arena until 2008.[88] A tentative agreement was signed in Seoul on March 15, 2006, between MGM, South Korea-based entertainment agency Glovit and Busan
city official for a theme park schedule to open in 2011. MGM Studio City was project to cost $1.02 billion build on 245 acres owned by the city in planned tourist district and contain 27 attractions, a film academy with movie sets, hotels, restaurants and shopping facilities. Glovit was expected to find funding and oversee management of the park, while MGM received a licensing agreement making them handle content and overall planning and the option to buy a 5%-10% share.[89] On November 2, 2006, producer/actor Tom Cruise
Tom Cruise
and his production partner, Paula Wagner, signed an agreement with MGM to run United Artists. Wagner will serve as United Artists' chief executive.[90][91] Cruise will produce and star in films for UA, and MGM will distribute the movies.[92] Over the next several years, MGM launched a number of initiatives in distribution and the use of new technology and media, as well as joint ventures to promote and sell its products. In April 2007, it was announced that MGM movies would be able to be downloaded through Apple's iTunes service, with MGM bringing an estimated 100 of its existing movies to iTunes service, the California-based computer company revealed. The list of movies included the likes of modern features such as Rocky, Ronin, Mad Max, and Dances with Wolves, along with more golden-era classics such as Lilies of the Field and The Great Train Robbery.[93] In October, the company launched MGM HD
on DirecTV, offering a library of movies formatted in Hi Def.[94] Also in 2006, MGM licensed its home video distribution rights for countries outside of the United States
United States
to 20th Century Fox.[citation needed] MGM teamed up with Weigel Broadcasting
Weigel Broadcasting
to launch a new channel titled This TV on November 1, 2008.[95][96] On August 12, 2008, MGM teamed up with Comcast
to launch a new video-on-demand network titled Impact.[97] On November 10, 2008, MGM announced that it will release full-length films on YouTube.[98] On April 14, 2008, a South Korea government agency announced that MGM and Incheon International Airport
Incheon International Airport
Corporation agreed to build MGM Studio Theme Park. The selected site was a 1.5 million square meter Yeongjongdo
island property near the Incheon International Airport.[99] However, the park was designed but never built.[100] As of mid-2009, MGM had US$3.7 billion in debt, and interest payments alone totaled $250 million a year.[101][102][103] MGM earns approximately $500 million a year on income from its extensive film and television library, but the economic recession is reported to have reduced this income substantially.[104][105] Whether MGM could avoid voluntary or involuntary bankruptcy had been a topic of much discussion in the film industry. MGM had to repay a $250-million line of credit in April 2010, a $1-billion loan in June 2011, and its remaining US$2.7 billion in loans in 2012.[104] In May 2009, MGM's auditor gave the company a clean bill of health, concluding it was still on track to meet its debt obligations.[102] At that time, the company was negotiating with its creditors to either extend the debt repayment deadlines or engage in a debt-for-equity swap.[102] Industry observers, however, questioned whether MGM could avoid a Chapter-11 bankruptcy filing under any circumstances, and concluded that any failure to conclude the negotiations must trigger a filing.[106] MGM and its United Artists
United Artists
subsidiary were now producing very few films each year, and it was widely believed that MGM's solvency would depend on the box-office performance of these films (especially Skyfall).[104][107] There was some indication that Relativity Media
Relativity Media
and its financial backer, Elliott Associates (a hedge fund based in New York), had been acquiring MGM debt in an attempt to force the company into involuntary bankruptcy.[101][108][109] On August 17, 2009, chief executive officer Harry E. Sloan
Harry E. Sloan
stepped down and MGM hired Stephen F. Cooper as its new CEO,[7][110][111] a corporate executive who guided Enron
through its post- 2001
bankruptcy and oversaw the restructuring and growth of Krispy Kreme
Krispy Kreme
in 2005.[104][112][113] Expectations were that Cooper was hired to act quickly on MGM's debt problems.[104][112] On October 1, 2009, the studio's new leadership negotiated a forbearance agreement with its creditors under which interest payments due from September to November 2009 did not have to be paid until December 15, 2009.[114] MGM stated in February 2010 that the studio would likely be sold in the next four months, and that its latest film, Hot Tub Time Machine, might be one of the last four films to bear the MGM name. However, some stated that the company might continue as a label for new James Bond productions, as well as other movie properties culled from the MGM library.[115][116] MGM Holdings, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
and 160 affiliates filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy on November 3, 2010, with a prepackaged plan for exiting bankruptcy which led to MGM's creditors taking over the company.[117] On December 20, 2010, MGM executives announced that the studio had emerged from bankruptcy. Spyglass Entertainment
Spyglass Entertainment
executives Gary Barber and Roger Birnbaum became co-Chairs and co-CEOs of the studio.[118][119] On January 4, 2011, MGM and Weigel Broadcasting
Weigel Broadcasting
announced plans to distribute MeTV
nationwide.[120][121] On February 2, 2011, MGM named Jonathan Glickman to be the film president of MGM. Six days later, MGM was finalizing a distribution deal with Sony Pictures
Sony Pictures
Entertainment to handle distribution of its 4,000 films and DVDs worldwide and on digital platforms, including the two upcoming Bond films: Skyfall
and Spectre. There were four studios who were bidding on the Bond distribution rights: Paramount Pictures, Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Columbia Pictures. Paramount was the first studio who dropped out of the Bond bidding. The deal was finalized on April 13, 2011. Post-bankruptcy, MGM also co-financed SPE's The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo. 20th Century Fox's deal with MGM handling its library distribution worldwide was set to expire in September 2011.[11][12] However, the deal was renewed and extended on April 14, 2011[122][123] and, after five years, was renewed and extended again on June 27, 2016. It will expire in June 2020.[124] MGM moved forward with several upcoming projects, including remakes of RoboCop and Poltergeist,[125][126] and released their first post-bankruptcy film Zookeeper, which was co-distributed by Columbia Pictures on July 8, 2011. The new MGM, under Barber and Birnbaum's control, focuses on co-investing on films made by another party, which handle all distribution and marketing for the projects. MGM handles international television distribution rights for the new films as well as its library of existing titles and also retains its in-house production service.[127] In separate 2011 deals, the rights to MGM's completed films Red Dawn and The Cabin in the Woods
The Cabin in the Woods
were dealt to FilmDistrict
as well as Lionsgate
Films, respectively.[128][129] On October 3, 2012, Birnbaum announced his intention to exit his role as an MGM executive and return to "hands-on" producing. He will remain with the studio to produce films on "an exclusive basis".[130] In May 2014, MGM introduced The Works, a channel available in 31 percent of the country, including stations owned by Titan Broadcast Management.[131] In 2013 the Orion brand was revived as a TV production label for a syndicated court show. Orion Pictures
Orion Pictures
name was extended in fourth quarter 2014 for smaller domestic and international video on demand and limited theatrical releases.[132] On November 6, 2015, Sony Pictures
Sony Pictures
Entertainment's distribution deal to co-produce the James Bond film series with MGM and Eon Productions expired with the release of Spectre.[133] Various studios namely Warner Bros., Universal Studios, 20th Century Fox, Paramount Pictures, Sony and Annapurna Pictures are vying to solidify a role in the rights to the next film; with MGM and Eon only offering a one-film contract.[134] In March 2017, MGM announced a multi-year distribution deal with Annapurna Pictures for some international markets and including home entertainment, theatrical and television rights.[135] Later on October 31, 2017, the two companies formed a US distribution joint venture. This marks a return to domestic theatrical distribution for MGM and an expansion of Annapurna's distribution division, with MGM releasing approximately six to eight films per year on a limited basis and Annapurna releasing four to six films per year, in a combined slate of fourteen films. While the two companies will share costs for the joint venture's operations, Annapurna's distribution and marketing teams will support the MGM titles, which will be distributed under the MGM banner while Annapurna-produced films will continue to be distributed under its own banner. The two studios also launched Mirror, a releasing entity for third-party films. However, this partnership will not be exclusive to all MGM films, as several of them will continue to be released through existing studio partners, such as Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
and Paramount. It also does not include newly relaunched Orion Pictures and future worldwide distributor plans for the James Bond franchise, which MGM also said will be announced "at a later date".[136] Following the Weinstein effect, MGM was listed as one of 22 potential buyers interest in acquiring The Weinstein Company.[137] Headquarters Since August 22, 2011, its headquarters have been in Beverly Hills, California.[138] MGM rents space in a six-story office building. The 144,000-square-foot (13,400 m2) facility was originally constructed for the venerable William Morris talent agency, but had remained all but unoccupied until MGM's move because of the agency's merger with Endeavor Talent Agency
Endeavor Talent Agency
in April 2009. MGM planned to house a private theater and a private outdoor patio in the building.[139] Prior to 2003, its headquarters had been in the Colorado Center in Santa Monica, California,[140][141] occupying at least 150,000 square feet (14,000 m2) of space there. In 2000 MGM announced that it was moving its headquarters to a new building in Century City that was to be the first high-rise in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
to be completed in the 21st century. Upon the company's agreement to be its lead tenant halfway through the design building process, the structure became identified as the MGM Tower,[142] opening in 2003.[139] When MGM moved into the lavishly appointed spaces[140] devised by Alex Yemenidjian, former chairperson and chief executive of MGM, Roger Vincent and Claudia Eller observed in the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times that "Yemenidjian spared no expense in building out the studio's space with such Las Vegas-style flourishes as towering marble pillars and a grand spiral staircase lined with a wall of awards."[139] Scott Johnson, the architect, designed the bottom third of the tower with extra-large floors so MGM executives could have outdoor decks. Seemingly no expense was spared, from the marble imported from Italy for MGM's area to the company's exclusive use of a dedicated private garage, security checkpoint, and elevator bank: all to enable celebrities who visited the complex discreet entry and exit, bypassing public spaces. One of three screening rooms placed in the tower was a 100-seat theater on the ground floor (later taken over by International Creative Management
International Creative Management
in December 2010). The 14th floor lobby housed the executive suites and a wall of Oscar statuettes for Academy Award-winning films. The street leading to the building's garage was renamed MGM Drive and a large MGM logo, illuminated at night, crowned the top of the building. As of December 2010, MGM rented 200,000-square-foot (19,000 m2) of space in the MGM Tower at a cost of almost $5 per square foot per month.[139] Emerging from bankruptcy protection in 2010, MGM announced that it planned to relocate the headquarters to Beverly Hills as part of an effort toward removing almost $5 billion in debt since the lease in Century City was not scheduled to expire until 2018. Vincent and Eller said that MGM's per square foot monthly rent would be far lower in the Beverly Hills building than in the MGM Tower. Larry Kozmont, a real estate consultant not involved in the process, said "It's a prudent move for them. Downsizing and relocating to a space that is still prominent but not overly ostentatious and burdened by expenses is fundamental for their survival."[139] MGM vacated its namesake tower on August 19, 2011.[138] Leo logo and mottos

MGM Tower, former company headquarters highlighted by the famous Leo the Lion logo at the top

The studio's official motto, "Ars Gratia Artis", is a Latin
phrase meaning "Art for art's sake".[143][144][page needed] [145][page needed] [146][page needed] It was chosen by Howard Dietz, the studio's chief publicist.[147][148][page needed] [149][page needed] The studio's logo is a roaring lion surrounded by a ring of film inscribed with the studio's motto. The logo, which features Leo the Lion, was created by Dietz in 1916 for Goldwyn Pictures
Goldwyn Pictures
and updated in 1924 for MGM's use.[147][150][page needed][151][page needed] Dietz based the logo on his alma mater's mascot, the Columbia University lion.[147][149][152][page needed] [153][page needed] Originally silent, the sound of Leo the Lion's roar was added to films for the first time in August 1928.[146] In the 1930s and 1940s, the studio billed itself as having "more stars than there are in heaven", a reference to the large number of A-list movie stars under contract to the company.[151][154][page needed] [155][page needed] [156][page needed] This second motto was also coined by Dietz[157][page needed][158][page needed] [159][page needed] [160][page needed] and was first used in 1932.[161][page needed] The MGM library Turner Entertainment
Turner Entertainment
Co. Following his brief ownership of the company in 1986, Ted Turner formed Turner Entertainment
Turner Entertainment
Co. as a holding company for the pre-May 1986 MGM film and television library, which he retained.[162] After Turner's holdings were purchased by Time Warner
Time Warner
in 1996,[163] they ultimately became integrated into the Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
library,[164] though the copyright claimant to these titles is still "Turner Entertainment Co." For some time after the sale, MGM continued to handle home video distribution of its pre-May 1986 film and TV library and began to handle home video distribution of the pre-1950 Warner Bros. films; those rights were reassigned to Warner Home Video
Warner Home Video
in 1999.[165] Acquired libraries Through its acquisitions of many different companies and film and television libraries, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
has greatly enhanced its film and television holdings. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's library includes its own post-April 1986 library as well as the film and television libraries of:

United Artists,[66][166][167] including:

187 Monogram Pictures
Monogram Pictures
films released from 1931 to 1946[168]

Orion Pictures,[164] including:

Filmways,[164] including:

American International Pictures[164]

MCEG Sterling Entertainment[169] The Samuel Goldwyn
Samuel Goldwyn
Company,[170] including: Motion Picture Corporation of America (1986–1996 library) PolyGram
Filmed Entertainment[65][171][172] (pre-March 31, 1996 library), including:

Interscope Communications[65] The Virgin Films/Palace Pictures catalog[65] Island Pictures,[65] including:

Atlantic Entertainment Group,[65] including:

Clubhouse Pictures

CDR's Epic library[75]

Castle Rock Entertainment
Castle Rock Entertainment
(pre-1994 library)[75] Hemdale Film Corporation[75] Sherwood Productions/Gladden Entertainment Nelson Entertainment,[75] including:

Galactic Films, Inc. Spikings Corporation[173]

Empire International Pictures,[174] including:

Urban Classics

Most of The Cannon Group, Inc.[66] 21st Century Film Corporation[175]

Films Main article: List of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
films See also

Greater Los Angeles
Los Angeles
portal Companies portal Film portal

cartoon studio MGM Animation/Visual Arts Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Animation MGM Television MGM Worldwide Television MGM Home Entertainment


^ WB retained a pair of features from 1949 that they merely distributed, and all short subjects released on or after September 1, 1948, in addition to all cartoons released on or after August 1, 1948.


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(1st ed.). New York: Scribner Poetry. ISBN 0743211480.  ^ "Louis Burt Mayer Facts". Biography.yourdictionary.com. Retrieved February 24, 2015.  ^ Murphy, Mekado. "Movies - The New York Times". Movies.nytimes.com. Archived from the original on May 27, 2008. Retrieved June 1, 2016.  ^ Segrave, Kerry (1999). Movies at Home: How Hollywood
Came to Television. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. pp. 33, 34. ISBN 0786406542. Retrieved January 8, 2016.  ^ a b c "M-G-M Makes Triple Move into TV Field". Billboard. June 30, 1956. Retrieved January 7, 2016.  ^ Barbera, J: How Bill & Joe met Tom & Jerry, interviews with William Hanna
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(October 11, 1989). "Deal to Buy MGM/UA Collapses - The New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved July 20, 2014.  ^ Fabrikant, Geraldine (November 29, 1989). "Turner Buying MGM/UA". The New York Times. The New York Times
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Relativity Media
Seeks Controlling Stake in MGM". TheWrap. May 17, 2009. Retrieved August 6, 2014.  ^ a b c McNary, Dave (July 15, 2009). "MGM puts skeptics at ease". Variety. Retrieved August 6, 2014.  ^ At least one other major news outlet claims the debt service is $300 million a year. See: Barnes, "MGM Replaces Chief Executive", The New York Times, August 18, 2009. ^ a b c d e Brookes Barnes (August 18, 2009). "MGM Ousts Its C.E.O. and Hires Turnaround Expert". The New York Times. Retrieved July 1, 2015.  ^ Peter Bart EVP and Editorial Director @MrPeterBart (August 18, 2009). "Town reacts to MGM's new lionkeeper". Variety. Retrieved July 20, 2014.  ^ DiOrio, Carl. "Firm Scoops Up MGM Debt." The Hollywood
Reporter. May 18, 2009. ^ DiOrio, Carl. "MGM Looks to Avoid Bankruptcy." The Hollywood Reporter. May 27, 2009. ^ DiOrio, Carl. "Relativity Ally Buys MGM Debt." The Hollywood Reporter. May 19, 2009. ^ Lauria, Peter (April 3, 2009). "Relativity Kills Deal With Mgm New York Post". Nypost.com. Retrieved August 6, 2014.  ^ Sandler, Linda (November 3, 2010). "MGM Studios Files Bankruptcy, Rejecting Icahn Bid". Bloomberg. Retrieved July 20, 2014.  ^ "MGM files for bankruptcy, rejects bid; Providence Equity flagged as a 'loser' - Providence Business News". Pbn.com. Archived from the original on July 28, 2014. Retrieved July 20, 2014.  ^ a b "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. February 15, 2010. Retrieved January 23, 2016. [dead link] ^ McNary, Dave (August 18, 2009). "Harry Sloan out at MGM as CEO". Variety. Retrieved August 6, 2014.  ^ "MGM gets a little breathing room on its interest payments Company Town Los Angeles
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Sony Pictures
That Includes James Bond". Deadline. Retrieved August 6, 2014.  ^ Fleming, Mike. "MGM Re-Ups DVD Deal With Fox Through 2016". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on January 11, 2014. Retrieved August 6, 2014.  ^ Hipes, Patrick (January 8, 2016). "MGM & 20th Century Fox
20th Century Fox
Renew Home Entertainment Deal". Deadline. Retrieved June 28, 2016.  ^ McNary, Dave (February 17, 2011). "MGM looks ahead with 'Mr. Mom,' 'Idolmaker'". Variety. Retrieved July 20, 2014.  ^ "MGM Finally Comes Back from the Dead with 5 Projects including Remakes of RoboCop and Poltergeist". Collider.com. November 20, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2014.  ^ Ben Fritz (December 13, 2011). "MGM film studio remade with a low-profile and a focused strategy". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved August 6, 2014.  ^ "'Red Dawn' remake to come out next year from FilmDistrict". Los Angeles Times. September 26, 2011. Retrieved July 20, 2014.  ^ "Joss Whedon's 'Cabin In The Woods' With 'Thor's Chris Hemsworth Going To Lionsgate". Deadline Hollywood. April 28, 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ Nikki Finke (October 3, 2012). "MGM's Roger Birnbaum Steps Down To Return To Producing; Gary Barber Now Revived Studio's Sole Chairman & CEO". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved August 6, 2014.  ^ Malone, Michael (May 2, 2014). "Exclusive: MGM Launches Digi-Net The Works". Broadcasting & Cable. Retrieved May 15, 2014.  ^ Torrelio, Sebastian (September 11, 2014). " Orion Pictures
Orion Pictures
Label Returns for First Time in 15 Years". Variety. Retrieved March 10, 2017.  ^ Busch, Anita (October 30, 2015). "James Bond Movie Rights Auction: Where Will 007 Land?". Deadline. Retrieved January 1, 2016.  ^ Brooks Barnes (20 April 2017). "Five Studios' Mission: Winning the Distribution Rights to James Bond". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 April 2017.  ^ Lodderhose, Diana (March 27, 2017). "MGM & Annapurna Seal Multi-Year Movie Distribution Deal". Deadline. Retrieved June 30, 2017.  ^ McNary, Dave (October 31, 2017). "MGM, Annapurna Form U.S. Distribution Partnership". Variety. Retrieved November 4, 2017.  ^ "Weinstein Co Talking to 22 Buyers, $300 Million Expected Price, Bob Weinstein Must Exit". October 26, 2017.  ^ a b " MGM Holdings
MGM Holdings
Inc. For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2011" (PDF). WebCite. February 5, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 5, 2012. Retrieved January 23, 2016.  ^ a b c d e Vincent, Roger; Eller, Claudia (August 8, 1993). "MGM to move from luxurious Century City offices - Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times". Articles.latimes.com. Retrieved August 6, 2014.  ^ a b Fixmer, Andy. "Yahoo signing for office space that MGM is leaving behind.[dead link]" Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Business Journal at AllBusiness. Retrieved on February 5, 2012. ^ " Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Inc. Investor Homepage". Archived from the original on October 6, 2000. Retrieved October 20, 2016.  ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. June 10, 2015. Archived from the original on June 10, 2015. Retrieved January 23, 2016.  ^ Mark Oldman; Samer Hamadeh (2005). The Internship Bible (10th ed.). Princeton Review. p. 282.  ^ Welsh, James M.; Cahir, Linda Costanzo (2006). Literature Into film: Theory and Practical Approaches. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. ISBN 0786425970.  ^ Naremore, James; Brantlinger, Patrick (1991). Modernity and Mass Culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253206278.  ^ a b Wayne, Jane Ellen (2004). The Golden Girls of MGM: Greta Garbo, Joan Crawford, Lana Turner, Judy Garland, Ava Gardner, Grace Kelly, and Others (Reprint ed.). New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0786713038.  ^ a b c Corey, Melinda; Ochoa, George; Berliner, Barbara (1990). The Book of Answers: the New York Public Library Telephone Reference Service's Most Unusual and Entertaining Questions (1st ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671761927.  ^ Sheed, Wilfrid (2008). The house that George Built: With a Little Help from Irving, Cole, and a Crew of About Fifty (1st ed.). New York: Random House. ISBN 0812970187.  ^ a b Silvester, Christopher (1998). The Grove Book of Hollywood
(1st ed.). New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0802138780.  ^ Flexner, Stuart Berg (1982). Listening to America: An Illustrated History of Words and Phrases From Our Lively and Splendid Past (1st ed.). New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0671248952.  ^ a b Crabb, Kelly Charles (2005). The Movie Business: The Definitive Guide to the Legal and Financial Secrets of Getting Your Movie. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0743264924.  ^ Fordin, Hugh (1996). M-G-M's Greatest Musicals: The Arthur Freed Unit (1st ed.). New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0306807300.  ^ Stillman, William; Scarfone, Jay (2004). The Wizardry of Oz: The Artistry and Magic of the 1939 M-G-M Classic (Revised ed.). New York: Wayne State U.P. ISBN 1557836248.  ^ Doherty, Thomas (1999). Pre-Code Hollywood: Sex, Immorality, and Insurrection in American Cinema, 1930–1934. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231110952.  ^ Hark, Ina Rae (2007). American Cinema of the 1930s: Themes and Variations. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0813540828.  ^ Pitt, Leonard; Pitt, Dale (2000). Los Angeles
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International deal completed, UPI, November 1, 1995 ^ Weiner, Rex (July 11, 1997). "MGM ends Orion orbit". Variety. Retrieved June 10, 2016.  ^ Frankel, Daniel (October 22, 1998). "NEWS/ MGM Acquires Lion's Share of PolyGram". E!. Retrieved March 29, 2015.  ^ "Company News; MGM Says It Will Buy Polygram's Movie Library". The New York Times. October 23, 1998. Retrieved March 29, 2015.  ^ Seideman, Tony (August 16, 1986). "$85 Mil Buys Embassy". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 98 (33): 4. Retrieved May 31, 2016.  ^ "Interview with David Schmoeller (Puppet Master, Tourist Trap)". Archived from the original on April 18, 2015. Retrieved April 2, 2015.  ^ Macek III, J.C. (June 9, 2014). "The Rise Fall and Rise of Marvel Comics on Film Part 2: The Road Out of Development Hell". PopMatters. Retrieved March 29, 2015. 

Further reading

Altman, Diana. Hollywood
East: Louis B. Mayer
Louis B. Mayer
and the Origins of the Studio System (Carol Publishing, 1992). Bart, Peter. Fade Out: The Calamitous Final Days of MGM (Morrow, 1990). Crowther, Bosley. The Lion's Share: The Story of an Entertainment Empire (E.P. Dutton and Company, 1957). Eames, John Douglas. The MGM Story (Octopus, 1975). Háy, Peter. MGM: When the Lion Roars (Turner, 1991). Vieira, Mark A. Hollywood
Dreams Made Real: Irving Thalberg
Irving Thalberg
and the Rise of M-G-M (Abrams, 2008).

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

Official website Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
on IMDbPro (subscription required) MGM Animation at The Big Cartoon DataBase Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's channel on YouTube Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Article Encyclopædia Britannica Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
films and personalities scrapbooks, 1920-1944, held by the Billy Rose Theatre Division, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts Finding aid author: John N. Gillespie (2013). "Collection of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
scripts". Prepared for the L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Provo, UT. Retrieved May 16, 2016.

v t e

MGM Holdings

Predecessors Metro Pictures Goldwyn Pictures Louis B. Mayer
Louis B. Mayer

Key personnel

Founders Marcus Loew Louis B. Mayer Chair/CEO Gary Barber President of Film Jonathan Glickman

Motion Picture Group

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer United Artists Orion Pictures MGM Home Entertainment

TV Group & Digital

MGM Interactive MGM Television

Lightworkers Media

Orion TV Productions MGM Animation

MGM channels

MGM HD Epix Joint ventures

Light TV This TV Telecine (13%)


Charge! Comet


MGM Music

Former units

G2 Films MGM Networks MGM Records United Artists
United Artists
Media Group The Works

v t e

Cinema of the United States


Films by year

Awards and events

National Board of Review Awards (1929) Academy Awards
Academy Awards
(1929) New York Film Critics Circle (1935) Golden Globe Awards (1944) National Society of Film Critics Awards (1966) Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Film Critics Awards (1975) Golden Raspberry Awards
Golden Raspberry Awards
(1981) Independent Spirit Awards (1985) American Society of Cinematographers Awards (1986) Critics' Choice Movie Awards (1996) Hollywood
Film Awards (1997)

Guild Awards

Directors Guild of America Awards (1936) Writers Guild of America Awards (1951) Producers Guild of America Awards (1962) Cinema Audio Society Awards (1964) Screen Actors Guild Awards (1995) Art Directors Guild Awards (1996) Costume Designers Guild Awards (1998) Location Managers Guild Awards
Location Managers Guild Awards


Movie theater chains

Industry by state

Alaska Arizona Connecticut Florida Georgia Hawaii Louisiana Michigan New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico North Carolina Ohio Oregon Pennsylvania Puerto Rico Virginia

Industry by city

Atlanta Baltimore Chicago Cleveland Jacksonville Kansas City Las Vegas Lone Pine Long Island Los Angeles
Los Angeles
(Hollywood) Monument Valley New York City


Palm Springs Pittsburgh Riverside San Diego Seattle Sonora Stamford Vasquez Rocks


Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Alliance of Motion Picture and Television Producers American Society of Cinematographers Hollywood
Foreign Press Association Motion Picture Association of America


Box office AFI 100 Years... series National Film Registry Pre-Code Hollywood Classical Hollywood
cinema New Hollywood List of living actors from the Golden Age of Hollywood List of surviving silent film actors

v t e

Film studios in the United States
United States
and Canada


20th Century Fox Columbia Pictures Paramount Pictures Universal Pictures Walt Disney
Walt Disney
Studios Warner Bros.


Amblin Partners CBS
Films Lionsgate Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Open Road Films STX Entertainment The Weinstein Company

Independent studios

3D Entertainment A24 Alcon Entertainment Amazon Studios Beacon Pictures Broad Green Pictures Dark Horse Entertainment Drafthouse Films Entertainment One Entertainment Studios Hasbro Studios Icon Productions IFC Films Image Entertainment Imagine Entertainment IMAX Pictures Lakeshore Entertainment Magnolia Pictures Mandalay Pictures MarVista Entertainment Miramax Montecito Picture Company Morgan Creek Entertainment Group Picturehouse Regency Enterprises RKO Pictures Roadside Attractions Samuel Goldwyn
Samuel Goldwyn
Films Village Roadshow Pictures Walden Media

Independent financers

Annapurna Pictures Cross Creek Pictures Legendary Entertainment LStar Capital New Regency Productions Participant Media RatPac Entertainment Revolution Studios Skydance Media Temple Hill Entertainment TSG Entertainment Worldview Entertainment

Producer-owned independents

1492 Pictures American Zoetrope Apatow Productions Appian Way Productions Bad Hat Harry Productions Bad Robot Productions Blinding Edge Pictures Blumhouse Productions Bryanston Pictures Centropolis Entertainment Cheyenne Enterprises Davis Entertainment Di Bonaventura Pictures Fuzzy Door Productions Gary Sanchez Productions Ghost House Pictures GK Films ImageMovers Jim Henson Pictures Kennedy/Marshall Company Lightstorm Entertainment Plan B Entertainment Platinum Dunes Silver Pictures/Dark Castle


v t e

Academy Honorary Award


Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
/ Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1928) Walt Disney
Walt Disney
(1932) Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
(1934) D. W. Griffith
D. W. Griffith
(1935) The March of Time
The March of Time
/ W. Howard Greene and Harold Rosson (1936) Edgar Bergen
Edgar Bergen
/ W. Howard Greene / Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art
Film Library / Mack Sennett
Mack Sennett
(1937) J. Arthur Ball / Walt Disney
Walt Disney
/ Deanna Durbin
Deanna Durbin
and Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
/ Gordon Jennings, Jan Domela, Devereaux Jennings, Irmin Roberts, Art Smith, Farciot Edouart, Loyal Griggs, Loren L. Ryder, Harry D. Mills, Louis Mesenkop, Walter Oberst / Oliver T. Marsh and Allen Davey / Harry Warner
Harry Warner
(1938) Douglas Fairbanks
Douglas Fairbanks
/ Judy Garland
Judy Garland
/ William Cameron Menzies / Motion Picture Relief Fund (Jean Hersholt, Ralph Morgan, Ralph Block, Conrad Nagel)/ Technicolor
Company (1939) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Nathan Levinson (1940) Walt Disney, William Garity, John N. A. Hawkins, and the RCA Manufacturing Company / Leopold Stokowski
Leopold Stokowski
and his associates / Rey Scott / British Ministry of Information (1941) Charles Boyer
Charles Boyer
/ Noël Coward
Noël Coward
/ Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
(1942) George Pal
George Pal
(1943) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Margaret O'Brien
Margaret O'Brien
(1944) Republic Studio, Daniel J. Bloomberg, and the Republic Studio Sound Department / Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
/ The House I Live In / Peggy Ann Garner (1945) Harold Russell
Harold Russell
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
/ Ernst Lubitsch
Ernst Lubitsch
/ Claude Jarman Jr. (1946) James Baskett
James Baskett
/ Thomas Armat, William Nicholas Selig, Albert E. Smith, and George Kirke Spoor
George Kirke Spoor
/ Bill and Coo / Shoeshine (1947) Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
/ Monsieur Vincent
Monsieur Vincent
/ Sid Grauman
Sid Grauman
/ Adolph Zukor
Adolph Zukor
(1948) Jean Hersholt
Jean Hersholt
/ Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
/ Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille
/ The Bicycle Thief (1949) Louis B. Mayer
Louis B. Mayer
/ George Murphy
George Murphy
/ The Walls of Malapaga (1950)


Gene Kelly
Gene Kelly
/ Rashomon
(1951) Merian C. Cooper
Merian C. Cooper
/ Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Harold Lloyd
Harold Lloyd
/ George Mitchell / Joseph M. Schenck / Forbidden Games
Forbidden Games
(1952) 20th Century- Fox Film
Fox Film
Corporation / Bell & Howell Company / Joseph Breen / Pete Smith (1953) Bausch & Lomb Optical Company / Danny Kaye
Danny Kaye
/ Kemp Niver / Greta Garbo / Jon Whiteley
Jon Whiteley
/ Vincent Winter / Gate of Hell (1954) Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto (1955) Eddie Cantor
Eddie Cantor
(1956) Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
/ Gilbert M. "Broncho Billy" Anderson / Charles Brackett / B. B. Kahane (1957) Maurice Chevalier
Maurice Chevalier
(1958) Buster Keaton
Buster Keaton
/ Lee de Forest
Lee de Forest
(1959) Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
/ Stan Laurel
Stan Laurel
/ Hayley Mills
Hayley Mills
(1960) William L. Hendricks / Fred L. Metzler / Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
(1961) William J. Tuttle
William J. Tuttle
(1964) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
(1965) Yakima Canutt
Yakima Canutt
/ Y. Frank Freeman
Y. Frank Freeman
(1966) Arthur Freed (1967) John Chambers / Onna White (1968) Cary Grant
Cary Grant
(1969) Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
/ Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(1970) Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1971) Charles S. Boren / Edward G. Robinson
Edward G. Robinson
(1972) Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
/ Groucho Marx
Groucho Marx
(1973) Howard Hawks
Howard Hawks
/ Jean Renoir
Jean Renoir
(1974) Mary Pickford
Mary Pickford


Margaret Booth (1977) Walter Lantz
Walter Lantz
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
/ King Vidor
King Vidor
/ Museum of Modern Art Department of Film (1978) Hal Elias / Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1979) Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
(1980) Barbara Stanwyck
Barbara Stanwyck
(1981) Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
(1982) Hal Roach
Hal Roach
(1983) James Stewart
James Stewart
/ National Endowment for the Arts
National Endowment for the Arts
(1984) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
/ Alex North (1985) Ralph Bellamy
Ralph Bellamy
(1986) Eastman Kodak
Company / National Film Board of Canada
National Film Board of Canada
(1988) Akira Kurosawa
Akira Kurosawa
(1989) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
/ Myrna Loy
Myrna Loy
(1990) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1991) Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1992) Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr
(1993) Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1994) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
/ Chuck Jones
Chuck Jones
(1995) Michael Kidd
Michael Kidd
(1996) Stanley Donen
Stanley Donen
(1997) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1998) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1999) Jack Cardiff
Jack Cardiff
/ Ernest Lehman (2000)


Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
/ Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(2001) Peter O'Toole
Peter O'Toole
(2002) Blake Edwards
Blake Edwards
(2003) Sidney Lumet
Sidney Lumet
(2004) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(2005) Ennio Morricone
Ennio Morricone
(2006) Robert F. Boyle (2007) Lauren Bacall
Lauren Bacall
/ Roger Corman
Roger Corman
/ Gordon Willis
Gordon Willis
(2009) Kevin Brownlow / Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
/ Eli Wallach
Eli Wallach
(2010) James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
/ Dick Smith (2011) D. A. Pennebaker
D. A. Pennebaker
/ Hal Needham
Hal Needham
/ George Stevens Jr.
George Stevens Jr.
(2012) Angela Lansbury
Angela Lansbury
/ Steve Martin
Steve Martin
/ Piero Tosi (2013) Jean-Claude Carrière
Jean-Claude Carrière
/ Hayao Miyazaki
Hayao Miyazaki
/ Maureen O'Hara
Maureen O'Hara
(2014) Spike Lee
Spike Lee
/ Gena Rowlands
Gena Rowlands
(2015) Jackie Chan
Jackie Chan
/ Lynn Stalmaster / Anne V. Coates / Frederick Wiseman (2016) Charles Burnett / Owen Roizman / Donald Sutherland
Donald Sutherland
/ Agnès