HOME
The Info List - Lviv Pogroms


--- Advertisement ---



(i)

The LVIV POGROMS were the consecutive massacres of Jews
Jews
living in the city of Lwów (now Lviv
Lviv
, Ukraine), perpetrated by Ukrainian troops serving under Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
from 30 June to 2 July 1941, and from 25 to 29 July 1941, during the Wehrmacht's attack on Soviet-occupied eastern Poland in World War II. The German historian Peter Longerich
Peter Longerich
and the Holocaust Encyclopedia estimate that the first pogrom cost at least 4,000 lives. It was followed by the additional 2,500 to 3,000 arrests and executions in subsequent Einsatzgruppe killings, and culminated in the so-called "Petlura Days" massacre of more than 2,000 Jews, all killed in a one-month span. Prior to the 1939 invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and the Soviet Union and the ensuing Holocaust
Holocaust
in Europe, the city of Lviv
Lviv
had the third-largest Jewish population in Poland during the interwar period , which swelled further to over 200,000 Jews
Jews
as the refugees fled east from the Nazis.

CONTENTS

* 1 First pogrom

* 1.1 Killings by Einsatzgruppe

* 2 Petlura days * 3 Aftermath * 4 Controversy * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

FIRST POGROM

Immediately after the German army entered Lviv, the prison gates were opened and the scale of the NKVD prisoner massacres carried out by the Soviets revealed. An OUN member estimated 10,000 dead victims at Brygidki , although the numbers were later adjusted by the German investigation down to 4,000 in total. The report drafted by Judge Möller singled out the Jews
Jews
as responsible for the Soviet atrocities in accordance with the Nazi theory of Judeo-Bolshevism , even though Polish Jews
Jews
had nothing to do with the NKVD killings. As observed by British-Polish historian Prof. Norman Davies : "in the personnel of the Soviet security police at the time, the high percentage of Jews was striking." The Einsatzgruppe C with the participation of Ukrainian National Militia, and the OUN leaders, organized the first pogrom, chiefly in revenge for the combined killings at Lviv's three prisons including Brygidki , Łąckiego and Zamarstynowska Street prisons. The German report stated that the majority of the Soviet murder victims were Ukrainian. Although a significant number of Jewish prisoners had also been among the victims of the NKVD massacres (including intellectuals and political activists), the Polish Jews were targeted collectively. An ad hoc Ukrainian People\'s Militia – which would soon be reorganized by Himmler
Himmler
as the Ukrainische Hilfspolizei (Ukrainian Auxiliary Police) – was assembled to spearhead the first pogrom . In the presence of the newly arrived German forces, the infuriated and irrational crowd took the violent actions against the Jewish population of the city. The German propaganda made newsreels that purported to implicate Soviet Jews
Jews
in the killing of Ukrainians, and the German Foreign Office relayed them to Switzerland.

Historians have since established that the David Lee Preston collection of photographs once believed to show the victims of NKVD killings, is in fact showing the victims of a subsequent pogrom. Jakob Weiss in his Lemberg Mosaic wrote that initially the Ukrainian militia acted independently – with the blessings of the SS – but later were limited to joint operations (Aktions) with German units or otherwise functioned directly under Nazi command. The Ukrainian militia received assistance from the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists , unorganized ethnic nationalists, as well as from ordinary crowd and even underage youth. At least two members of the OUN-B , Ivan Kovalyshyn and Mykhaylo Pecharsʹkyy, have been identified by Prof. John Paul Himka from several photographs of the pogrom. Holocaust
Holocaust
scholar and survivor, Filip Friedman from Lviv, uncovered an official Report of the Reich Security Main Office which documented the massacre as follows: "During the first hours after the departure of the Bolsheviks , the Ukrainian population took praiseworthy action against the Jews... About 7,000 Jews
Jews
were seized and shot by the police in retribution for inhuman acts of cruelty ..." (dated 16 July 1941).

KILLINGS BY EINSATZGRUPPE

Almost immediately after the first pogrom, in the beginning of July 1941 the Einsatzgruppe C attached to the Army Group South
Army Group South
in the invasion of Poland under the command of SS-Brigadeführer Otto Rasch made some 2,500 to 3,000 arrests in Lviv
Lviv
based on lists drawn by OUN, and gathered the detainees in the municipal stadium located next to their own headquarters. Among the prisoners kept overnight and beaten were non-Jewish Poles and scores of people accused of anti-Nazi reputation. The following day, under the supervision of Otto Rasch, the captives were trucked away in groups to a remote killing site (see Janowska concentration camp ). The shootings were carried out by Einsatzkommandos 5 and 6 until dawn. Those, still alive at the end of the day were released, although their numbers can only be approximated. A new list of targets delivered by OUN with the aid of Ukrainian students singled out university professors. The academics were arrested along with families and guests on 3–4 July 1941 by the Germans assisted by the Ukrainian guides, split in two groups and massacred at the Wuleckie Hills nearby. Among the 40 victims at least two academics were of Jewish background, Dr. Stanisław (Salomon) Ruff, and Prof. Henryk Hilarowicz (son of Józef Nusbaum, famous zoologist who converted to Catholicism in 1907).

The SS executioners left Lviv
Lviv
several days later according to deposition of Brigadeführer Erwin Schulz
Erwin Schulz
, to conduct similar actions in Berdychiv and Zhytomyr . The all-Ukrainian Nachtigall Battalion – which entered Lviv
Lviv
along with them on 30 June 1941 – also left the city on 7 July, in the direction of Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
. The participation of the Nachtigall regiment in the 3–7 July massacres is presently disputed by Ukraine in spite of numerous eye-witness testimonies, because their uniforms looked similar.

PETLURA DAYS

A second pogrom took place in the last days of July 1941 and was labeled "Petlura Days" (Aktion Petliura) after the assassinated Ukrainian leader Symon Petliura
Symon Petliura
. The killings were organized with German encouragement, but the pogrom also had ominous undertones of religious bigotry with Andrey Sheptytsky 's awareness, and with Ukrainian militants from outside the city joining the fray with farm tools. Sheptytsky became disillusioned with Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
only in mid-1942 after his National Council was banned, with thousands of Ukrainians sent to slave labour. In the morning of 25 July 1941 the Ukrainian auxiliary police began arresting Jews
Jews
in their homes, while the civilians participated in acts of violence against them in the streets. Captured Jews
Jews
were dragged to the Jewish cemetery and to the Łąckiego Street prison, where they were fatally shot out of the public eye. Ukrainian police circulated in groups of five and consulted prepared lists from OUN. Some 2,000 people were murdered in approximately three days. Thousands of other Jews
Jews
were injured out in the open.

AFTERMATH

According to historian of the Holocaust
Holocaust
Richard Breitman 5,000 Jews died as a result of these pogroms. In addition, some 3,000 mostly Jews were executed in the municipal stadium by the Germans. The German propaganda passed off all victims of the NKVD killings in Lviv
Lviv
as Ukrainians even though the lists of prisoners left behind by the Soviets had about one-third of distinctly Polish and Jewish names in them. Over the next two years both German and pro-Nazi Ukrainian press including Ukrains'ki shchodenni visti, Krakivs\'ki visti and others, went on to describe horrific acts of chekist torture (real or imagined) with the number of Ukrainian casualties multiplied out of thin air, wrote Professor John-Paul Himka .

The Lwów Ghetto was established in November 1941 on the orders of SS - Gruppenführer
Gruppenführer
Fritz Katzmann
Fritz Katzmann
, the Higher SS and Police Leader (SSPF) of Lemberg and one of the most prolific mass murderers in the SS. At its peak, the Ghetto held some 120,000 Jews, most of whom were deported to the Belzec extermination camp or killed locally during the next two years. Following the 1941 pogroms and Einsatzgruppe killings, harsh conditions in the Lwów Ghetto, and deportations to the Nazi concentration camps
Nazi concentration camps
, including Belzec and the Janowska concentration camp located on the outskirts of the city, resulted in the almost complete annihilation of the Jewish population locally. When the Soviet forces reached and took over Lviv
Lviv
on 21 July 1944, only 823 Jews
Jews
found their way back to the Jewish Provisional Committee in Lviv
Lviv
by Dr. David Sobol.

CONTROVERSY

Main article: Controversy surrounding the Lviv
Lviv
pogroms of 1941

The nature of the Lviv
Lviv
pogroms and their identifiable perpetrators remain controversial. Documents released in 2008 by the Ukrainian Security Services indicated that the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists may have been involved to a lesser degree than originally thought. However, this collection of documents titled "For the Beginning: Book of Facts" (Do pochatku knyha faktiv) has been recognized by historians including John-Paul Himka, Per Anders Rudling , Marco Carynnyk, and Franziska Bruder, as an attempt at manipulating World War II history.

SEE ALSO

* History of the Jews in Ukraine
History of the Jews in Ukraine
* History of the Jews in Poland
History of the Jews in Poland
* Kaunas pogrom

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D USHMM. "Lwów". Holocaust Encyclopedia . United States Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2015. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link ) * ^ A B N.M.T. (1945). "Trials of War Criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals" (PDF direct download). Volume IV : "The Einsatzgruppen Case" complete, 1210 pages. Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10. pp. 542–543 in PDF (518–519 in original document). Retrieved 1 March 2015. With N.M.T. commentary to testimony of Erwin Schulz
Erwin Schulz
(p. 543 in PDF). * ^ Longerich, Peter (2010). Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-19-280436-5 . * ^ Stefan Szende, The Promise Hitler Kept, London 1945, p. 124. OCLC
OCLC
758315597. * ^ A B C D Alfred de Zayas (2000). "The Lviv
Lviv
Massacre". The Wehrmacht War Crimes Bureau, 1939-1945. AlfreddeZayas.com. Retrieved 2 March 2015. Cheka-GPU-NKVD by Prytulak (de Zayas). * ^ Ronald Headland (1992). Messages of Murder: A Study of the Reports of the Einsatzgruppen of the Security Police and the Security Service, 1941-1943. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. pp. 111–112. ISBN 0838634184 – via Google Books. * ^ Mark Paul (2013). Neighbours On the Eve of the Holocaust
Holocaust
(PDF). Polish-Jewish Relations in Soviet-Occupied Eastern Poland, 1939–1941. Chapter: Arrests, Executions and Deportations. PEFINA Press, Toronto. pp. 32–33. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2013. * ^ A B John Paul Himka (2015). "Ще кілька слів про львівський погром. ФОТО: Михайло Печарський". Lviv
Lviv
pogrom of 1941. Історична правда. Retrieved 6 March 2015. Also: Иван Ковалишин. * ^ A B Yevhen Nakonechny (2006). "Шоа" у Львові (DjVu ). Львів: ЛА «Піраміда». pp. 98–99 or 50 in current document (1/284 or 1/143 digitized). ISBN 966-8522-47-8 . Retrieved 13 February 2015 – via Історія @ EX.UA, direct download (7.7 MB). * ^ Jakob Weiss, The Lemberg Mosaic in (New York: Alderbrook Press, 2011) pp. 165-174 (Prison Massacre), 206-210 ("Petlura Days" or Aktion Petlura). * ^ Himka, John-Paul (2011). "The Lviv
Lviv
Pogrom
Pogrom
of 1941: The Germans, Ukrainian Nationalists, and the Carnival Crowd". Canadian Slavonic Papers. 53 (2–4): 209–243. ISSN 0008-5006 . * ^ John-Paul Himka (2014). "Ethnicity and the Reporting of Mass Murder: "Krakivs\'ki visti", the NKVD Murders of 1941, and the Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
Exhumation". Chapter: Ethnicizing the Perpetrators. University of Alberta. Retrieved 1 March 2015. * ^ Bogdan Musial , Bilder einer Ausstellung: Kritische Anmerkungen zur Wanderausstellung "Vernichtungskrieg. Verbrechen der Wehrmacht 1941 bis 1944." Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 47. Jahrg., 4. H. (October 1999): 563–581. "David Lee Preston collection." * ^ Jakob Weiss, Lemberg Mosaic, p. 173 * ^ Piotrowski 1998, page 209. * ^ A B C N.M.T. 1945, Volume IV : "The Einsatzgruppen Case", ibidem pp. 165–167. * ^ A B C Zygmunt Albert, Kaźń profesorów lwowskich w lipcu 1941 roku Instytut Lwowski 2004, Warszawa. Studia oraz relacje i dokumenty zebrane i oprac. przez Zygmunta Alberta Wrocław 1989, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego; ISBN 83-229-0351-0 , pp. 180-181 * ^ A B The Simon Wiesenthal Center (1997) . "Invasion of the Soviet Union". Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. Macmillan Publishing Company. Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2015. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link ) * ^ A B C IPN — Oddziałowa Komisja w Rzeszowie, Śledztwo w sprawie zabójstwa profesorów polskich wyższych uczelni, członków ich rodzin oraz współmieszkańców, we Lwowie w lipcu 1941 roku, podjęte na nowo z umorzenia w dniu 25 lutego 2003 roku Sygn. S 5/03/Zn, pp. 36-37 (PDF file, direct download). Institute of National Remembrance. Retrieved 16 March 2015. * ^ Piotrowski 1998, page 208. * ^ Freider Mikhail Sanevich (2012). "A history of Jewish shtetls in the Yarmolintsy district". Road to father. Ukraine SIG. Retrieved 15 March 2015. * ^ Чуев Сергей (2004). Проклятые солдаты. Предатели на стороне III рейха . Эксмо. ISBN 5-699-05970-9 . Retrieved 2 March 2015. Online preview, Russian original. * ^ Є. Побігущій, Дружини українських націоналістів у 1941 — 1942 роках . – Без місця видання, 1953. – С. 6; pp. 109–110, excerpts with commentaries: 1. 2. * ^ Andreas Jordan (September 2008). "Oberländer, Theodor (Professor Dr.) (NSDAP/ CDU)". Eine Auswahl Deutscher Nazi-Karrieren nach 1945. GELSENZENTRUM - Gelsenkirchen, Portal
Portal
zur Aufarbeitung und Dokumentation lokaler zeitgeschichtlicher Ereignisse in Gelsenkirchen. Retrieved 15 March 2015. * ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski (1998), Poland\'s Holocaust. McFarland, pp. 207-211. ISBN 0786403713 . * ^ A B Mordecai Paldiel (2000). Saving the Jews: Men and Women who Defied the Final Solution. Taylor Trade Publications. pp. 362–364. ISBN 1589797345 . Retrieved 16 March 2015. * ^ A B PAP (10 September 2012). "Rocznica likwidacji lwowskiego getta" . Kartka z kalendarza. Polska Agencja Prasowa . Retrieved 16 March 2015. * ^ David Cymet (2012). History vs. Apologetics: The Holocaust, the Third Reich, and the Catholic Church. Lexington Books. p. 232. ISBN 0739132954 . Retrieved 16 March 2015. * ^ Carmelo Lisciotto (2007). "25 July 1941 pogrom in Lvov" (HolocaustResearchProject.org). Lvov. H.E.A.R.T. Retrieved 16 March 2015. * ^ Helena Ganor (2007). Four Letters to the Witnesses of My Childhood (Google Books preview). Syracuse University Press. p. 57. ISBN 0815608691 . Retrieved 16 March 2015. * ^ Richard Breitman. " Himmler
Himmler
and the 'Terrible Secret' among the Executioners". Journal of Contemporary History; Vol. 26, No. 3/4: The Impact of Western Nationalisms; essays dedicated to Walter Z. Laqueur on the occasion of his 70th birthday (Sep. 1991), pp. 431-451 * ^ John-Paul Himka , Professor of Ukrainian and East European history at the University of Alberta
University of Alberta
(2014). "Ethnicity and the Reporting of Mass Murder: "Krakivs\'ki visti", the NKVD Murders of 1941, and the Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
Exhumation". Chapter: Ethnicizing the Perpetrators. University of Alberta. Retrieved 1 March 2015. * ^ Waldemar „Scypion” Sadaj (January 27, 2010). "Fritz Friedrich Katzmann". SS- Gruppenführer
Gruppenführer
und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS und Polizei. Allgemeine SS & Waffen-SS. Retrieved 31 January 2015. * ^ Claudia Koonz (November 2, 2005). "SS Man Katzmann\'s "Solution of the Jewish Question in the District of Galicia"" (PDF). The Raul Hilberg Lecture. University of Vermont: 2, 11, 16–18. Retrieved 30 January 2015. * ^ Dr. Filip Friedman (2007). Zaglada Zydow Lwowskich . Chapter 2. Wydawnictwa Centralnej Zydowskiej Komisji Historycznej przy Centralnym Komitecie Zydow Polskich Nr 4. OCLC
OCLC
38706656 . Archived from the original on 6 November 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2015. English translation of the Russian edition (excerpts). CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ "SBU declassifies documents proving OUN-UPA not connected with anti-Jewish actions". unian.net. 6 February 2008. Retrieved 2 September