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The Lviv
Lviv
pogroms were the consecutive massacres of Jews
Jews
living in the city of Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine), perpetrated by the German commandos and the Ukrainian nationalists from 30 June to 2 July 1941, and from 25 to 29 July 1941, during the Wehrmacht's attack on the Soviet positions in occupied eastern Poland in World War II.[2] Historian Peter Longerich
Peter Longerich
and the Holocaust Encyclopedia estimate that the first pogrom cost at least 4,000 lives.[1] It was followed by the additional 2,500 to 3,000 arrests and executions in subsequent Einsatzgruppe killings,[3] and culminated in the so-called "Petlura Days" massacre of more than 2,000 Jews, all killed in a one-month span.[1][4] Prior to the 1939 invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, and the ensuing Holocaust
Holocaust
in Europe, the city of Lviv
Lviv
had the third-largest Jewish population in Poland during the interwar period, which swelled further to over 200,000 Jews
Jews
as the refugees fled east from the Nazis.[5] Right after the conquest of Poland, on 28 September 1939, the USSR and Germany signed a frontier treaty assigning about 200,000 km² of land inhabited by 13.5 million people of all nationalities to the Soviet Union. Lviv
Lviv
remained in the Soviet zone of occupation for two years.[6] Of the estimated total of 20,000–30,000 former citizens of Poland executed by the Soviet NKVD as "enemies of the people,"[7] nearly 9,000 were murdered in the newly-acquired western Ukraine.[8] Sovietization policies in Polish lands – cordoned off from the rest of the USSR – included confiscation of property and mass deportations of the hundreds of thousands of local citizens to Siberia.[9] On Sunday, 22 June 1941 Germany attacked the Soviet Union.

Contents

1 First pogrom

1.1 Killings by Einsatzgruppe

2 Petlura days 3 Aftermath 4 Controversy 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

First pogrom[edit] Immediately after the German army entered Lviv, the prison gates were opened and the scale of the NKVD prisoner massacres
NKVD prisoner massacres
carried out by the Soviets revealed. An OUN member estimated 10,000 dead victims at Brygidki, although the numbers were later adjusted by the German investigation down to 4,000 in total.[10] The report drafted by Judge Möller singled out the Jews
Jews
as responsible for the Soviet atrocities in accordance with the Nazi theory of Judeo-Bolshevism,[11] even though Polish Jews
Jews
had nothing to do with the NKVD killings.[12] As observed by British-Polish historian Prof. Norman Davies: "in the [Lviv] personnel of the Soviet security police at the time, the high percentage of Jews
Jews
was striking."[13] The Einsatzgruppe C
Einsatzgruppe C
with the participation of Ukrainian National Militia, and the OUN leaders,[14] organized the first pogrom,[15] chiefly in revenge for the combined killings at Lviv's three prisons including Brygidki, Łąckiego and Zamarstynowska Street prisons.[15][16] The German report stated that the majority of the Soviet murder victims were Ukrainian. Although a significant number of Jewish prisoners had also been among the victims of the NKVD massacres (including intellectuals and political activists), the Polish Jews
Jews
were targeted collectively.[10] An ad hoc Ukrainian People's Militia
Ukrainian People's Militia
– which would soon be reorganized by Himmler
Himmler
as the Ukrainische Hilfspolizei
Ukrainische Hilfspolizei
(Ukrainian Auxiliary Police) – was assembled to spearhead the first pogrom.[17] In the presence of the newly arrived German forces, the infuriated and irrational crowd took the violent actions against the Jewish population of the city.[10] The German propaganda made newsreels that purported to implicate Soviet Jews
Jews
in the killing of Ukrainians, and the German Foreign Office relayed them to Switzerland.[10][18] Historians have since established that the David Lee Preston collection of photographs once believed to show the victims of NKVD killings, is in fact showing the victims of a subsequent pogrom.[19] Jakob Weiss in his Lemberg Mosaic wrote that initially the Ukrainian militia acted independently – with the blessings of the SS – but later were limited to joint operations (Aktions) with German units or otherwise functioned directly under Nazi command. The Ukrainian militia received assistance from the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists,[20] unorganized ethnic nationalists, as well as from ordinary crowd and even underage youth. At least two members of the OUN-B, Ivan Kovalyshyn and Mykhaylo Pecharsʹkyy,[14] have been identified by Prof. John Paul Himka from several photographs of the pogrom. Holocaust
Holocaust
scholar and survivor, Filip Friedman from Lviv, uncovered an official Report of the Reich Security Main Office which documented the massacre as follows: "During the first hours after the departure of the Bolsheviks [i.e. the Soviet Army], the Ukrainian population took praiseworthy action against the Jews... About 7,000 Jews
Jews
were seized and shot by the [Ukrainian] police in retribution for inhuman acts of cruelty [at Brygidki
Brygidki
and the other prisons]..." (dated 16 July 1941).[21] Killings by Einsatzgruppe[edit] Almost immediately after the first pogrom, in the beginning of July 1941 the Einsatzgruppe C
Einsatzgruppe C
attached to the Army Group South
Army Group South
in the invasion of Poland under the command of SS-Brigadeführer Otto Rasch made some 2,500 to 3,000 arrests in Lviv
Lviv
based on lists drawn by OUN,[22] and gathered the detainees in the municipal stadium located next to their own headquarters.[23] Among the prisoners kept overnight and beaten were non-Jewish Poles and scores of people accused of anti-Nazi reputation.[3][24] The following day, under the supervision of Otto Rasch, the captives were trucked away in groups to a remote killing site (see Janowska concentration camp). The shootings were carried out by Einsatzkommandos 5 and 6 until dawn. Those, still alive at the end of the day were released, although their numbers can only be approximated.[23][25] A new list of targets delivered by OUN with the aid of Ukrainian students singled out university professors. The academics were arrested along with families and guests on 3–4 July 1941 by the Germans assisted by the Ukrainian guides,[24][26][26] split in two groups and massacred at the Wuleckie Hills nearby. Among the 40 victims at least two academics were of Jewish background, Dr. Stanisław (Salomon) Ruff, and Prof. Henryk Hilarowicz (son of Józef Nusbaum, famous zoologist who converted to Catholicism in 1907).[24][26] The SS executioners left Lviv
Lviv
several days later according to deposition of Brigadeführer Erwin Schulz, to conduct similar actions in Berdychiv
Berdychiv
and Zhytomyr.[23] The all-Ukrainian Nachtigall Battalion – which entered Lviv
Lviv
along with them on 30 June 1941 – also left the city on 7 July, in the direction of Vinnytsia.[27] The participation of the Nachtigall regiment in the 3–7 July massacres is presently disputed by Ukraine in spite of numerous eye-witness testimonies,[25][28][29] because their uniforms looked similar.[30][31][32] Petlura days[edit] A second pogrom took place in the last days of July 1941 and was labeled "Petlura Days" (Aktion Petliura) after the assassinated Ukrainian leader Symon Petliura.[1] The killings were organized with German encouragement, but the pogrom also had ominous undertones of religious bigotry with Andrey Sheptytsky's awareness,[33] and with Ukrainian militants from outside the city joining the fray with farm tools.[34] Sheptytsky became disillusioned with Nazi Germany only in mid-1942 after his National Council was banned, with thousands of Ukrainians sent to slave labour.[33][35] In the morning of 25 July 1941 the Ukrainian auxiliary police began arresting Jews
Jews
in their homes, while the civilians participated in acts of violence against them in the streets. Captured Jews
Jews
were dragged to the Jewish cemetery and to the Łąckiego Street prison, where they were fatally shot out of the public eye. Ukrainian police circulated in groups of five and consulted prepared lists from OUN. Some 2,000 people were murdered in approximately three days.[36] Thousands of other Jews
Jews
were injured out in the open.[34][37] Aftermath[edit] According to historian of the Holocaust
Holocaust
Richard Breitman 5,000 Jews died as a result of these pogroms. In addition, some 3,000 mostly Jews were executed in the municipal stadium by the Germans.[38] The German propaganda passed off all victims of the NKVD killings in Lviv
Lviv
as Ukrainians even though the lists of prisoners left behind by the Soviets had about one-third of distinctly Polish and Jewish names in them. Over the next two years both German and pro-Nazi Ukrainian press including Ukrains'ki shchodenni visti, Krakivs'ki visti
Krakivs'ki visti
and others, went on to describe horrific acts of chekist torture (real or imagined) with the number of Ukrainian casualties multiplied out of thin air, wrote Professor John-Paul Himka.[39] The Lwów Ghetto
Lwów Ghetto
was established in November 1941 on the orders of SS- Gruppenführer
Gruppenführer
Fritz Katzmann, the Higher SS and Police Leader (SSPF) of Lemberg and one of the most prolific mass murderers in the SS.[40][41] At its peak, the Ghetto held some 120,000 Jews, most of whom were deported to the Belzec extermination camp
Belzec extermination camp
or killed locally during the next two years. Following the 1941 pogroms and Einsatzgruppe killings, harsh conditions in the Lwów Ghetto, and deportations to the Nazi concentration camps, including Belzec and the Janowska concentration camp
Janowska concentration camp
located on the outskirts of the city, resulted in the almost complete annihilation of the Jewish population locally. When the Soviet forces reached and took over Lviv
Lviv
on 21 July 1944, only 823 Jews
Jews
found their way back to the Jewish Provisional Committee in Lviv
Lviv
by Dr. David Sobol.[42] Controversy[edit] Main article: Controversy surrounding the Lviv
Lviv
pogroms of 1941 The nature of the Lviv
Lviv
pogroms and their identifiable perpetrators remain controversial. Documents released in 2008 by the Ukrainian Security Services indicated that the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists may have been involved to a lesser degree than originally thought.[43] However, this collection of documents titled "For the Beginning: Book of Facts" (Do pochatku knyha faktiv) has been recognized by historians including John-Paul Himka, Per Anders Rudling, Marco Carynnyk, and Franziska Bruder, as an attempt at manipulating World War II
World War II
history.[44][45][46][47] See also[edit]

History of the Jews
Jews
in Poland History of the Jews
Jews
in Ukraine Jedwabne pogrom Kaunas pogrom

References[edit]

^ a b c d USHMM. "Lwów". Holocaust
Holocaust
Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2015. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ Himka, John-Paul (2011). "The Lviv
Lviv
Pogrom
Pogrom
of 1941: The Germans, Ukrainian Nationalists, and the Carnival Crowd". Canadian Slavonic Papers. 53 (2–4): 209–243. ISSN 0008-5006. Taylor & Francis – via Internet Archive.  ^ a b N.M.T. (1945). "Trials of War Criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals" (PDF direct download). Volume IV : "The Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
Case" complete, 1210 pages. Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10. pp. 542–543 in PDF (518–519 in original document). Retrieved 1 March 2015. With N.M.T. commentary to testimony of Erwin Schulz
Erwin Schulz
(p. 543 in PDF).  ^ Longerich, Peter (2010). Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-19-280436-5.  ^ Stefan Szende, The Promise Hitler Kept, London 1945, p. 124. OCLC 758315597. ^ Gross, Jan Tomasz (2002). Revolution from Abroad: The Soviet Conquest of Poland's Western Ukraine
Western Ukraine
and Western Belorussia. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 17, 28–30. ISBN 0691096031.  ^ Piotrowski, Tadeusz (1998). Poland's Holocaust. Jefferson: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0371-3. McFarland, 2007 edition, Google Books search inside. ISBN 0786429135. – via Google Books preview.  ^ Berkhoff, Karel Cornelis (2004). Harvest of Despair. Harvard University Press. p. 14. ISBN 0674020782 – via Google Books.  ^ Davies, Norman (1996). Europe: A History. Oxford University Press. pp. 1001–1003. ISBN 0198201710.  Also in: Urban, Thomas (2004). Die Zeit der Transporte (PDF). Die verschwiegene Kollaboration. Verlag C. H. Beck. 1–3 in PDF. ISBN 3-406-54156-9. Revolution durch den Strick (Revolution by the Rope) – via PDF file, direct download.  ^ a b c d Alfred de Zayas
Alfred de Zayas
(2000). "The Lviv
Lviv
Massacre". The Wehrmacht War Crimes Bureau, 1939-1945. AlfreddeZayas.com. Retrieved 2 March 2015. Cheka-GPU-NKVD by Prytulak (de Zayas).  ^ Ronald Headland (1992). Messages of Murder: A Study of the Reports of the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
of the Security Police and the Security Service, 1941-1943. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. pp. 111–112. ISBN 0838634184 – via Google Books.  ^ Paul, Mark (2013). Neighbours On the Eve of the Holocaust. Polish-Jewish Relations in Soviet-Occupied Eastern Poland, 1939–1941 (PDF). Pefina Press, Toronto. pp. 299–.  ^ Mark Paul (2013). Neighbours On the Eve of the Holocaust
Holocaust
(PDF). Polish-Jewish Relations in Soviet-Occupied Eastern Poland, 1939–1941. Chapter: Arrests, Executions and Deportations. PEFINA Press, Toronto. pp. 32–33. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2013.  ^ a b John Paul Himka (2015). "Ще кілька слів про львівський погром. ФОТО: Михайло Печарський". Lviv
Lviv
pogrom of 1941. Історична правда. Retrieved 6 March 2015. Also: Иван Ковалишин.  ^ a b Yevhen Nakonechny (2006). "Шоа" у Львові ["Shoa" in Lviv] (DjVu). Львів: ЛА «Піраміда». pp. 98–99 or 50 in current document (1/284 or 1/143 digitized). ISBN 966-8522-47-8. Retrieved 13 February 2015 – via Історія @ EX.UA, direct download (7.7 MB). [permanent dead link][unreliable source?] ^ Jakob Weiss, The Lemberg Mosaic
The Lemberg Mosaic
in (New York: Alderbrook Press, 2011) pp. 165-174 (Prison Massacre), 206-210 ("Petlura Days" or Aktion Petlura). ^ Himka, John-Paul (2011). "The Lviv
Lviv
Pogrom
Pogrom
of 1941: The Germans, Ukrainian Nationalists, and the Carnival Crowd". Canadian Slavonic Papers. 53 (2–4): 209–243. ISSN 0008-5006.  ^ John-Paul Himka (2014). "Ethnicity and the Reporting of Mass Murder: "Krakivs'ki visti", the NKVD Murders of 1941, and the Vinnytsia Exhumation". Chapter: Ethnicizing the Perpetrators. University of Alberta. Retrieved 1 March 2015.  ^ Bogdan Musial, Bilder einer Ausstellung: Kritische Anmerkungen zur Wanderausstellung "Vernichtungskrieg. Verbrechen der Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
1941 bis 1944." Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 47. Jahrg., 4. H. (October 1999): 563–581. "David Lee Preston collection." ^ Breitman, Richard (2010). Hitler's Shadow: Nazi War Criminals, U.S. Intelligence, and the Cold War. DIANE Publishing. p. 75. ISBN 1437944299. In Lwów, a leaflet warned Jews
Jews
that, "You welcomed Stalin with flowers. We will lay your heads at Hitler's feet." [Original: "У 1939 ви привітали Сталіна квітами. Ми покладемо ваші голови до ніг Гітлера, вітаючи його."] At a July 6, 1941, meeting in Lwów, Bandera loyalists determined: "We must finish them off..." Back in Berlin, Stetsko reported it all to him.[12]  ^ Jakob Weiss, Lemberg Mosaic, p. 173 ^ Piotrowski 1998, page 209. ^ a b c N.M.T. 1945, Volume IV : "The Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
Case", ibidem pp. 165–167. ^ a b c Zygmunt Albert, Kaźń profesorów lwowskich w lipcu 1941 roku Instytut Lwowski 2004, Warszawa. Studia oraz relacje i dokumenty zebrane i oprac. przez Zygmunta Alberta Wrocław 1989, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego; ISBN 83-229-0351-0, pp. 180-181 ^ a b The Simon Wiesenthal Center (1997) [1990]. "Invasion of the Soviet Union". Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. Macmillan Publishing Company. Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2015. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ a b c IPN — Oddziałowa Komisja w Rzeszowie, Śledztwo w sprawie zabójstwa profesorów polskich wyższych uczelni, członków ich rodzin oraz współmieszkańców, we Lwowie w lipcu 1941 roku, podjęte na nowo z umorzenia w dniu 25 lutego 2003 roku Sygn. S 5/03/Zn, pp. 36-37 (PDF file, direct download). Institute of National Remembrance. Retrieved 16 March 2015. ^ Piotrowski 1998, page 208. ^ Freider Mikhail Sanevich (2012). "A history of Jewish shtetls in the Yarmolintsy district". Road to father. Ukraine SIG. Retrieved 15 March 2015.  ^ Чуев Сергей (2004). Проклятые солдаты. Предатели на стороне III рейха [Forsaken soldiers. Traitors for the Third Reich]. Эксмо. ISBN 5-699-05970-9. Retrieved 2 March 2015. Online preview, Russian original.  ^ Є. Побігущій, Дружини українських націоналістів у 1941 — 1942 роках [Formations of Ukrainian Nationalists in 1941-42]. – Без місця видання, 1953. – С. 6; pp. 109–110, excerpts with commentaries: 1. Archived 17 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. 2. ^ Andreas Jordan (September 2008). "Oberländer, Theodor (Professor Dr.) (NSDAP/ CDU)". Eine Auswahl Deutscher Nazi-Karrieren nach 1945. GELSENZENTRUM - Gelsenkirchen, Portal zur Aufarbeitung und Dokumentation lokaler zeitgeschichtlicher Ereignisse in Gelsenkirchen. Retrieved 15 March 2015.  ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski (1998), Poland's Holocaust. McFarland, pp. 207-211. ISBN 0786403713. ^ a b Mordecai Paldiel (2000). Saving the Jews: Men and Women who Defied the Final Solution. Taylor Trade Publications. pp. 362–364. ISBN 1589797345. Retrieved 16 March 2015.  ^ a b PAP (10 September 2012). "Rocznica likwidacji lwowskiego getta" [Anniversary of the Lwow Ghetto liquidation]. Kartka z kalendarza. Polska Agencja Prasowa. Retrieved 16 March 2015.  ^ David Cymet (2012). History vs. Apologetics: The Holocaust, the Third Reich, and the Catholic Church. Lexington Books. p. 232. ISBN 0739132954. Retrieved 16 March 2015.  ^ Carmelo Lisciotto (2007). "25 July 1941 pogrom in Lvov" (HolocaustResearchProject.org). Lvov. H.E.A.R.T. Retrieved 16 March 2015.  ^ Helena Ganor (2007). Four Letters to the Witnesses of My Childhood ( Google Books
Google Books
preview). Syracuse University Press. p. 57. ISBN 0815608691. Retrieved 16 March 2015.  ^ Richard Breitman. " Himmler
Himmler
and the 'Terrible Secret' among the Executioners". Journal of Contemporary History; Vol. 26, No. 3/4: The Impact of Western Nationalisms; essays dedicated to Walter Z. Laqueur on the occasion of his 70th birthday (Sep. 1991), pp. 431-451 ^ John-Paul Himka, Professor of Ukrainian and East European history at the University of Alberta
University of Alberta
(2014). "Ethnicity and the Reporting of Mass Murder: "Krakivs'ki visti", the NKVD Murders of 1941, and the Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
Exhumation". Chapter: Ethnicizing the Perpetrators. University of Alberta. Retrieved 1 March 2015.  ^ Waldemar „Scypion” Sadaj (January 27, 2010). "Fritz Friedrich Katzmann". SS- Gruppenführer
Gruppenführer
und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS und Polizei. Allgemeine SS & Waffen-SS. Retrieved 31 January 2015.  ^ Claudia Koonz (November 2, 2005). "SS Man Katzmann's "Solution of the Jewish Question in the District of Galicia"" (PDF). The Raul Hilberg Lecture. University of Vermont: 2, 11, 16–18. Retrieved 30 January 2015.  ^ Dr. Filip Friedman (2007). Zaglada Zydow Lwowskich [The Annihilation of Lvovian Jews]. Chapter 2. Wydawnictwa Centralnej Zydowskiej Komisji Historycznej przy Centralnym Komitecie Zydow Polskich Nr 4. OCLC 38706656. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2015. English translation of the Russian edition (excerpts). CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "SBU declassifies documents proving OUN-UPA not connected with anti-Jewish actions". unian.net. 6 February 2008. Retrieved 2 September 2011.  ^ "Falsifying World War II
World War II
history in Ukraine". Kyiv Post. 2011-05-08. Retrieved 2011-12-28.  ^ Per A. Rudling, The OUN, the UPA and the Holocaust: A Study in the Manufacturing of Historical Myths, The Carl Beck Papers in Russian & East European Studies, No. 2107, November 2011, ISSN 0889-275X, p. 29 ^ "Історична напівправда гірша за одверту брехню". LB.ua. 2009-11-05. Retrieved 2011-12-28.  ^ "Strasti za Banderoju ('Bandera Passion')". DefendingHistory.com. 2011-11-20. Retrieved 2011-12-28. 

External links[edit]

John-Paul Himka, Lviv
Lviv
Pogrom
Pogrom
of 1941 Photos of the pogrom, USHMM.

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Lviv

History

Timeline Armenian Statute Dormition Brotherhood Jesuit Collegium Siege by Cossacks (1648) Siege by Cossacks (1655) Lwów Oath Siege by Turks (1675) Leopolis Triplex Stauropegion Institute Stauropegion Press Ossolineum Galician Rada Halytsko-Ruska Matytsia Prosvita Ruthenian Triad Ruthenian National House Hutsul Secession Batiars Lwów Eaglets Battle (1918) Pogrom
Pogrom
(1918) Battle (1920) Secret Ukrainian University Lwów–Warsaw school of logic Lwów School of Mathematics Battle (1939) Massacre
Massacre
of Lwów professors Lviv
Lviv
pogroms Lwów Ghetto Lwów Uprising Sknyliv air show disaster

Religion

Armenian Cathedral Cathedral of St. George Boim Chapel Bernardine Church Bridgettine Convent Carmelite Church Convent of Benedictines Church of St. Anne Church of John the Baptist Church of Mary of Snow Church of St. Elizabeth Church of St. Mary Magdalene Monastery and church of St. Onuphrius Church of the Dormition Church of the Purification, Lviv Church of the Transfiguration Dominican Church Jesuit Church Latin Cathedral

Attractions

Arena Lviv Arsenal Museum Bandinelli Palace Black Kamienica Catholic University Cemetery of the Defenders of Lwów Forum Lviv Freedom Boulevard Government House King Cross Leopolis Korniakt Palace Lviv
Lviv
High Castle Lviv
Lviv
University Lychakivskiy Cemetery Market Square Mickiewicz Square National Museum Polytechnic University Lubomirski Palace Metropolitan Palace Old Town Pharmacy Museum Potocki Palace Sapieha Palace Scottish Café Shevchenkivskyi Hai Theatre of Opera and Ballet Skarbek Theatre Town Hall Ukraina Stadium Union of Lublin Mound

Transport

International Airport Tramway Lviv
Lviv
railway station Lviv
Lviv
Suburban railway station Pidzamche railway station

v t e

The Holocaust
Holocaust
in Ukraine

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Latvia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia

Crimes

Babi Yar Drobytsky Yar Drohobych Kamianets-Podilskyi Lviv
Lviv
pogroms Mizocz Ghetto Odessa Pripyat Swamps

Major perpetrators

Paul Blobel Werner Braune Kurt Eberhard Lothar Fendler Hans Frank Günther Herrmann Friedrich Jeckeln Ernst Kaltenbrunner Fritz Katzmann Erich Koch Felix Landau Gustav Adolf Nosske Otto Ohlendorf Paul Otto Radomski Otto Rasch Walter Schimana Erwin Schulz Heinrich Seetzen Otto Wächter Dieter Wisliceny

Nazi occupation and organizations

Einsatzgruppen Police Regiment South Reichskommissariat Ukraine

Collaborators

Individuals Hryhoriy Vasiura Vladimir Katriuk Petro Voinovsky Petro Zakhvalynsky

Organizations Schutzmannschaft Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Nachtigall Battalion

Ghettos, camps and prisons

Bogdanovka Drohobych Ghetto Syrets concentration camp Vapniarka concentration camp

Resistance and survivors

Priest's Grotto Syrets inmate revolt

Planning, methods, documents and evidence

Planning Generalplan Ost Volksliste

Evidence Graebe affidavit

Concealment and denial

Sonderaktion 1005

Investigations and trials

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Righteous Among the Nations

Klymentiy Sheptytsky Omelyan Kovch Hermann Friedrich Graebe

Memorials

Babi Yar
Babi Yar
memorials List of Babi Yar
Babi Yar
victims

See also History of the Jews
Jews
in Carpathian Ruthenia Transnistria Governorate

v t e

The Holocaust
Holocaust
in Poland

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia France Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Ukraine

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Camps, ghettos and operations

Camps

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Chełmno Majdanek Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
death camps

Bełżec Sobibór Treblinka

Concentration

Kraków-Płaszów Potulice Soldau Stutthof Szebnie Trawniki Warsaw

Mass shootings

AB Action Bronna Góra Erntefest Jedwabne Kielce cemetery Aktion Krakau Lviv
Lviv
pogroms Lwów professors Palmiry Sonderaktion Krakau Tannenberg Tykocin Bydgoszcz Wąsosz Bloody Sunday

Ghettos

List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
(1939–1942) Będzin Białystok Brest Częstochowa Grodno Kielce Kraków Lwów Łódź Lubartów Lublin Międzyrzec Podlaski Mizocz Nowy Sącz Pińsk Radom Siedlce Sambor Słonim Sosnowiec Stanisławów Tarnopol Wilno Warsaw

Other atrocities

Action T4 Grossaktion Warsaw Human medical experimentation

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Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

Major perpetrators

Organizers

Josef Bühler Eichmann Eicke Ludwig Fischer Hans Frank Globocnik Glücks Greiser Himmler Hermann Höfle Fritz Katzmann Wilhelm Koppe Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger Kutschera Erwin Lambert Ernst Lerch Oswald Pohl Reinefarth Scherner Seyss-Inquart Sporrenberg Streckenbach Thomalla Otto Wächter Wisliceny

Camp command

Aumeier Baer Boger Braunsteiner Eberl Eupen Kurt Franz Karl Frenzel Karl Fritzsch Göth Grabner Hartjenstein Hering Höss Hössler Josef Kramer Liebehenschel Mandel Matthes Michel Möckel Mulka Johann Niemann Oberhauser Reichleitner Heinrich Schwarz Stangl Gustav Wagner Christian Wirth

Gas chamber executioners

Erich Bauer Bolender Hackenholt Klehr Hans Koch Herbert Lange Theuer

Physicians

von Bodmann Clauberg Gebhardt Fritz Klein Mengele Horst Schumann Trzebinski Eduard Wirths

Ghetto command

Auerswald Biebow Blösche Bürkl Konrad Palfinger von Sammern-Frankenegg Stroop

Einsatzgruppen

Wolfgang Birkner Blobel Felix Landau Schaper Schöngarth von Woyrsch

Personnel

Camp guards

Juana Bormann Danz Demjanjuk Margot Dreschel Kurt Gerstein Grese Höcker Kaduk Kollmer Muhsfeldt Orlowski Volkenrath

By camp

Sobibór Treblinka

Organizations

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
(SS) Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
(Orpo battalions) WVHA RKFDV VoMi General Government Hotel Polski

Collaboration

Belarusian

Belarusian Auxiliary Police BKA battalions Brigade Siegling Black Cats Central Rada

Jewish

Jewish Ghetto Police Żagiew ("Torch Guard") Group 13 Kapos Judenräte

Russian

Waffen-SS "RONA" Waffen-SS "Russland" Ostlegionen, Bataillone (Cossack Division, Russian "ROA")

Ukrainian

Ukrainian Auxiliary Police SS Galizien Ukrainian Liberation Army Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Battalion 118, Brigade Siegling, 30. Waffen SS Grenadier Division) Trawnikimänner

Other nationalities

Estonian Auxiliary Police Latvian Auxiliary Police
Latvian Auxiliary Police
(Arajs Kommando) Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
(Schutzmannschaft, Ypatingasis būrys) Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten
(Nederlandsche SS)

v t e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

Organizations

AK AOB Bund GL PKB ŻOB ŻZA

Uprisings

Ghetto uprisings Białystok Częstochowa Sobibór Treblinka Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising

Leaders

Mordechai Anielewicz Icchak Cukierman Mordechai Tenenbaum Marek Edelman Leon Feldhendler Paweł Frenkiel Henryk Iwański Itzhak Katzenelson Michał Klepfisz Miles Lerman Alexander Pechersky Witold Pilecki Frumka Płotnicka Roza Robota Szmul Zygielbojm

Judenrat

Jewish Ghetto Police Adam Czerniaków Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

Victim lists

Ghettos

Kraków Łódź Lvov (Lwów) Warsaw

Camps

Auschwitz Bełżec Gross-Rosen Izbica Majdanek Sobibór Soldau Stutthof Trawniki Treblinka

Documentation

Nazi sources

Auschwitz Album Frank Memorandum Höcker Album Höfle Telegram Katzmann Report Korherr Report Nisko Plan Posen speeches Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland Stroop Report Wannsee Conference

Witness accounts

Graebe affidavit Gerstein Report Vrba–Wetzler report Witold's Report Sonderkommando photographs

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

Technical and logistics

Identification in camps Gas chamber Gas van Holocaust
Holocaust
train Human medical experimentation Zyklon B

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Aftermath, trials and commemoration

Aftermath

Holocaust
Holocaust
survivors Polish population transfers (1944–1946) Bricha Kielce pogrom Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 Ministry of Public Security

Trials

West German trials

Frankfurt Auschwitz trials Treblinka trials

Polish, East German, and Soviet trials

Auschwitz trial
Auschwitz trial
(Poland) Stutthof trials Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Memorials

Museum of the History of Polish Jews Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum Majdanek State Museum Sobibór Museum International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz March of the Living

Righteous Among the Nations

Polish Righteous Among the Nations Rescue of Jews
Jews
by Poles during the Holocaust Garden of the Righteous

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Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and Einsatzkommandos

People

Director

Reinhard Heydrich Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Commanders of Einsatzgruppen

Humbert Achamer-Pifrader Walther Bierkamp Horst Böhme Erich Ehrlinger Wilhelm Fuchs Heinz Jost Erich Naumann Arthur Nebe Otto Ohlendorf Friedrich Panzinger Otto Rasch Heinrich Seetzen Franz Walter Stahlecker Bruno Streckenbach

Commanders of Einsatzkommandos, Sonderkommandos

Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski Rudolf Batz Ernst Biberstein Wolfgang Birkner Helmut Bischoff Paul Blobel Walter Blume Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock Otto Bradfisch Werner Braune Friedrich Buchardt Fritz Dietrich Karl Jäger Friedrich Jeckeln Waldemar Klingelhöfer Wolfgang Kügler Walter Kutschmann Rudolf Lange Gustav Adolf Nosske Hans-Adolf Prützmann Walter Rauff Martin Sandberger Hermann Schaper Karl Eberhard Schöngarth Erwin Schulz Franz Six Eugen Steimle Eduard Strauch Martin Weiss Udo von Woyrsch

Other members

August Becker Lothar Fendler Joachim Hamann Emil Haussmann Felix Landau Albert Widmann

Collaborators

Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs Antanas Impulevičius Konrāds Kalējs Algirdas Klimaitis

Groups

German

SS RSHA SD Orpo 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz Sonderdienst

Non-German

Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Belarusian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian) Arajs Kommando Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann TDA Ypatingasis būrys

Crimes

Belarus

Łachwa Ghetto Minsk Ghetto Slutsk Affair

Estonia

Kalevi-Liiva

Latvia

Burning of the Riga synagogues Dünamünde Action Jelgava Pogulianski Rumbula Liepāja (Šķēde)

Lithuania

Ninth Fort Kaunas June 1941 Kaunas 29 October 1941 Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
November 1941 Ponary

Poland

Operation Tannenberg Intelligenzaktion AB-Aktion Operation Reinhard

Russia

Gully of Petrushino Zmievskaya Balka Lokot Autonomy

Ukraine

Babi Yar Drobytsky Yar Drohobycz Kamianets-Podilskyi Lviv
Lviv
pogroms Mizocz Ghetto Odessa

Records

The Black Book Commissar Order Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Generalplan Ost Jäger Report Korherr Report Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland (Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen) Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
reports

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Massacres
Massacres
or pogroms against Jews

1st – 11th century

Alexandrian pogrom (38) The Great Revolt (66–73) Bar Kokhba revolt (132–136) Jewish revolt against Constantius Gallus (351–352) Jewish revolt against Heraclius (614–617) Córdoba massacre (1013) Fez massacre (1033) Granada massacre (1066) Gzerot Tatenu (Rhineland massacres) (1096)

Worms massacre Speyer massacre Mainz massacre

12th – 19th century

Ham massacre (1143) Rintfleisch massacres (1298) Black Death Jewish persecutions
Black Death Jewish persecutions
(1348–1350)

Erfurt massacre Basel massacre Speyer massacre Strasbourg massacre

Brussels massacre
Brussels massacre
(1370) Massacre
Massacre
of the Assumption (1474) Spanish Inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
(1478) Arles pogrom (1484) Lisbon massacre
Lisbon massacre
(1506) Hebron pogrom (1517) Safed pogrom (1517) Portuguese Inquisition
Portuguese Inquisition
(1536) Chmielnicki massacres
Chmielnicki massacres
(1648–1657) Safed massacre (1660) Mawza Exile
Mawza Exile
(1679) Massacre
Massacre
of Uman (1768) Hep-Hep riots
Hep-Hep riots
(1819) First Odessa pogrom (1821) Tzfat pogrom
Tzfat pogrom
(1834) Hebron pogrom (1834) Safed massacre (1838) Allahdad (1839) Damascus affair
Damascus affair
(1840) Second Odessa pogrom (1859) Third Odessa pogrom (1871) Storms in the Negev (1881–1884)

Kiev pogrom Warsaw pogrom Fourth Odessa pogrom

20th century

1900–1936

Częstochowa pogrom (1902) Kishinev pogrom
Kishinev pogrom
(1903) Zablotov pogrom (1903) Kiev pogrom (1905) Fifth Odessa pogrom (1905) Kishinev pogrom
Kishinev pogrom
(1905) Białystok pogrom
Białystok pogrom
(1906) Siedlce pogrom
Siedlce pogrom
(1906) The Tritl
The Tritl
(1912) Skver pogrom (1917) Lwów pogrom (1918) Lida pogrom (1919) Radomishel pogrom (1919) Justingrad pogrom (1919) Skver pogroms (1919) Zvil pogrom (1919) Pinsk massacre
Pinsk massacre
(1919) Proskurov pogrom
Proskurov pogrom
(1919) The Kiev pogroms (1919) Zavirtcha pogrom (1921) Safed massacre (1929) Hebron massacre (1929) Constantine pogrom (1934) Thrace pogroms (1934) The Bloody Day in Jaffa (1936) Przytyk pogrom
Przytyk pogrom
(1936)

1938–1945

Tiberias massacre (1938) Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
(1938) Częstochowa massacre
Częstochowa massacre
(1939) Dynów massacre (1939) Silc massacre (1939) Dorohoi pogrom
Dorohoi pogrom
(1940) Bucharest pogrom
Bucharest pogrom
(1941) Gabès pogrom (1941) Iași pogrom
Iași pogrom
(1941) Jedwabne pogrom
Jedwabne pogrom
(1941) Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre
Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre
(1941) Lviv
Lviv
pogroms (1941) Ponary massacre
Ponary massacre
(1941) Rumbula massacre
Rumbula massacre
(1941) The Farhud
The Farhud
(1941) Odessa massacre (1941) The Holocaust
Holocaust
(1941–1945) Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising (1943) Topoľčany pogrom
Topoľčany pogrom
(1945) Kraków pogrom
Kraków pogrom
(1945) Kolbasov pogrom (1945) Tripolitania pogrom (1945) Cairo pogrom (1945)

1946–1999

Kielce pogrom
Kielce pogrom
(1946) Kunmadaras pogrom (1946) Miskolc pogrom (1946) Haifa Oil Refinery massacre
Haifa Oil Refinery massacre
(1947) Aden pogrom (1947) Aleppo pogrom (1947) Manama pogrom (1947) Tripoli pogrom (1948) The Djerada
The Djerada
(1948) Ben Yehuda Street bombing (1948) Cairo bombings (1948) Kfar Etzion massacre
Kfar Etzion massacre
(1948) Menarsha synagogue attack (1949) Night of the Murdered Poets (1952) Scorpion Pass massacre
Scorpion Pass massacre
(1954) Shafrir synagogue shooting (1956) Purge of Polish Jews
Jews
(1968) Avivim school bus massacre
Avivim school bus massacre
(1970) Munich massacre
Munich massacre
(1972) Lod Airport massacre
Lod Airport massacre
(1972) Ma'alot massacre
Ma'alot massacre
(1974) Kiryat Shmona massacre
Kiryat Shmona massacre
(1974) Ben Yehuda Street bombing (1975) Coastal Road massacre
Coastal Road massacre
(1978) Nahariya massacre (1979) Paris synagogue bombing (1980) Antwerp summer camp attack (1980) Antwerp bombing (1981) Vienna synagogue attack (1981) Goldenberg restaurant massacre (1982) Ras Burqa massacre
Ras Burqa massacre
(1985) Purim stabbing (1989) Cairo bus attack (1990) Crown Heights riots
Crown Heights riots
(1991) AMIA bombing
AMIA bombing
(1994) Dizengoff Street bus bombing
Dizengoff Street bus bombing
(1994) Beit Lid massacre
Beit Lid massacre
(1995) Purim massacre (1996) Island of Peace massacre
Island of Peace massacre
(1997) Mahane Yehuda Market massacre (1997) Los Angeles Jewish Community Center shooting (1999)

21st century

Dolphinarium discotheque massacre
Dolphinarium discotheque massacre
(2001) Sbarro massacre
Sbarro massacre
(2001) Ghriba synagogue bombing
Ghriba synagogue bombing
(2002) Bat Mitzvah massacre
Bat Mitzvah massacre
(2002) Yeshivat Beit Yisrael massacre
Yeshivat Beit Yisrael massacre
(2002) Passover massacre
Passover massacre
(2002) Matza restaurant bombing (2002) Hebrew University massacre
Hebrew University massacre
(2002) Rishon LeZion bombing (2002) Matzuva attack
Matzuva attack
(2002) Istanbul bombings (2003) Tel Aviv Central Bus Station massacre
Tel Aviv Central Bus Station massacre
(2003) Davidka Square bus bombing
Davidka Square bus bombing
(2003) Café Hillel bombing
Café Hillel bombing
(2003) Maxim restaurant massacre (2003) Shmuel HaNavi massacre (2003) Haifa bus massacre (2003) Beersheba bus bombings
Beersheba bus bombings
(2004) Ashdod Port bombings (2004) Seattle Jewish Federation shooting
Seattle Jewish Federation shooting
(2006) Tel Aviv shawarma bombing (2006) Mercaz HaRav massacre
Mercaz HaRav massacre
(2008) Burgas bus bombing (2012) Toulouse and Montauban shootings
Toulouse and Montauban shootings
(2012) Jerusalem synagogue massacre (2014) Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting
Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting
(2015) Kosher market siege (2015) Tel Aviv synagogue stabbing (2015) Tel Aviv shooting (2016) Halami

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