Lviv (Ukrainian: Львів [lʲʋiu̯] (listen); Polish: Lwów
[lvuf] (listen), Russian: Львов Lvov [lʲvof]; German:
Lemberg; Latin: Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in
Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall,
with a population of 724,713 as of January 2019.
Lviv is one of the
main cultural centres of Ukraine.
Named in honour of Leo, the eldest son of Daniel, King of Ruthenia, it
was the capital of the
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia (also called the
Kingdom of Ruthenia) from 1272 to 1349, when it was
conquered by King
Casimir III the Great
Casimir III the Great who then became known as the
Poland and Ruthenia. From 1434, it was the regional capital of
Ruthenian Voivodeship in the Kingdom of Poland. In 1772, after
the First Partition of Poland, the city became the capital of the
Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. In 1918, for a short time,
it was the capital of the West Ukrainian People's Republic. Between
the wars, the city was the centre of the
Lwów Voivodeship in the
Second Polish Republic.
After the German-
Soviet invasion of Poland
Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939,
Lviv became part
Soviet Union, and in 1944–46 there was a population exchange
Soviet Ukraine. In 1991, it became part of the
independent nation of Ukraine.
Lviv serves as the administrative centre of Lviv
Oblast and has the status of city of oblast significance.
Lviv was the centre of the historical regions of
Red Ruthenia and
Galicia. The historical heart of the city, with its old buildings and
cobblestone streets, survived
Soviet and German occupations during
World War II largely unscathed. The city has many industries and
institutions of higher education such as
Lviv University and Lviv
Lviv is also the home of many cultural institutions,
including a philharmonic orchestra and the
Lviv Theatre of Opera and
Ballet. The historic city centre is on the
UNESCO World Heritage List.
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ul display:none Contents
3.1 Galicia–Volhynia Wars
3.2 Kingdom of Poland
3.3 Habsburg Empire
3.3.1 First World War
3.4 Polish–Ukrainian War
3.5 Interbellum period
3.6 World War II and the
3.7 German occupation
3.8 Liberation from Nazis
3.10 Independent Ukraine
4 Administrative division
5.1 Historical populations
5.2 The ethnic Polish population
5.3 The Jewish population
7.5 Theatre and opera
7.6 Museums and art galleries
7.8 Universities and academia
7.10 Print and media
7.11 In cinema and literature
9 Popular culture
10 Public transportation
10.2 Air transport
10.3 Bicycle lanes
12 Notable people
12.1 Writers and authors
12.2 Musicians and composers
12.3 Philosophers, scholars, and doctors
12.4 Chess and gaming
12.5 Actors, singers, and directors
12.7 Military leaders
12.8 Government officials and politicians
13 International relations
13.1 Twin towns and sister cities
14 See also
17 External links
Besides its Ukrainian name, the city is also known by several other
names in different languages: Polish: Lwów; German: Lemberg, Yiddish:
לעמבערג, Lemberg, or לעמבעריק, Lèmberik;
Russian: Львов, Lvov; Hungarian: Ilyvó; Serbo-Croatian: Lavov;
Romanian: Liov; Latin: Leopolis (meaning "lion city", from Ancient
Greek, Λέων Πόλις); Crimean Tatar: İlbav; see also other
Lviv satellite view (Sentinel-2, 14 August 2017)
Lviv is located on the edge of the Roztochia Upland, approximately 70
kilometres (43 miles) from the Polish border and 160 kilometres (99
miles) from the eastern Carpathian Mountains. The average altitude of
Lviv is 296 metres (971 feet) above sea level. Its highest point is
the Vysokyi Zamok (High Castle), 409 meters (1342 feet) above sea
level. This castle has a commanding view of the historic city centre
with its distinctive green-domed churches and intricate architecture.
The old walled city was at the foothills of the High Castle on the
banks of the River Poltva. In the 13th century, the river was used to
transport goods. In the early 20th century, the Poltva was covered
over in areas where it flows through the city; the river flows
directly beneath the central street of Lviv, Freedom Avenue (Prospect
Svobody) and the
Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet.
Lviv's climate is humid continental (Köppen climate classification
Dfb) with cold winters and mild summers. The average
temperatures are −3.1 °C (26 °F) in January and
18.3 °C (65 °F) in July. The average annual
rainfall is 745 mm (29 in) with the maximum being in
summer. Mean sunshine duration per year at
Lviv is about
Climate data for Lviv
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average rainy days
Average snowy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: Pogoda.ru.net, NOAA (sun only
History of Lviv
History of Lviv and Timeline of Lviv
Archaeologists have demonstrated that the
Lviv area was settled by the
5th century. The area between the Castle Hill and the
river Poltva was continuously settled since the 9th
century. In 1977 it was discovered that the Orthodox church
of St. Nicholas had been built on a previously functioning
cemetery. The city of
Lviv was founded by King Daniel of
Galicia (1201—1264) in the
Principality of Halych
Principality of Halych of Kingdom of Rus`
and named in honour of his son Lev as
Lwihorod which is consistent with
name of other Ukrainian cities such as Myrhorod, Sharhorod, Novhorod,
Bilhorod, Horodyshche, Horodok and many others.
A 17th century portrait depicting Knyaz Lev of Galicia-Volhynia with
the city of
Lviv in the background
Lviv was invaded by the Tatars in 1261. Various sources
relate the events which range from destruction of the castle through
to a complete razing of the town. All the sources agree that it was on
the orders of the Mongol general Burundai. The Shevchenko Scientific
Society (Naukove tovarystvo im. Shevchenka) informs that the order to
raze the city was reduced by Burundai. The Galician-Volhynian
chronicle states that in 1261 "Said Buronda to Vasylko: 'Since you are
at peace with me then raze all your castles'". Basil
Dmytryshyn states that the order was implied to be the fortifications
as a whole "If you wish to have peace with me, then destroy [all
fortifications of] your towns". According to the
Universal-Lexicon der Gegenwart und Vergangenheit the town's founder
was ordered to destroy the town himself.
After King Daniel's death, King Lev rebuilt the town around the year
1270 at its present location, choosing
Lviv as his
residence, and made
Lviv the capital of
Galicia-Volhynia. The city is first mentioned in the
Halych-Volhynian Chronicle regarding the events that were dated 1256.
The town grew quickly due to an influx of Polish people from Kraków,
Poland, after they had suffered a widespread famine there.
Armenians lived in Galicia and were mainly based in Lviv
where they had their own Archbishop. In the 13th and early
Lviv was largely a wooden city, except for its several
stone churches. Some of them, like the Church of Saint Nicholas, have
survived to this day, although in a thoroughly rebuilt
form. The town was inherited by the Grand Duchy of
Lithuania in 1340 and ruled by voivode Dmytro Dedko, the favourite of
the Lithuanian prince Lubart, until 1349.
During the wars over the succession of Galicia-Volhynia Principality
in 1339 King Casimir III of
Poland undertook an expedition and
Lviv in 1340, burning down the old princely
Poland ultimately gained control over
Lviv and the
adjacent region in 1349. From then on the population was subjected to
attempts to both Polonize and Catholicize the population.
The Lithuanians ravaged
Lviv land in 1351 during the Halych-Volhyn
Lviv being plundered and destroyed by prince
Liubartas in 1353. Casimir built a new city
center (or founded a new town) in a basin, surrounded it by walls, and
replaced the wooden palace by masonry castle – one of the two built
by him. The old (Ruthenian)
settlement, after it had been rebuilt, became known as the Krakovian
In 1356 Casimir brought in more Germans and within seven years granted
Magdeburg rights which implied that all city matters were to be
resolved by a council elected by the wealthy citizens. The city
council seal of the 14th century stated: S(igillum): Civitatis
Lembvrgensis. In 1358 the city became a seat of Roman Catholic
Archdiocese of Lviv, which initiated spread of
Latin Church onto the
After Casimir had died in 1370, he was succeeded as king of
his nephew, King Louis I of Hungary, who in 1372 put
with the region of
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia under the
administration of his relative Vladislaus II of Opole, Duke of
Opole. When in 1387 Władysław retreated from the post of
its governor, Galicia-Volhynia became occupied by the Hungarians, but
soon Jadwiga, the youngest daughter of Louis, but also ruler of Poland
and wife of King of
Poland Władysław II Jagiełło, unified it
directly with the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland.
Kingdom of Poland
Lviv High Castle, fragment of engraving by A. Gogenberg, 17th
In 1349, the
Kingdom of Ruthenia
Kingdom of Ruthenia with its capital
Lviv was annexed by
the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. The kingdom was transformed into
the Ruthenian domain of the Crown with capital in Lwów. On 17 June
Casimir III the Great
Casimir III the Great granted it Magdeburg rights. In 1362,
the High Castle was completely rebuilt with stone replacing the
previous made out of wood. The city's prosperity during the following
centuries is owed to the trade privileges granted to it by Casimir,
Queen Jadwiga and the subsequent Polish monarchs. Germans,
Poles and Czechs formed the largest groups of newcomers. Most of the
settlers were polonised by the end of the 15th century, and the city
became a Polish island surrounded by Orthodox Ruthenian
A painting by
Jan Matejko of King
John II Casimir
John II Casimir pledging his
famous oath in Lwów's Latin Cathedral
In 1412, the local archdiocese has developed into the Roman Catholic
Metropolis, which since 1375 as diocese had been in
Halych. The new metropolis included regional diocese in
Lwow, Przemysl, Chelm, Wlodzimierz, Luck, Kamieniec, as well as Siret
and Kijow (see Old Cathedral of St. Sophia, Kiev). First Catholic
Archbishop who resided in Lwów was Jan Rzeszowski.
In 1434, the Ruthenian domain of the Crown was transformed into the
Ruthenian Voivodeship. In 1444, the city was granted the staple right,
which resulted in its growing prosperity and wealth, as it became one
of major trading centres on the merchant routes between Central Europe
Black Sea region. It was also transformed into one of the main
fortresses of the kingdom, and was a royal city, like
Gdańsk. During the 17th century, Lwów was the second largest city of
the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, with the population of about
In 1572, one of the first publishers of books in what is now Ukraine,
Ivan Fedorov, a graduate of the
University of Kraków, settled here
for a brief period. The city became a significant centre for Eastern
Orthodoxy with the establishment of an Orthodox brotherhood, a
Greek-Slavonic school and a printer which published the first full
versions of the Bible in Church Slavonic in 1580. A Jesuit Collegium
was founded in 1608, and on 20 January 1661 King
John II Casimir
John II Casimir of
Poland issued a decree granting it "the honour of the academy and the
title of the university".
The 17th century brought invading armies of Swedes,
Russians and Cossacks to its gates. In 1648 an army of
Cossacks and Crimean Tatars besieged the town. They captured the High
Castle, murdering its defenders, but the city itself was not sacked
due to the fact that the leader of the revolution Bohdan Khmelnytsky
accepted a ransom of 250,000 ducats, and the
north-west towards Zamość. It was one of two major cities in Poland
which was not captured during the so-called Deluge: the other one was
Gdańsk (Danzig). At that time, Lwów witnessed a historic scene, as
John II Casimir
John II Casimir made his famous Lwów Oath. On 1 April 1656,
during a holy mass in Lwów's Cathedral, conducted by the papal legate
Pietro Vidoni, John Casimir in a grandiose and elaborate ceremony
entrusted the Commonwealth under the Blessed Virgin Mary's protection,
whom he announced as The Queen of the Polish Crown and other of his
countries. He also swore to protect the Kingdom's folk from any
impositions and unjust bondage.
Two years later, John Casimir, in honour of bravery of its residents,
declared Lwów to be equal to two historic capitals of the
Kraków and Wilno. In the same year, 1658, Pope
Alexander VII declared the city to be Semper fidelis, in recognition
of its key role in defending
Europe and Roman-Catholicism from Muslim
In 1672 it was surrounded by the Ottomans who also failed to conquer
it. Three years later, the
Battle of Lwów (1675)
Battle of Lwów (1675) took place near the
city. Lwów was captured for the first time since the
Middle Ages by a
foreign army in 1704 when Swedish troops under King Charles XII
entered the city after a short siege. The plague of the early 18th
century caused the death of about 10,000 inhabitants (40% of the
In 1772, following the First Partition of Poland, the region was
annexed by the
Habsburg Monarchy to the Austrian Partition. Known in
German as Lemberg, the city became the capital of the Kingdom of
Galicia and Lodomeria. Lemberg grew dramatically during 19th century,
increasing in population from approximately 30,000 at the time of the
Austrian annexation in 1772, to 196,000 by
1910 and to 212,000 three years later; while
the poverty in Austrian Galicia was raging. In the late
18th and early 19th centuries a large influx of Austrians and
German-speaking Czech bureaucrats gave the city a character that by
the 1840s were quite Austrian, in its orderliness and in the
appearance and popularity of Austrian coffeehouses.
In 1773, the first newspaper in Lemberg, Gazette de Leopoli, began to
be published. In 1784, a latin language university was opened with
lectures in German, Polish and even Ruthenian; after closing again in
1805, it was reopened in 1817. By 1825 German became the sole language
Racławice Panorama opened in 1894
During the 19th century, the Austrian administration attempted to
Germanise the city's educational and governmental institutions. Many
cultural organisations which did not have a pro-German orientation
were closed. After the revolutions of 1848, the language of
instruction at the university shifted from German to include Ukrainian
and Polish. Around that time, a certain sociolect developed in the
city known as the Lwów dialect. Considered to be a type of Polish
dialect, it draws its roots from numerous other languages besides
Polish. In 1853, street lighting was introduced Ignacy Łukasiewicz
and Jan Zeh. In that year kerosene lamps were introduced as street
lights. Then in 1858, these were updated to gas lamps, and in 1900 to
After the so-called "Ausgleich" of February 1867, the Austrian Empire
was reformed into a dualist Austria-
Hungary and a slow yet steady
process of liberalisation of Austrian rule in Galicia started. From
1873, Galicia was 'de facto' an autonomous province of Austria-Hungary
with Polish and Ruthenian, as official languages.
halted and the censorship lifted as well. Galicia was subject to the
Austrian part of the Dual Monarchy, but the Galician Sejm and
provincial administration, both established in Lviv, had extensive
privileges and prerogatives, especially in education, culture, and
local affairs. The city started to grow rapidly, becoming the 4th
largest in Austria-Hungary, according to the census of 1910. Many
Belle Époque public edifices and tenement houses were erected, the
buildings from the Austrian period, such as the
Lviv Theatre of Opera
and Ballet built in the Viennese neo-Renaissance style, still dominate
and characterise much of the centre of the city.
The Galician Sejm (till 1918), since 1920 the Jan Kazimierz
During Habsburg rule,
Lviv became one of the most important Polish,
Ukrainian and Jewish cultural centres. In Lviv, according to the
Austrian census of 1910, which listed religion and language, 51% of
the city's population were Roman Catholics, 28% Jews, and 19% belonged
Ukrainian Greek Catholic
Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. Linguistically, 86% of the
city's population used the
Polish language and 11% preferred the
Ruthenian. At that time,
Lviv was home to a number of
renowned Polish-language institutions, such as the Ossolineum, with
the second largest collection of Polish books in the world, the Polish
Academy of Arts, the National Museum (since 1908), the Historical
Museum of the City of Lwów (since 1891), the Polish Copernicus
Society of Naturalists, the Polish Historical Society, Lwów
University, with Polish as the official language since 1882, the Lwów
Scientific Society, the Lwów Art Gallery, the Polish Theatre, and the
Lviv was the centre of a number of Polish independence
organisations. In June 1908, Józef Piłsudski, Władysław Sikorski
Kazimierz Sosnkowski founded here the Union of Active Struggle.
Two years later, the paramilitary organisation, called the Riflemen's
Association, was also founded in the city by Polish activists.
At the same time,
Lviv became the city where famous Ukrainian writers
(such as Ivan Franko,
Panteleimon Kulish and Ivan Nechuy-Levytsky)
published their work. It was a centre of Ukrainian cultural revival.
The city also housed the largest and most influential Ukrainian
institutions in the world, including the
Prosvita society dedicated to
spreading literacy in the Ukrainian language, the Shevchenko
Scientific Society, the Dniester Insurance Company and base of the
Ukrainian cooperative movement, and it served as the seat of the
Ukrainian Catholic Church.
Lviv was also a major centre of Jewish
culture, in particular as a centre of the Yiddish language, and was
the home of the world's first Yiddish-language daily newspaper, the
Lemberger Togblat, established in 1904.
First World War
Lemberg (Lviv) in 1915
Battle of Galicia
Battle of Galicia at the early stages of the First World War,
Lviv was captured by the Russian army in September 1914 following the
Battle of Gnila Lipa. The Lemberg Fortress fell on 3 September. The
Pál Kelemen provided a first-hand account of the chaotic
evacuation of the city by the Austro-Hungarian Army and civilians
alike. The town was retaken by Austria–
Hungary in June
the following year.
Lviv and its population, therefore, suffered
greatly during the First World War as many of the offensives were
fought across its local geography causing significant collateral
damage and disruption.
Further information: Polish–Ukrainian War
The Lwów Eaglets, teenage soldiers who fought on the Polish side
during the Battle of Lwów
Ukrainian Sich Riflemen
Ukrainian Sich Riflemen fought on the Ukrainian side in November
1918. The picture was made by one of the contemporaries of event.
After the collapse of the
Habsburg Monarchy at the end of the First
Lviv became an arena of battle between the local Polish
population and the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen. Both nations perceived the
city as an integral part of their new statehoods which at that time
were forming in the former Austrian territories. On the night of 31
October–1 November 1918 the Western Ukrainian National Republic was
Lviv as its capital. 2,300 Ukrainian soldiers from the
Ukrainian Sich Riflemen
Ukrainian Sich Riflemen (Sichovi Striltsi), which had previously been
a corps in the Austrian Army, took control over Lviv. The city's
Polish majority opposed the Ukrainian declaration and began to fight
against the Ukrainian troops. During this combat an
important role was taken by young Polish city defenders called Lwów
The Ukrainian forces withdrew outside Lwów's confines by 21 November
1918, after which elements of Polish soldiers began to loot and burn
much of the Jewish and Ukrainian quarters of the city, killing
approximately 340 civilians (see: Lwów pogrom). The
retreating Ukrainian forces besieged the city. The Sich riflemen
reformed into the
Ukrainian Galician Army
Ukrainian Galician Army (UHA). The Polish forces
aided from central Poland, including General Haller's Blue Army,
equipped by the French, relieved the besieged city in May 1919 forcing
the UHA to the east.
Despite Entente mediation attempts to cease hostilities and reach a
compromise between belligerents the
Polish–Ukrainian War continued
until July 1919 when the last UHA forces withdrew east of the River
Zbruch. The border on the River Zbruch was confirmed at the Treaty of
Warsaw, when in April 1920 Field Marshal Pilsudski signed an agreement
with Symon Petlura where it was agreed that for military support
against the Bolsheviks the
Ukrainian People's Republic
Ukrainian People's Republic renounced its
claims to the territories of Eastern Galicia.
In August 1920
Lviv was attacked by the
Red Army under the command of
Aleksandr Yegorov and Stalin during the
Polish–Soviet War but the
city repelled the attack. For the courage of its
Lviv was awarded the
Virtuti Militari cross by Józef
Piłsudski on 22 November 1920.
On 23 February 1921, the council of the League of Nations declared
that Galicia (including the city) lay outside the territory of Poland
Poland did not have the mandate to establish administrative
control in that country, and that
Poland was merely the occupying
military power of Galicia (as a whole), whose sovereign
remained the Allied Powers and fate would be determined by the Council
of Ambassadors at the League of Nations. On 14 March 1923,
Council of Ambassadors
Council of Ambassadors decided that Galicia would be incorporated
Poland "whereas it is recognised by
Poland that ethnographical
conditions necessitate an autonomous regime in the Eastern part of
Galicia." "This proviso was never honoured by the interwar
Polish government." After 1923, Galicia was
internationally recognized as part of the Polish state.
Eastern Trade Fair (Targi Wschodnie), main entrance.
During the interwar period, Lwów held the rank of the Second Polish
Republic's third most populous city (following
Warsaw and Łódź),
and it became the seat of the Lwów Voivodeship. Following Warsaw,
Lwów was the second most important cultural and academic centre of
interwar Poland. For example, in 1920 professor
Rudolf Weigl of the
University developed a vaccine against typhus fever.
Furthermore, the geographic location of Lwów gave it an important
role in stimulating international trade and fostering the city's and
Poland's economic development. A major trade fair called Targi
Wschodnie was established in 1921. In the academic year 1937–1938,
there were 9,100 students attending five institutions of higher
education, including the Lwów
University as well as the
While about two-thirds of the city's inhabitants were Poles, some of
whom speak the characteristic Lwów dialect, the eastern part of the
Lwów Voivodeship had a relative Ukrainian majority in most of its
rural areas. Although Polish authorities obliged themselves
internationally to provide Eastern Galicia with an autonomy (including
a creation of a separate Ukrainian university in Lwów) and even
though in September 1922 adequate Polish Sejm's Bill was
enacted, it was not fulfilled. The Polish government
discontinued many Ukrainian schools which functioned during the
Austrian rule, and closed down Ukrainian departments at
University of Lwów with the exception of one. Prewar
Lwów also had a large and thriving Jewish community, which
constituted about a quarter of the population.
Unlike in Austrian times, when the size and number of public parades
or other cultural expressions corresponded to each cultural group's
relative population, the Polish government emphasised the Polish
nature of the city and limited public displays of Jewish and Ukrainian
culture. Military parades and commemorations of battles at particular
streets within the city, all celebrating the Polish forces who fought
Ukrainians in 1918, became frequent, and in the 1930s a
vast memorial monument and burial ground of Polish soldiers from that
conflict was built in the city's Lychakiv Cemetery.
World War II and the
Further information: Battle of Lwów (1939)
Remaining prewar advertisement in the Polish language
Poland on 1 September 1939 and by 14 September Lviv
was completely encircled by German units. Subsequently,
the Soviets invaded
Poland on 17 September. On 22 September 1939 Lwów
capitulated to the Red Army. The
USSR annexed the eastern half of the
Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic with Ukrainian and Belorussian population. The
city became the capital of the newly formed
Lviv Oblast. The Soviets
reopened uni-lingual Ukrainian schools, which were
discontinued by the Polish government. The only change over imposed by
the Soviets was the language of instruction, with the actual net loss
of about 1,000 schools in short order. Ukrainian was made
compulsory in the
University of Lviv
University of Lviv with almost all its books in
Polish. It became thoroughly Ukrainized and
renamed after Ukrainian writer Ivan Franko. The Polish academics were
laid off. "
Soviet rule – wrote Tarik Cyril Amar (The
Paradox of Ukrainian Lviv) – turned out to be much more oppressive
than Polish rule. The rich world of Ukrainian publications in Polish
Lwów, for instance, was gone in
Soviet Ukrainian Lviv, and with it,
many journalism jobs.
On 22 June 1941, Nazi
Germany and several of its allies invaded the
USSR. In the initial stage of
Operation Barbarossa (30 June 1941) Lviv
was taken by the Germans. The evacuating Soviets killed most of the
prison population, with arriving
Wehrmacht forces easily discovering
evidence of the
Soviet mass murders in the city committed
NKVD and NKGB. Ukrainian nationalists, organised as a militia,
and the civilian population were allowed to take revenge on the "Jews
and the Bolsheviks" and indulged in several mass killings in
the surrounding region, which resulted in the deaths estimated at
between 4,000 and 10,000 Jews. On 30 June 1941 Yaroslav Stetsko
Lviv the Government of an independent Ukrainian state
allied with Nazi Germany. This was done without preapproval from the
Germans and after 15 September 1941 the organisers were
Holocaust memorial in Israel
Sikorski–Mayski Agreement signed in London on 30 July 1941
Polish government-in-exile and USSR's government invalidated
the September 1939 Soviet-German partition of Poland, as the Soviets
declared it null and void. Meanwhile, German-occupied
Eastern Galicia at the beginning of August 1941 was incorporated into
General Government as Distrikt Galizien with
Lviv as district's
capital. German policy towards the Polish population in this area was
as harsh as in the rest of the General Government. Germans during the
occupation of the city committed numerous atrocities including the
killing of Polish university professors in 1941. German Nazis viewed
the Ukrainian Galicians, former inhabitants of Austrian Crown Land, as
to some point more aryanised and civilised than the Ukrainian
population living in the territories belonging to the
1939. As a result, they escaped the full extent of German acts in
Ukrainians who lived to the east, in the German-occupied
Ukraine turned into the Reichskommissariat Ukraine.
According to the Third Reich's racial policies, local
Jews then became
the main target of German repressions in the region. Following German
occupation, the Jewish population was concentrated in the Lwów Ghetto
established in the city's Zamarstynów (today Zamarstyniv) district,
Janowska concentration camp
Janowska concentration camp was also set up. In 1931 there
were 75,316 Yiddish-speaking inhabitants, but by 1941 approximately
Jews were present in Lviv. The majority of these
Jews were either killed within the city or deported to Belzec
extermination camp. In the summer of 1943, on the orders of Heinrich
Paul Blobel was tasked with the
destruction of any evidence of Nazi mass murders in the
Lviv area. On
15 June Blobel, using forced labourers from Janowska, dug up a number
of mass graves and incinerated the remains. Later, on 19
November 1943, inmates at Janowska staged an uprising and attempted a
mass escape. A few succeeded, but most were recaptured and killed. The
SS staff and their local auxiliaries then, at the time of the Janowska
camp's liquidation, murdered at least 6,000 more inmates, as well as
Jews in other forced labour camps in Galicia. By the end of the
war, the Jewish population of the city was virtually eliminated, with
only around 200 to 800 survivors remaining.
Liberation from Nazis
After the successful
Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive of July 1944, the
Soviet 3rd Guards Tank Army captured
Lviv on 27 July 1944, with a
significant cooperation from the local Polish resistance (see: Lwów
Uprising). Soon thereafter, the local commanders of Polish Armia
Krajowa were invited to a meeting with the commanders of the Red Army.
During the meeting, they were arrested, as it turned out to be a trap
set by the
Soviet NKVD. Later, in the winter and spring of 1945, the
NKVD kept arresting and harassing
Lviv (which according
Soviet sources on 1 October 1944 still had a clear Polish majority
of 66.7%) in an attempt to encourage their emigration from the city.
Those arrested were released only after they had signed papers in
which they agreed to emigrate to Poland, which postwar borders were to
be shifted westwards in accordance with the Yalta conference
settlements. In Yalta, despite Polish objections, the Allied leaders,
Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill decided
Lviv should remain within the borders of the
Soviet Union. On 16
August 1945, a border agreement was signed in Moscow
between the government of the
Soviet Union and the Provisional
Government of National Unity installed by the Soviets in Poland. In
the treaty, Polish authorities formally ceded prewar eastern part of
the country to the
Soviet Union, agreeing to the Polish-
to be drawn according to the so-called Curzon Line. Consequently, the
agreement was ratified on 5 February 1946.
Sykhiv – Lviv's largest residential neighborhood, was built in the
early 1980s under
In February 1946,
Lviv became a part of the
Soviet Union. It is
estimated that from 100,000 to 140,000
Poles were resettled from the
city into the so-called
Recovered Territories as a part of postwar
population transfers, many of them to the area of newly acquired
Wrocław, formerly the German city of Breslau. Little remains of
Polish culture in Lviv. But Polish history and heritage is still
visible. Many buildings in the old part of the city are great examples
of Polish architecture, which flourished in
Lviv after opening
Technical School (later Polytechnic), the first higher education
technical academy on Polish lands. Polytechnic educated generations of
architects which were influential in the entire country. In
best examples of their work are: the main buildings of Lviv
University of Lviv,
Lviv railway station,
former building of Galicyjska Kasa Oszczędności, Potocki
Palace. During interwar period
Lviv was striving to become
a modern metropolis, so architects were experimenting with modernism.
It was the period of the most rapid growth of the city, so one can
find many examples of architecture from this time in the
city. Great examples are main building of
Lviv Academy of Commerce, the second Sprecher's building or building
of City Electrical Facilities. The most
visible monument of the Polish past is the
Adam Mickiewicz Monument at
the square of his name. Many Polish pieces of
arts, sculptures and paintings can be found in
Lviv galleries, among
them works of Jan Piotr Norblin, Marceleo Bacciarelli, Kazimierz
Wojniakowski, Antoni Brodowski, Henryk Rodakowski, Artur Grottger, Jan
Matejko, Aleksander Gierymski, Jan Stanisławski, Leon Wyczółkowski,
Józef Chełmoński, Józef Mehoffer, Stanisław Wyspiański, Olga
Boznańska, Władysław Słowiński, Jacek Malczewski.[citation
needed] The Polish history of
Lviv is still well remembered in
Poland and those
Poles who stayed in
Lviv have formed their own
organisation the Association of Polish Culture of the
According to various estimates,
Lviv lost between 80% and 90% of its
pre-war population. Expulsion of the Polish population and
Holocaust together with migration from Ukrainian-speaking
surrounding areas (including forcibly resettled from the territories
which, after the war, became part of the Polish People's Republic),
from other parts of the
Soviet Union, altered the ethnic composition
of the city. Immigration from
Russia and Russian-speaking regions of
Ukraine was encouraged. The
prevalence of the Ukrainian-speaking population has led to the fact
that under the conditions of
Lviv became a major centre of the dissident movement in
Ukraine and played a key role in Ukraine's independence in 1991.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the city significantly expanded both in
population and size mostly due to the city's rapidly growing
industrial base. Due to the fight of
SMERSH with the guerrilla
formations of the
Ukrainian Insurgent Army
Ukrainian Insurgent Army the city obtained a
nickname with a negative connotation of Banderstadt as the City of
Stepan Bandera. The German suffix for city stadt was added instead of
the Russian grad to imply alienation. Over the years the residents of
the city found this so ridiculous that even people not familiar with
Bandera accepted it as a sarcasm in reference to the
of western Ukraine. In the period of liberalisation from the Soviet
system in the 1980s, the city became the centre of political movements
advocating Ukrainian independence from the USSR. By the time of the
fall of the
Soviet Union the name became a proud mark for the Lviv
natives culminating in the creation of a local rock band under the
name Khloptsi z Bandershtadtu (Boys from Banderstadt).
Lviv strongly supported
Viktor Yushchenko during the 2004
Ukrainian presidential election and played a key role in the Orange
Revolution. Hundreds of thousands of people would gather in freezing
temperatures to demonstrate for the Orange camp. Acts of civil
disobedience forced the head of the local police to resign and the
local assembly issued a resolution refusing to accept the fraudulent
first official results.
Lviv remains today one of the main
Ukrainian culture and the origin of much of the nation's
In support of the
Euromaidan movement, Lviv's executive committee
declared itself independent of the rule of President Viktor Yanukovych
on 19 February 2014.
Lviv City Hall
Main article: Administrative divisions of Lviv
Lviv is divided into six raions (districts), each with its own
Halych district (Галицький район, Halytskyi raion)
Zaliznytsia district (Залізничний район, Zaliznychnyi
raion), literally "railway neighborhood"
Lychakiv district (Личаківський район, Lychakivs'kyi
Sykhiv district (Сихівський район, Sykhivs'kyi raion)
Franko district (Франківський район, Frankivs'kyi
raion), named after Ivan Franko.
Shevchenko district (Шевченківський район,
Shevchenkivs'kyi raion), named after Taras Shevchenko.
Notable suburbs include
Vynnyky (місто Винники),
Briukhovychi (селище Брюховичі), and Rudne
Lviv residents live 75 years on average, and this age is 7 years
longer than the average age in
Ukraine and 8 years more than the world
average (68 years). In 2010 the average life expectancy was 71 among
men and 79.5 years among women. The fertility rates have
been steadily increasing between 2001 and 2010; however, the effects
of low fertility in the previous years remained noticeable even though
the birth rates grew. There is an acute shortage of young people under
the age of 25. In 2011, 13.7% of Lviv's population consisted of young
people under 15 years and 17.6% of persons aged 60 years and
Language use throughout 20th century
Population structure by religion 1869–1931
Population makeup by ethnicity 1900–2001
Lviv according to censuses of 1989 and 2001 respectively
Numbers do not include regions nor the surrounding towns.
Year 1405: approx. 4,500 inhabitants in the Old Town, and additionally
approx. 600 in the two suburbs.
Year 1544: approx. 3,000 inhabitants in the Old Town (number had
decreased by about 30% due to the fire of 1527), and additionally
approx. 2,700 in the suburbs.
Year 1840: approx. 67,000 inhabitants, including 20,000
Year 1850: nearly 80,000 inhabitants (together with the four suburbs),
including more than 25,000 Jews.
Year 1869: 87,109 inhabitants, among them 46,252 Roman Catholics,
26,694 Jews, 12,406 members of the Greek Uniate Churches.
Year 1890: 127,943 inhabitants (64,102 male, 63,481 female), among
them 67,280 Catholics, 36,130 Judaic, 21,876 members of the Greek
Uniate Churches, 2,061 Protestants, 596 Orthodox and
Year 1900: 159,877 inhabitants, including the military (10,326 men).
Of these inhabitants, 82,597 were members of the Roman Catholic
Church, 29,327 members of the Greek Uniate Churches, and 44,258 were
Jews. As their language of communication, 120,634 used Polish, 20,409
German or Yiddish, and 15,159 Ukrainian.
Year 1921: 219,400 inhabitants, including 112,000 Poles, 76,000 Jews
and 28,000 Ukrainians.
Year 1939: 340.000 inhabitants.
Year 1940: 500,000.
July 1944: 149,000.
Year 1955: 380,000.
Year 2001: 725,000 inhabitants, of whom 88% were Ukrainians, 9%
Russians and 1% Poles. A further 200,000 people commuted
daily from suburbs.
Year 2007: 735,000 inhabitants. By gender: 51.5% women, and 48.5%
men. By place of birth: 56% born in Lviv, 19%
Lviv Oblast, 11% born in East Ukraine, 07% born in the former
republics of the
Russia 4%), 04% born in Poland, and 03% born in
Western Ukraine, but not in the
Religious adherence: (2001)
Ukrainian Greek Catholic
Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church
Orthodox Church –
05% Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate)
03% Other faiths
In the year 2000, about 80% of Lviv's inhabitants were primarily
The ethnic Polish population
Poles and the Polish
Jews began to settle in Lwów in
considerable numbers already in 1349 after the city was conquered by
King Casimir of the Piast dynasty. Lwów served as Poland's major
cultural and economic centre for several centuries, during the Polish
Golden Age, and until the partitions of
Poland perpetrated by Russia,
Prussia, and Austria. In the Second Polish Republic, the
Lwów Voivodeship (inhabited by 2,789,000 people in 1921) grew to
3,126,300 inhabitants in ten years.
As a result of World War II,
Lviv was depolonised, mainly through
Soviet-arranged population exchange in 1944–1946 but also by early
deportations to Siberia. Those who remained on their own
volition after the border shift became a small ethnic minority in
Lviv. By 1959
Poles made up only 4% of the local population. Many
families were mixed. During the
Soviet decades only two
Polish schools continued to function: № 10 (with 8 grades) and №
24 (with 10 grades).
In the 1980s the process of uniting groups into ethnic associations
was allowed. In 1988 a Polish-language newspaper was permitted (Gazeta
Lwowska). The Polish population of the city continues to
use the dialect of the
Polish language known as
Lwów dialect (Polish:
The Jewish population
The first known
Lviv date back to the 10th
century. The oldest remaining Jewish tombstone dates back
to 1348. Apart from the Rabbanite
Jews there were many
Karaites who had settled in the city after coming from the East and
from Byzantium. After Casimir III conquered
Lviv in 1349 the Jewish
citizens received many privileges equal to that of other citizens of
Lviv had two separate Jewish quarters, one within the city
walls and one outside on the outskirts of the city. Each had its
separate synagogue, although they shared a cemetery, which was also
used by the
Crimean Karaite community. Before 1939 there were 97
Holocaust about one-third of the city's population was made
Jews (more than 140,000 on the eve of World War II). This number
swelled to about 240,000 by the end of 1940 as tens of thousands of
Jews fled from the Nazi-occupied parts of
Poland into the relative
(and temporary) sanctuary of Soviet-occupied
Poland (including Lviv)
following the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact that divided
Poland into Nazi
Soviet zones in 1939. Almost all these
Jews were killed in the
Holocaust. Meanwhile, the Nazis also destroyed the Jewish cemetery,
which was subsequently "paved over by the Soviets".
After the war, a new Jewish population was formed from among the
hundreds of thousands of
Ukrainians that migrated to the
city. The post-war Jewish population peaked at 30,000 in the 1970s.
Currently, the Jewish population has shrunk considerably as a result
of emigration (mainly to
Israel and the United States) and, to a
lesser degree, assimilation, and is estimated at 1,100. A number of
organisations continue to be active.
Sholem Aleichem Jewish Culture Society in
Lviv initiated the
construction of a monument to the victims of the ghetto in 1988. On 23
August 1992, the memorial complex to the victims of the Lwów ghetto
(1941–1943) was officially opened. During 2011–2012,
some anti-Semitic acts against the memorial took place. On 20 March
2011, it was reported that the slogan "death to the Jews" with a
swastika was sprayed on the monument. On 21 March 2012,
the memorial was vandalized by unknown individuals, in what seemed to
be an anti-Semitic act.
"NeoLAZ-Lemberg" – product of the
Lviv Bus Factory
Lviv Bus Factory on the streets
SoftServe Headquarters in Lviv
Lviv is the most important business centre of Western
Ukraine . As of
1 January 2011 until the economy the city has invested 837.1 million
US dollars , accounting for almost two-thirds of the total investments
Lviv region . In 2015, the company of
Lviv was involved $14.3
million. U.S. foreign direct investment, which, however, is two times
less than a year earlier ($30.9 million in 2014). During
January-September 2017 the general amount of direct foreign investment
received by the local government in
Lviv is $52.4 million. U.S.
According to the statistics administration, foreign capital was
invested by 31 countries (here are some of the main investors: Poland
Australia - 11.3%;
Cyprus — 10.7% and the
The total revenue of the city budget of
Lviv for 2015 is set at about
UAH 3.81 billion, which is 23% more than a year earlier (UAH 2.91
billion in 2014). As of 10 November 2017, the deputies of
Lviv City Council approved a budget in amount of UAH 5.4 billion
($204 million). The large part of which (UAH 5.12 billion) was the
revenue of the fund of the Lviv.
The average wage in
Lviv in 2015 in the business sector amounted to
7,041 UAH, in the budget sphere - 4,175 UAH. On 1
February 2014, registered unemployment was 0.6%.
one of the largest cities in
Ukraine and is growing rapidly. According
to the Ministry of Economy of
Ukraine the monthly average salary in
Lviv is a little less than the average for
Ukraine which in
February 2013 was 2765 UAH ($345). According to the World Bank
Lviv is a middle-income city. In September 2017, the
average wage was amounted to 6,784 UAH (€230), which is in 41,0%
more than in a previous year.
Lviv has 218 large industrial enterprises, more than 40 commercial
banks, 4 exchanges, 13 investment companies, 80 insurance and 24
leasing companies, 77 audit firms and almost 9,000 small
ventures. For many years machinery-building and
electronics were leading industries in Lviv. The city-based public
company Electron, trademark of national TV sets manufacturing,
produces the 32 and 37 inches liquid-crystal TV-sets. The
«Electrontrans» specializes in design and production of modern
electric transport including trams, trolleybuses, electric buses, and
spare parts. In 2013 Elektrotrans JV started producing low-floor
trams, the first Ukrainian 100% low-floor tramways. LAZ
is a bus manufacturing company in
Lviv with its own rich history.
Founded in 1945, LAZ started bus production in the early 1950s.
Innovative design ideas of
Lviv engineers have become the world
standard in bus manufacturing.
The total volume of industrial production sold in 2015 amounted to UAH
24.2 billion, which is 39% more than a year earlier (UAH 14.6 billion
There are several banks based in Lviv, such as Kredobank, Idea Bank,
VS Bank, Oksi Bank and
Lviv Bank. None of these banks have bankrupted
during the political and economic crisis of 2014-2016. It can be
explained by the presence of the foreign capital in most of them.
Lviv is a major business center between
Warsaw and Kiev. According to
Lviv Economic Development Strategy, the main branches of the
city's economy till 2025 should become tourism and information
technologies (IT), the business services and logistics are also a
priority. In addition, The Nestlé service center has
located in Lviv. This center guides the company's divisions in 20
countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Also during
2016 the Global Service Center VimpelCom in
Lviv was launched, which
serves finance, procurement and HR operations in eight foreign
branches of this company.
Lviv is also one of the leaders of software export in Eastern Europe
with expected sector growth of 20% by 2020. Over 25% of all IT
Ukraine work in Lviv, with over 1500 new IT graduates
coming from local universities each year. In 2009, [KPMG], one of the
famous international auditing companies, included
Lviv in top 30
cities with the greatest potential of information technology
development. As of December 2015, there were 192
IT-companies operating in the city, of which 4 large (with more than
400 employees), 16 average (150-300 employees), 97 small (10-110
employees) and 70 micro companies (3-7 employees). The turnover of the
Lviv's IT industry in 2015 amounted to $300 million U.S. About 50% of
IT services are exported to the US, 37% to Europe, and the rest - to
other countries. As of 2015, about 15 thousand specialists were
employed in this industry with the average salary of 28 thousand UAH.
According to a study of the Economic Effect of the
which was conducted by
Lviv IT Cluster and sociological agency "The
Farm", there are 257 IT companies operating in
Lviv in 2017, that
employing about 17 thousand specialists. The economic impact of the IT
Lviv is $734 million U.S.
There are many restaurants and shops as well as street vendors of
food, books, clothes, traditional cultural items and tourist gifts.
Banking and money trading are an important part of the economy of Lviv
with many banks and exchange offices throughout the city.
Lviv Airlines has its head office on the grounds of
Lviv Airport, but
no longer operates any flights.
L'viv – the Ensemble of the Historic Centre
UNESCO World Heritage
SiteTown view from The High CastleCriteriaCultural: ii,
vReference865Inscription1998 (22nd Session)Area120
haBuffer zone2,441 ha
Lviv is one of the most important cultural centres of Ukraine. The
city is known as a centre of art, literature, music and theatre.
Nowadays, the indisputable evidence of the city cultural richness is a
big number of theatres, concert halls, creative unions, and also the
high number of many artistic activities (more than 100 festivals
annually, 60 museums, 10 theatres).
Lviv's historic centre has been on the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage list
UNESCO gave the following reasons for its
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Criterion II: In its urban fabric and its architecture,
Lviv is an
outstanding example of the fusion of the architectural and artistic
traditions of central and eastern
Europe with those of
Criterion V: The political and commercial role of
Lviv attracted to it
a number of ethnic groups with different cultural and religious
traditions, who established separate yet interdependent communities
within the city, evidence for which is still discernible in the modern
St. George's Cathedral, Lviv
Lviv's historic churches, buildings and relics date from the 13th
century – 18th century (Polish rule). In recent centuries it was
spared some of the invasions and wars that destroyed other Ukrainian
cities. Its architecture reflects various European styles and periods.
After the fires of 1527 and 1556
Lviv lost most of its gothic-style
buildings but it retains many buildings in renaissance, baroque and
the classic styles. There are works by artists of the Vienna
Art Nouveau and Art Deco.
The buildings have many stone sculptures and carvings, particularly on
large doors, which are hundreds of years old. The remains of old
churches dot the central cityscape. Some three- to five-storey
buildings have hidden inner courtyards and grottoes in various states
of repair. Some cemeteries are of interest: for example, the
Lychakivskiy Cemetery where the Polish elite was buried for centuries.
Leaving the central area the architectural style changes radically as
Soviet-era high-rise blocks dominate. In the centre of the city, the
Soviet era is reflected mainly in a few modern-style national
monuments and sculptures.
Early 20th century architecture in Lviv
Inside the Church of the Transfiguration
The Church of the Assumption
Chapel of the Boim family
Outdoor sculptures in the city commemorate many notable individuals
and topics reflecting the rich and complex history of Lviv. There are
monuments to Adam Mickiewicz, Ivan Franko, King Danylo, Taras
Shevchenko, Ivan Fedorov, Solomiya Krushelnytska, Ivan Pidkova,
Pope John Paul II, Jan Kiliński, Ivan Trush,
Saint George, Bartosz Głowacki, the monument to the Virgin Mary, to
Nikifor, The Good Soldier Švejk, Stepan Bandera, Leopold von
Sacher-Masoch, and many others.
Lviv panorama before 1924
During the interwar period there were monuments commemorating
important figures of the history of Poland. Some of them were moved to
the Polish "Recovered Territories" after World War II, like the
Aleksander Fredro which now is in Wrocław, the monument
John III Sobieski
John III Sobieski which after 1945 was moved to Gdańsk, and
the monument of
Kornel Ujejski which is now in Szczecin. A book market
takes place around the monument to Ivan Fеdorovych, a typographer in
the 16th century who fled Moscow and found a new home in Lviv.
New ideas came to
Lviv during the Austro–Hungarian rule. In the 19th
century, many publishing houses, newspapers and magazines were
established. Among these was the
Ossolineum which was one of the most
important Polish scientific libraries. Most Polish-language books and
publications of the
Ossolineum library are still kept in a local
Jesuit church. In 1997 the Polish government asked the Ukrainian
government to return these documents to Poland. Subsequently, in 2003
Ukraine allowed access to these publications for the first time. In
2006 an office of the
Ossolineum (which now is located in Wrocław)
was opened in
Lviv and began a process to scan all its documents.
Works written in
Lviv contributed to Austrian, Ukrainian, Yiddish, and
Polish literature, with a multitude of translations.
Lviv is a city of religious variety.
Religion (2012): Catholic: 57%
Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church
Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church 56% and
Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church 1%)
Orthodox: 32%, Protestantism: 2% Judaism : 0.1% Other religion:
3% Indifferent to religious matters: 4% Atheism: 1.9%
At one point, over 60 churches existed in the city. The largest
Christian Churches have existed in the city since the 13th century.
There are three major Christian groups: The Ukrainian Catholic
Archeparchy of Lviv, the Roman Catholics, and the Armenian Church.
Each has had a diocesan seat in
Lviv since the 16th century. At the
end of the 16th century, the Orthodox community in
their allegiance to the
Pope in Rome and became the Ukrainian Greek
Catholic Church. This bond was forcibly dissolved in 1946 by the
Soviet authorities and the Roman Catholic community was forced out by
the expulsion of the Polish population. Since 1989, religious life in
Lviv has experienced a revival.
Lviv is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lviv, the centre
Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church in
Ukraine and until 21 August 2005 was
the centre of the
Ukrainian Greek Catholic
Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. About 35 percent of
religious buildings belong to the
Ukrainian Greek Catholic
Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church,
11.5 percent to the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, 9 per
cent to the Ukrainian
Orthodox Church –
Kiev Patriarchate and 6 per
cent to the Roman Catholic Church.
Lviv was the only city with two Catholic Cardinals:
Lubomyr Husar (Byzantine Rite) and
Marian Jaworski (Latin Rite).
In June 2001,
Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II visited the Latin Cathedral, St.
George's Cathedral and the Armenian Cathedral.
Lviv historically had a large and active Jewish community and until
1941 at least 45 synagogues and prayer houses existed. Even in the
16th century, two separate communities existed. One lived in today's
old town with the other in the Krakowskie Przedmieście. The Golden
Synagogue was built in
Lviv in 1582. In the 19th century, a more
differentiated community started to spread out. Liberal
more cultural assimilation and spoke German and Polish. On the other
hand, Orthodox and Hasidic
Jews tried to retain the old traditions.
Between 1941 and 1944, the Germans in effect completely destroyed the
centuries-old Jewish tradition of Lviv. Most synagogues were destroyed
and the Jewish population forced first into a ghetto before being
forcibly transported to concentration camps where they were
Soviet Union, synagogues remained closed and were used as
warehouses or cinemas. Only since the fall of the Iron Curtain, has
the remainder of the Jewish community experienced a faint revival.
Currently, the only functioning Orthodox Jewish synagogue in
the Beis Aharon V'Yisrael Synagogue.
A room in the
Lviv National Art Gallery
The range of artistic
Lviv is impressive. On the one hand, it is the
city of classical art.
Lviv Opera and
Lviv Philharmonic are places
that can satisfy the demands of true appraisers of the classical arts.
This is the city of one of the most distinguished sculptors in Europe,
Johann Georg Pinzel, whose works can be seen on the façade of the St.
George's Cathedral in
Lviv and in the Pinzel Museum. This is also the
city of Solomiya Krushelnytska, who began her career as a singer of
Lviv Opera and later became the prima donna of La Scala Opera in
The "Group Artes" was a young movement founded in 1929. Many of the
artists studied in Paris and travelled throughout Europe. They worked
and experimented in different areas of modern art: Futurism, Cubism,
New Objectivity and Surrealism. Co–operation took place between
avant-garde musicians and authors. Altogether thirteen exhibitions by
"Artes" took place in Warsaw, Kraków, Łódz and Lviv. The German
occupation put an end to this group. Otto Hahn was executed in 1942 in
Lviv and Aleksander Riemer was murdered in Auschwitz in
1943. Henryk Streng and Margit Reich-Sielska were able to
Holocaust (or Shoah). Most of the surviving members of
Artes lived in
Poland after 1945. Only Margit Reich-Sielska
(1900–1980) and Roman Sielski (1903–1990) stayed in
For years the city was one of the most important cultural centres of
Poland with such writers as Aleksander Fredro, Gabriela Zapolska,
Maria Konopnicka and
Jan Kasprowicz living in Lviv.
Lviv is a city of fresh ideas and unusual characters. There are
about 20 galleries (The "Dzyga" Gallery, Аrt-Gallery "Primus",
Gallery of the History of Ukrainian Military Uniforms, Gallery of
Modern Art "Zelena Kanapa" and others).
Lviv National Art Gallery
Lviv National Art Gallery is
the largest museum of arts in Ukraine, with approximately 50,000
artworks, including paintings, sculptures and works of graphic art of
Western and Eastern Europe, from the
Middle Ages to modern days.
Theatre and opera
Lviv Opera and Ballet Theatre, an important cultural centre for
residents and visitors
In 1842 the
Skarbek Theatre was opened making it the third largest
theatre in Central Europe. In 1903 the
Lviv National Opera house,
which at that time was called the City-Theatre, was opened emulating
Vienna State Opera
Vienna State Opera house. The house initially offered a changing
repertoire such as classical dramas in German and Polish language,
opera, operetta, comedy and theatre.
The opera house is named after the Ukrainian opera diva Salomea
Krushelnytska who worked here.
Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet
Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet has a large creative group
of performers who strive to maintain traditions of Ukrainian opera and
classical ballet. The Theatre is a well-organized creative body where
over 500 people work towards a common goal. The repertoire includes 10
Ukrainian music compositions. It should be emphasised that no other
similar theatre in
Ukraine has such a large number of Ukrainian
productions. There are also many operas written by foreign composers,
and most of these operas are performed in the original language:
Othello, Aida, La Traviata, Nabucco, and A Masked Ball by G. Verdi,
Tosca, La Bohème and Madame Butterfly by G. Puccini, Cavalleria
Rusticana by P. Mascagni, and Pagliacci by R. Leoncavallo (in
Italian); Carmen by G. Bizet (in French), The Haunted Manor by S.
Moniuszko (in Polish)
Museums and art galleries
Museum Pharmacy "Pid Chornym Orlom" (Beneath the Black Eagle) was
founded in 1735; it is the oldest pharmacy in Lviv. A museum related
to pharmaceutical history was opened on the premises of the old
pharmacy in 1966. The idea of creating such a museum had already come
up in the 19th century. The Galician Association of Pharmacists was
created in 1868; members managed to assemble a small collection of
exhibits, thus making the first step towards creating a new museum.
Nowadays, the exhibition has expanded considerably, with 16 exhibit
rooms and a general exhibition surface totalling 700 sq. m. There are
more than 3,000 exhibits in the museum. This is the only operating
Museum Pharmacy in
Ukraine and Europe.
The main building of
Lviv National Museum
The most notable of the museums are
Lviv National Museum
Lviv National Museum which houses
the National Gallery. Its collection includes more than 140,000 unique
items. The museum takes special pride in presenting the largest and
most complete collection of medieval sacral art of the 12th to 18th
centuries: icons, manuscripts, rare ancient books, decoratively carved
pieces of art, metal and plastic artworks, and fabrics embroidered
with gold and silver. The museum also boasts a unique monument of
Ukrainian Baroque style: the Bohorodchansky Iconostasis. Exhibits
include: Ancient Ukrainian art from the 12th to 15th centuries;
Ukrainian art from the 16th to 18th centuries; and Ukrainian art from
the end of the 18th to the beginning of the 20th centuries.
Lviv has an active musical and cultural life. Apart from the Lviv
Opera, it has symphony orchestras, chamber orchestras and the Trembita
Lviv has one of the most prominent music academies and music
colleges in Ukraine, the
Lviv Conservatory, and also has a factory for
the manufacture of stringed musical instruments.
Lviv has been the
home of numerous composers such as Mozart's son Franz Xaver Wolfgang
Mozart, Stanislav Liudkevych,
Wojciech Kilar and Mykola Kolessa.
Flute virtuoso and composer Albert
Franz Doppler (1821–1883) was
born and spent his formative years here, including flute lessons from
his father. The classical pianist
Mieczysław Horszowski (1892–1993)
was born here. The opera diva Salomea Kruszelnicka called
home in the 1920s to 1930s. The classical violinist Adam Han Gorski
was born here in 1940. "Polish Radio Lwów" was a Polish radio station
that went on-air on 15 January 1930. The programme proved very popular
Classical music and entertainment was aired as well as
lectures, readings, youth-programmes, news and liturgical services on
Pikkardiyska Tertsiya – Ukrainian a cappella musical formation
Poland was the Comic Lwów Wave a cabaret-revue
with musical pieces. Jewish artists contributed a great part to this
artistic activity. Composers such as Henryk Wars, songwriters Emanuel
Szlechter and Wiktor Budzyński, the actor Mieczysław Monderer and
Adolf Fleischer ("Aprikosenkranz und Untenbaum") worked in Lviv. The
most notable stars of the shows were
Henryk Vogelfänger and Kazimierz
Wajda who appeared together as the comic duo "Szczepko and Tońko" and
were similar to Laurel and Hardy.
Lviv Philharmonic is a major cultural centre with its long history
and traditions that complement the entire culture of Ukraine. Exactly
from the stage of
Lviv Philharmonic began their way to the great art
world-famous Ukrainian musicians – Oleh Krysa, Oleksandr
Slobodyanik, Yuriy Lysychenko, Maria Chaikovska, also the musicians of
new generation – E. Chupryk, Y. Ermin, Oksana Rapita, Olexandr
Lviv Philharmonic is one of the leading concert
institutions in Ukraine, which activities include various forms of
promotion of the best examples of the music art – international
festivals, cycles of concerts-monographs, concerts with participation
of young musicians, etc.
The Chamber Orchestra "
Lviv virtuosos" was organised of the best Lviv
musicians in 1994. The orchestra consists of 16–40 persons / it
depends on programmes/ and in the repertoire are included the musical
compositions from Bach, Corelli to modern Ukrainian and European
composers. During the short time of its operation, the orchestra
acquired the professional level of the best European standards. It is
mentioned in more than 100 positive articles of the Ukrainian and
foreign musical critics.
Lviv is the hometown of the Vocal formation "Pikkardiyska Tertsiya"
Eurovision Song Contest 2004
Eurovision Song Contest 2004 winner
Ruslana who has since become
well known in
Europe and the rest of the world. PikkardiyskaTertsia
was created on 24 September 1992 in Lviv, and has won many musical
awards. It all began with a quartet performing ancient Ukrainian music
from the 15th century, along with adaptations of traditional Ukrainian
Lviv Organ Hall
Lviv Organ Hall is a place where classical music (organ, symphonic,
cameral) and art meet together. 50,000 visitors each year, dozens of
musicians from all over the world.
Lviv is also the hometown to one of the most successful and popular
Ukrainian rock bands, Okean Elzy.
Universities and academia
The front façade of the
Lviv University, the oldest university in
Lviv University is one of the oldest in
Central Europe and was founded
Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus (Jesuit) school in 1608. Its prestige greatly
increased through the work of philosopher Kazimierz Twardowski
(1866–1938) who was one of the founders of the Lwów-
of Logic. This school of thought set benchmarks for academic research
and education in Poland. The Polish politician of the interbellum
Stanisław Głąbiński had served as dean of the law
department (1889–1890) and as the
University rector (1908–1909).
In 1901 the city was the seat of the
Lwów Scientific Society among
whose members were major scientific figures. The most well-known were
the mathematicians Stefan Banach,
Juliusz Schauder and Stanisław Ulam
who were founders of the
Lwów School of Mathematics
Lwów School of Mathematics turning
the 1930s into the "World Centre of Functional Analysis" and whose
Lviv academia was substantial.
In 1852 in Dublany (eight kilometres (5.0 miles) from the outskirts of
Lviv) the Agricultural Academy was opened and was one of the first
Polish agricultural colleges. The Academy was merged with the Lviv
Polytechnic in 1919. Another important college of the interbellum
period was the Academy of Foreign Trade in Lwów.
In 1873 in
Lviv was founded
Shevchenko Scientific Society
Shevchenko Scientific Society from the
beginning it attracted the financial and intellectual support of
writers and patrons of Ukrainian background.
In 1893 due to the change in its statute, the Shevchenko Scientific
Society was transformed into a real scholarly multidisciplinary
academy of sciences. Under the presidency of the historian, Mykhailo
Hrushevsky, it greatly expanded its activities, contributing to both
the humanities and the physical sciences, law and medicine, but most
specifically once again it was concentrated onto the Ukrainian
Soviet Union annexed the eastern half of the Second Polish
Republic including the city of Lwów which capitulated to the Red Army
on 22 September 1939. Upon their occupation of Lviv, the Soviets
dissolved the Shevchenko society. Many of its members were arrested
and either imprisoned or executed.
Lviv was the home of the Scottish Café, where in the 1930s and the
early 1940s, Polish mathematicians from the Lwów School of
Mathematics met and spent their afternoons discussing mathematical
Stanisław Ulam who was later a participant in the Manhattan
Project and the proposer of the Teller-Ulam design of thermonuclear
Stefan Banach one of the founders of functional analysis,
Hugo Steinhaus, Karol Borsuk, Kazimierz Kuratowski,
Mark Kac and many
other notable mathematicians would gather there. The
café building now houses the Atlas Deluxe Hotel at 27 Taras
Shevchenko Prospekt (prewar Polish street name: ulica
Zygmunt Janiszewski died in
Lviv on 3 January 1920.
The former building of the Scottish Café
Print and media
Ever since the early 1990s,
Lviv has been the spiritual home of the
post-independence Ukrainian-language publishing industry.
Lviv Book Forum (International Publishers' Forum) is the biggest book
fair in Ukraine.
Lviv is the centre of promotion of the Ukrainian
Latin alphabet (Latynka).
The most popular newspapers in
Lviv are "Vysoky Zamok", "Ekspres",
"Lvivska hazeta", "Ratusha", Subotna poshta", "Hazeta po-lvivsky",
"Postup" and others. Popular magazines include "
"Chetver", "RIA" and "Ї". "
Lviv Today" is a Ukrainian
English-speaking magazine, content includes information about
business, advertisement and entertainment spheres in Lviv, and the
country in general.
Lviv oblast television company transmits on channel 12. There are
3 private television channels operating from Lviv: "LUKS", "NTA" and
There are 17 regional and all-Ukrainian radio stations operating in
A number of information agencies exist in the city such as "ZIK",
"Zaxid.net", "Гал-info", "Львівський портал" and
Lviv is home to one of the oldest Polish-language newspapers "Gazeta
Lwowska" which was first published in 1811 and still exists in a
Among other publications were such titles as
Kurier Lwowski: associated with people's movement which existed from
1883 to 1935. Among the writers who cooperated with it were such
renowned names as Eliza Orzeszkowa, Jan Kasprowicz, Bolesław
Władysław Orkan as well as Ivan Franko,
Słowo Lwowskie (1895–1939): A right-wing daily which cooperated
with Władysław Reymont, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Kazimierz Tetmajer,
Jerzy Żuławski and Gabriela Zapolska. Among its
editors-in-chief was Stanisław Grabski. In the early 20th century
Słowo's circulation was 20,000 and it was the first Polish newspaper
to publish a serialisation of Reymont's novel Chłopi.
After World War II Słowo was moved to
Wrocław with first postwar
issue published on 1 November 1946.
Czerwony Sztandar: A
Soviet daily published between 1939 and 1941.
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Starting in the 20th century a new movement started with authors from
Central Europe. In
Lviv a small neo-romantic group of authors formed
around the lyricist Schmuel Jankev Imber.[who?][citation
needed] Small print offices produced collections of modern poems
and short stories and through emigration a large networkwas
established. A second smaller group[who?] in the 1930s tried
to create a connection between avantgarde art and Yiddish culture.
Members of this group were Debora Vogel, Rachel Auerbach and Rachel
Holocaust destroyed this movement with
Debora Vogel amongst
many other Yiddish authors murdered by the Germans in the
In cinema and literature
The 2011 film In Darkness, Poland's entry in the 84th Academy Awards
category for Best Foreign Film, is based on a true incident in
Some of the Austrian road-movie Blue Moon was shot in Lviv.
Parts of the film and novel
Everything Is Illuminated
Everything Is Illuminated take place in
Brian R. Banks' Muse & Messiah: The Life, Imagination & Legacy
Bruno Schulz (1892–1942) has several pages which discuss the
history and cultural-social life of the
Lviv region. The book includes
CD-ROM with many old and new photographs and the first English map
of nearby Drohobych.
The book The Girl in the Green Sweater: A Life in Holocaust's Shadow
by Krystyna Chiger takes place in Lviv.
Large parts of 1997 film The Truce depicting Primo Levi's war
experiences were shot in Lviv.
Large portions of the film d'Artagnan and Three Musketeers were shot
in central Lviv.
The Lemberg Mosaic
The Lemberg Mosaic (2011) by Jakob Weiss describes Jewish
L'viv (Lemberg/Lwow/Lvov) during the period 1910–1943, focusing
primarily on the
Holocaust and related events.
In the book and film
The Shoes of the Fisherman the Metropolitan
Lviv is released from a
Soviet labor camp and later
The 2015 film Varta 1 (2015 film), a movie which demonstrates the
search for a new cinema features among young Ukrainian directors. The
film uses the radio talks of the automobile patrols of activists of
Lviv during EuroMaydan and it was made to create a better
understanding of the nature of the revolution. The movie was shot and
Lviv architectural face is complemented and enriched with numerous
parks, and public gardens. There are over 20 basic recreation park
zones, 3 botanical gardens and 16 natural monuments. They offer a
splendid chance to escape from city life or simply sit for a while
among the trees, at a nice fountain or a lake. Each park has its
individual character which reflects through various monuments and
their individual history.
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Ivan Franko Park
Swans in Stryiskyi Park
Ivan Franko Park, is the oldest park in the city. Traces of that time
may be found in three- hundred-year-old oak and maple trees. Upon the
abrogation of the Jesuit order in 1773 the territory became the town
property. A well-known gardener Bager arranged the territory in the
landscape style, and most of the trees were planted within
Bohdan Khmelnytsky Culture and Recreation Park, is one of the best
organised and modern green zones containing a concert and dance hall,
stadium, the town of attractions, central stage, numerous cafes and
restaurants. In the park there is a Ferris wheel.
Stryiskyi Park, it is considered one of the most picturesque parks in
the city. The park numbers over 200 species of trees and plants. It is
well known for a vast collection of rare and valuable trees and
bushes. At the main entrance gate, you will find a pond with swans.
Znesinnya Park is an ideal site for cycling, skiing sports, and
hiking. Public organisations favour conducting summer camps here
(ecological and educational, educational and cognitive).
Shevchenkivskyi Hay, in the park there is an open-air museum of
Ukrainian wooden architecture.
High Castle Park, the park is situated on the highest city hill (413
metres or 1,355 feet) and occupies the territory of 36 hectares (89
acres) consisting of the lower terrace once called Knyazha Hora
(Prince Mount), and the upper terrace with a television tower and
Zalizni Vody Park, the park originated from the former garden Zalizna
Voda (Iron water) combining Snopkivska street with Novyi Lviv
district. The park owes its name to the springs with high iron
concentration. This beautiful park with ancient beech trees and
numerous paths is a favourite place for many locals.
Lychakivskyi Park, founded in 1892 and named after the surrounding
suburbs. A botanic garden is situated on the park territory, founded
in 1911 and occupying the territory of 18.5 hectares (45.7 acres).
Lviv was an important centre for sport in
Central Europe and is
regarded as the birth–place of Polish football.
Lviv is the Polish
birthplace of other sports. In January 1905 the first Polish
ice-hockey match took place there and two years later the first
ski-jumping competition was organised in nearby Sławsko. In the same
year, the first Polish basketball games were organised in Lviv's
gymnasiums. In autumn 1887 a gymnasium by Lychakiv Street (pol. ulica
Łyczakowska) held the first Polish track and field competition with
such sports as the long jump and high jump. Lviv's athlete Władysław
Austria in the 1912 Olympic Games in Stockholm.
On 9 July 1922 the first official rugby game in
Poland took place at
the stadium of
Pogoń Lwów in which the rugby team of Orzeł Biały
Lwów divided itself into two teams – "The Reds" and "The Blacks".
The referee of this game was a Frenchman by the name of Robineau.
Lviv on Prospekt Svobody (Freedom Ave.), showing time to
start of EURO 2012. Opera and Ballet Theatre in background
The first known official goal in a Polish football match was scored
there on 14 July 1894 during the Lwów-
Kraków game. The goal was
Włodzimierz Chomicki who represented the team of Lviv. In
1904 Kazimierz Hemerling from
Lviv published the first translation of
the rules of football into Polish and another native of Lviv,
Stanisław Polakiewicz, became the first officially recognised Polish
referee in 1911 the year in which the first Polish Football Federation
was founded in Lviv. The first Polish professional football club,
Czarni Lwów opened here in 1903 and the first stadium, which belonged
to Pogoń, in 1913. Another club, Pogoń Lwów, was four times
football champion of
Poland (1922, 1923, 1925 and 1926). In the late
1920s as many as four teams from the city played in the Polish
Football League (Pogoń, Czarni, Hasmonea and Lechia). Hasmonea was
the first Jewish football club in Poland. Several notable figures of
Polish football came from the city including Kazimierz Górski,
Michał Matyas and Wacław Kuchar.
In the period 1900–1911 opened most famous football clubs in Lviv.
Professor Ivan Bobersky has based in the Academic grammar school the
first Ukrainian sports circle where schoolboys were engaged in track
and field athletics, football, boxing, hockey, skiing, tourism and
sledge sports in 1906.
He has organised the "Ukrainian Sports circle" in 1908.
Much its pupils in due course in 1911 have formed a sports society
with the loud name "Ukraine" – first Ukrainian football club of
Lviv now has several major professional football clubs and some
smaller clubs. FC Karpaty Lviv, founded in 1963, plays in the first
division of the Ukrainian Premier League. Sometimes citizens of Lviv
assemble on the central street (Freedom Avenue) to watch and cheer
during outdoor broadcasts of games.
There are three major stadiums in Lviv. One of them is the Ukraina
Stadium which is leased to
FC Karpaty Lviv
FC Karpaty Lviv until 2018.
Arena Lviv is a brand-new football stadium that was an official venue
for Euro 2012 Championship games in Lviv. Construction work began on
20 November 2008 and was completed by October 2011. The opening
ceremony took place on 29 October, with a vast theatrical production
dedicated to the history of Lviv.
Arena Lviv is currently
playing host to
Shakhtar Donetsk and
Metalurh Donetsk due to the
ongoing war in Donbass.
Lviv's chess school enjoys a good reputation; such notable
grandmasters as Vassily Ivanchuk, Leonid Stein, Alexander Beliavsky,
Andrei Volokitin used to live in Lviv.
Lviv was originally bidding to host the 2022 Winter
Olympics, but has withdrawn and will now most likely bid
for the 2026 Winter Olympics.
Buildings of the eastern side of Market Square
Due to a comprehensive cultural programme and tourism infrastructure
(having more than 8,000 hotel rooms, over 1300 cafes and
restaurants, free WI-Fi zones in the city centre, and
good connection with many countries of the world),
Lviv is considered
one of Ukraine's major tourist destinations. The city had
a 40% increase in tourist visits in the early 2010s; the highest rate
The most popular tourist attractions include the Old Town, and the
Market Square (Ukrainian: Ploshcha Rynok) which is an
18,300-square-metre (196,980-square-foot) square in the city centre
where the City Hall is situated, as well as the Black House
(Ukrainian: Chorna Kamyanytsia), Armenian Cathedral, the complex of
the Dormition Church which is the main Orthodox church in the city;
the St. Peter and Paul Church of the Jesuit Order (one of the largest
churches in Lviv); along with the Korniakt Palace, now part of the
Lviv History Museum; the Latin Cathedral of the Assumption of Mary;
St. George's Cathedral of the Greek-Catholic Church; the Dominican
Church of Corpus Christi; Chapel of the Boim family; the
Castle (Ukrainian: Vysokyi Zamok) on a hill overlooking the centre of
the city; the Union of
Lublin Mound; the
Lychakivskiy Cemetery where
the notable people were buried; and the Svobody Prospekt which is
Lviv's central street. Other popular places include
Lviv Theatre of
Opera and Ballet, the Potocki Palace, and the Bernardine Church.
Landmarks and points of interest
Church of St. Olha and Elizabeth
One of the streets in the city centre
The native residents of the city are jokingly known as the Lvivian
batiary (someone who's mischievous). Lvivians are also well known for
their way of speaking that was greatly influenced by the Lvivian gwara
Wesoła Lwowska Fala (Polish for Lwów's Merry Wave) was a weekly
radio program of the
Polish Radio Lwow with Szczepko and Tonko, later
Będzie lepiej and The Vagabonds. The Shoes of the
Fisherman, both Morris L. West's novel and its 1968 film adaptation,
had the titular pope as having been its former
archbishop.[clarification needed]
Lviv has established many city-feasts, such as coffee and chocolate
feasts, cheese & wine holiday, the feast of pampukh, the Day of
Batyar, Annual Bread Day and others. Over 50 festivals happen in Lviv,
such as Alfa Jazz Fest, an international jazz festival; the Leopolis
Grand Prix, an international festival of vintage cars; international
festival of academic music Virtuosi; Stare Misto Rock Fest; medieval
Lviv Legend; international
Etnovyr folklore festival,
initiated by UNESCO; international festival of visual art Wiz-Art;
international theatrical festival Golden Lion;
Fluorescent Art Festival; Festival of Contemporary Dramaturgy;
international contemporary music festival Contrasts; Lviv
international literary festival, Krayina Mriy; gastronomic festival
Lviv on a Plate; organ music festival Diapason; international
independent film festival KinoLev; international festival
LvivKlezFest; and international media festival
Lviv tram in the Old Town
Large bus "CityLAZ-20LF" on route number 5 on the Halytska square
The modern tram Electron T5L64
Ukrainian low-floor trolleybus
Electron T19 on the city street
See also: Trams in Lviv
Historically, the first horse-drawn tramway lines in
inaugurated on 5 May 1880. An electric tram was introduced on 31 May
1894. The last horse-drawn line was transferred to electric traction
in 1908. In 1922 the tramways were switched to driving on the
right-hand side. After the annexation of the city by the
several lines were closed but most of the infrastructure was
preserved. The tracks are narrow-gauge, unusual for the
but explained by the fact that the system was built while the city was
part of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire and needed to run in narrow
medieval streets in the centre of town. The
Lviv tramway system now
runs about 220 cars on 75 kilometres (47 miles) of track. Many tracks
were reconstructed around 2006. The price in February 2019 of a
tram/trolleybus ticket was 5 UAH (reduced fare ticket was 2.5 UAH,
e.g. for students). The ticket may be purchased from the driver.
After World War II the city grew rapidly due to evacuees returning
from Russia, and the
Soviet Government's vigorous development of heavy
industry. This included the transfer of entire factories from the
Urals and others to the newly "liberated" territories of the USSR. The
city centre tramway lines were replaced with trolleybuses on 27
November 1952. New lines were opened to the blocks of flats at the
city outskirts. The network now runs about 100 trolleybuses – mostly
of the 1980s Skoda 14Tr and LAZ 52522. In 2006–2008 11 modern
low-floor trolleybuses (LAZ E183) built by the
Lviv Bus Factory
Lviv Bus Factory were
purchased. The public bus network is represented by mini-buses
(so-called marshrutka) and large buses mainly LAZ and MAN. On 1
January 2013 the city had 52 public bus routes. The price is 7.00 UAH
regardless of the distance traveled. The ticket may be purchased from
Lviv's Main Railway Terminal
Lviv remains a hub on which nine railways converge providing
local and international services.
Lviv railway is one of the oldest in
Ukraine. The first train arrived in
Lviv on 4 November 1861. The main
Lviv Railway Station, designed by Władysław Sadłowski, was built in
1904 and was considered one of the best in
Europe from both the
architectural and the technical aspects.
In the interbellum period,
Lviv (known then as Lwów) was one of the
most important hubs of the Polish State Railways. The Lwów junction
consisted of four stations in mid-1939 – main station Lwów Główny
Lviv Holovnyi), Lwów Kleparów (now
Lwów Łyczaków (now
Lviv Lychakiv), and Lwów Podzamcze (now Lviv
Pidzamche). In August 1939 just before World War II, 73 trains
departed daily from the Main Station including 56 local and 17 fast
trains. Lwów was directly connected with all major centres of the
Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic as well as such cities as Berlin, Bucharest,
Currently, several trains cross the nearby Polish–Ukrainian border
Przemyśl in Poland). There are good connections to
Slovakia (Košice) and
Hungary (Budapest).
Many routes have overnight trains with sleeping compartments. Lviv
railway is often called the main gateway from
Ukraine to Europe
although buses are often a cheaper and more convenient way of entering
the "Schengen" countries.
Lviv used to have a Railbus, which has since been replaced with other
means of public transport. It was a motor-rail car that ran from the
largest district of
Lviv to one of the largest industrial zones going
through the central railway station. It made seven trips a day and was
meant to provide a faster and more comfortable connection between the
remote urban districts. The price in February 2010 of a one-way single
ride in the rail bus was 1.50 UAH. On 15 June 2010, the route was
cancelled as unprofitable.
Lviv International Airport
Beginnings of aviation in
Lviv reach back to 1884 when the Aeronautic
Society was opened there. The society issued its own magazine
Astronauta but soon ceased to exist. In 1909 on the initiative of
Edmund Libanski the Awiata Society was founded. Among its members
there was a group of professors and students of the
Stefan Drzewiecki and Zygmunt Sochacki. Awiata was the
oldest Polish organization of this kind and it concentrated its
activities mainly on exhibitions such as the First Aviation Exhibition
which took place in 1910 and featured models of aircraft built by Lviv
In 1913–1914 brothers Tadeusz and Władysław Floriańscy built a
two-seater aeroplane. When World War I broke out Austrian authorities
confiscated it but did not manage to evacuate the plane in time and it
was seized by the
Russians who used the plane for intelligence
purposes. The Floriański brothers' plane was the first Polish-made
aircraft. On 5 November 1918, a crew consisting of
Stefan Bastyr and
Janusz de Beaurain carried out the first ever flight under the Polish
flag taking off from Lviv's Lewandówka (now Ukrainian: Levandivka)
airport. In the interbellum period Lwów was a major
centre of gliding with a notable Gliding School in Bezmiechowa which
opened in 1932. In the same year the Institute of Gliding Technology
was opened in Lwów and was the second such institute in the world. In
1938 the First Polish Aircraft Exhibition took place in the city.
The interwar Lwów was also a major centre of the Polish Air Force
with the Sixth Air Regiment located there. The Regiment was based at
the Lwów airport opened in 1924 in the suburb of Skniłów (today
Ukrainian: Sknyliv). The airport is located 6 kilometres (4 miles)
from the city centre. In 2012, after renovation, Lviv
Airport got a new official name
Lviv Danylo Halytskyi International
Airport (LWO). A new terminal and other improvements
worth under a $200 million has been done in preparation for the 2012
UEFA European Football Championship. The connection from
Airport to the city centre is maintained by bus No. 48 and No. 9.
Cycle lane along Lypynsky Street
Cycling is a new but growing mode of transport in Lviv. In 2011 the
Lviv ratified an ambitious 9-year program for the set-up of
cycling infrastructure – until the year 2019 an overall
length of 270 km (168 mi) cycle lanes and tracks shall be
realized. A working group formally organised within the City Council,
bringing together representatives of the city administration, members
of planning and design institutes, local NGOs and other stakeholders.
Events like the All-Ukrainian Bikeday or the European
Mobility Week show the popularity of cycling among Lviv's
By September 2011, 8 km (5 mi) of new cycling infrastructure
had been built. It can be expected that until the end of the 2011
50 km (31 mi) will be ready for use. The cycling advisor in
Lviv – the first such position in
Ukraine – is supervising and
pushing forward the execution of the cycling plan and coordinates with
various people in the city. The development of cycling in
currently hampered by outdated planning norms and the fact, that most
planners didn't yet plan and experience cycling infrastructure. The
update of national legislation and training for planners is therefore
In 2015, the first stations have been set up for a new bike-sharing
Nextbike – the first of its kind in Ukraine. New bike lanes
are also under construction, making
Lviv the most bike-friendly city
in the country. The City Council plans to build an entire cycling
infrastructure by 2020, with cycle lanes (268 kilometres or 167 miles)
and street bike hire services.
Lviv Polytechnic National University
Main article: List of universities in Ukraine
Lviv is an important education centre of Ukraine. The city contains a
total of 12 universities, 8 academies and a number of smaller schools
of higher education. In addition, within Lviv, there is a total of
eight institutes of the National Academy of Science of
more than forty research institutes. These research institutes include
the Centre of Institute for Space Research; the Institute for
Condensed Matter Physics; the Institute of Cell Biology; the National
Institute of Strategic Studies; the Institute of Neuro-mathematical
Simulation in Power Engineering; and the Institute of Ecology of the
Soviet times, the city of
Lviv was the location where the software
Lunokhod programme was developed. The technology for the
Venera series probes and the first orbital shuttle Buran were also
developed in Lviv.
A considerable scientific potential is concentrated in the city: by
the number of doctors of sciences, candidates of sciences, scientific
Lviv is the fourth city in Ukraine.
Lviv is also known
for ancient academic traditions, founded by the Assumption Brotherhood
School and the Jesuit Collegium. Over 100,000 students annually study
in more than 50 higher educational establishments.
University of Life Safety
Educational level of residents:
Basic and complete secondary education: 10%
Specialized secondary education: 25%
Incomplete higher education (undergraduates): 13%
Higher education (graduates): 51%
Ph.D. (postgraduates): about 1%
Anatomy Department Building of Danylo Halytsky
Lviv National Medical
University One of the Oldest and Prime Medical Institute of Ukraine.
Ivan Franko National
University of Lviv
University of Lviv (ukr. Львівський
національний університет імені Івана
Lviv Polytechnic (ukr. Національний університет
Lviv National Medical
Львiвський національний медичний
унiверситет iм. Данила Галицького)
Lviv Stepan Gzhytsky national university of veterinary medicine and
biotechnologies (ukr. Львівський національний
університет ветеринарної медицини та
біотехнологій імені Степана
National Forestry Engineering
University (ukr. Український
The Lviv National Academy of Arts (ukr. Львівська
національна академія мистецтв)
Lviv National Agrarian
University (ukr. Львівський
національний аграрний університет)
University of Physical Training (ukr. Львівський
державний університет фізичної
Lviv Academy of Commerce (ukr. Львівська комерційна
University of Life Safety (ukr. Львівський
державний університет безпеки
University of Interior (ukr. Львівський
державний університет внутрішніх
Main article: List of Leopolitans
Leopold von Sacher-Masoch
Writers and authors
Sholem Aleichem, Jewish, Yiddish author and playwright
Bohdan-Ihor Antonych, Ukrainian poet
Muhammad Asad, writer
Ivan Franko, Ukrainian writer, philosopher
Aleksander Fredro, Polish poet, playwright
Uri Zvi Greenberg, Yiddish/Hebrew poet
Zbigniew Herbert, Polish poet, writer
Jan Kasprowicz, Polish writer, a foremost representative of Young
Maria Konopnicka, Polish poet, writer
Kornel Makuszynski, Polish writer
Stanisław Lem, Polish writer
Jan Parandowski, Polish writer
Joseph Roth, Jewish writer
Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, Austrian writer
Pinchas Sadeh (born Pinchas Feldman, 1929–94), Polish-born Jewish
Israeli novelist and poet
Markiyan Shashkevych, Ukrainian writer
Leopold Staff, Polish modernist poet
Vasyl Stefanyk, Ukrainian writer
Iryna Vilde (1907–1982), Ukrainian writer
Debora Vogel (1902–1942), Jewish writer, poet
Adam Zagajewski, Polish poet
Simon Wiesenthal, Jewish author,
Holocaust survivor and Nazi hunter
Musicians and composers
Emanuel Ax, pianist
Yuri Bashmet, viola player
Wojciech Bobowski, Polish musician and dragoman in the Ottoman Empire,
first translated the Bible into Ottoman Turkish
Franz Doppler (1821–1883), flute virtuoso and composer
Volodymyr Ivasiuk, Ukrainian composer
Tadeusz Kassern, composer
Wojciech Kilar, Polish classical and film music composer
Filaret Kolessa, Ukrainian ethnographer, composer
Oleh Krysa, Ukrainian violinist, professor
Stanislav Liudkevych, Ukrainian composer
Karol Mikuli (1819–1897), Polish pianist, Chopin's student
Gabriela Moyseowicz, Polish composer, pianist
Franz Xavier Mozart, composer
Moriz Rosenthal (1862–1946), Jewish pianist, composer
Myroslav Skoryk, Ukrainian composer
Philosophers, scholars, and doctors
Stefan Banach, Polish mathematician
Martin Buber, Austrian born Jewish Israeli philosopher
Solomon Buber (1827–1906), Jewish banker, writer, philosopher
Julian J. Bussgang, Polish mathematician
Benedykt Dybowski, Polish naturalist and physician
Ludwik Fleck, Polish medical doctor and biologist
Maurice Goldhaber, physicist
Ivan Krypiakevych, Ukrainian historian, academic, professor of Lviv
Ludwig von Mises, Jewish American economist
Jakub Parnas, Jewish biochemist
Faina Petryakova, Ukrainian ethnographer and academic
Adam Ulam, Polish historian
Stanisław Ulam, Polish mathematician
Ivan Vakarchuk, Ukrainian physicist, rector of the
Liubomyr Vynar (1932), historian
Hersch Lauterpacht (1897-1960), jurist, used the term "Crimes Against
Humanity" to describe Nazi atrocities
Raphael Lemkin (1900-1959), jurist, inventor of the term "genocide"
Chess and gaming
Alexander Beliavsky, Ukrainian chess grandmaster
Danylo Ishutin, Ukrainian professional gaming player
Vassily Ivanchuk, Ukrainian chess grandmaster
Kateryna Lagno, Ukrainian chess grandmaster
Anna Muzychuk, Ukrainian chess grandmaster
Mariya Muzychuk, Ukrainian chess grandmaster
Oleg Romanishin, Ukrainian chess grandmaster
Andrei Volokitin Ukrainian chess grandmaster
Actors, singers, and directors
Krystyna Feldman, Polish actress
Leo Fuchs, Jewish actor
Solomiya Krushelnytska, Ukrainian opera singer
Les Kurbas, Ukrainian movie and theatre director, actor
Paulina Lavitz, Jewish actress
Paul Muni, Jewish actor
Aleksander Myszuga, Polish opera singer
Ruslana (1973), Ukrainian pop singer
Mariana Sadovska, Ukrainian actress, singer, musician, recording
Svyatoslav Vakarchuk, Ukrainian rock musician
Gabriela Zapolska, Polish playwright, actress
Andrzej Żuławski, Polish film director, writer
Roman Bezpalkiv (1938–2009), Ukrainian painter
Zefiryn Ćwikliński, Polish painter who moved and spent most of his
Zakopane in Poland
Artur Grottger, Polish romantic painter
Eugeniusz Geppert, Polish painter
Jaroslava Korol, Ukrainian painter
Witold Manastyrski, Ukrainian painter
Tadeusz Rychter, Polish painter
Jan Styka, Polish painter
Ivan Trush, Ukrainian painter
Tadeusz Jordan-Rozwadowski, Polish military leader and one of the
founders of modern Poland, buried in Lychakivskiy Cemetery
Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski, Polish military leader
Michał Karaszewicz-Tokarzewski, Polish military leader
Adam Epler, Polish military leader
Government officials and politicians
Tadeusz Brzeziński, Polish consular official; father of President
Jimmy Carter's national security adviser, Zbigniew Brzeziński
Vyacheslav Chornovil, Ukrainian politician
Agenor Romuald Gołuchowski, Minister of Interior in the
Austro-Hungarian Empire and governor of Galicia
Mykhailo Hrushevsky, Ukrainian academic, politician
Faina Kirschenbaum, Israeli politician
Jacek Kuroń, Polish politician
Ignacy Moscicki, Polish president
Karl Radek (1885–1939), political activist
Aaron Abba ben Johanan ha-Levi, rabbi
Michał Piotr Boym, Polish preacher, sinologist, traveler,
cartographer, translator, diplomat, philosopher, philologist,
botanist, biologist, doctor
Major archbishop of the
Ukrainian Greek Catholic
Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church
and a Cardinal of the Catholic Church
Ukrainian Greek Catholic
Ukrainian Greek Catholic bishop and martyr
Ukrainian Greek Catholic
Ukrainian Greek Catholic priest and martyr
Andrey Sheptytsky, Ukrainian philanthropist, benefactor, founder of
Lviv National Museum, Metropolitan Archbishop
Major archbishop of the
Ukrainian Greek Catholic
Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church
and a Cardinal of the Catholic Church.
Casimir Zeglen, inventor of the bulletproof vest
David HaLevi Segal (d. 1667), author of Turei Zahav
Tzvi Hirsch ben Yaakov
Ashkenazi ("Chacham Tzvi") (d. 1718)
Jacob Joshua ben Tzevi Hirsch (d. 1756, Offenbach am Main); officiated
Joshua Falk ha-Kohen (Katz) ben Alexander (d. 1614), author of Sefer
Vladislav Bykanov (born 1989), Israeli Olympic short track speed
Victor Chukarin, a
Soviet gymnast, he won eleven medals including
seven gold medals at the 1952 and 1956 Summer Olympics, an assistant
professor at the
Lviv Institute of Physical Culture.
Kazimierz Górski, Polish soccer coach
Danil Ishutin, Dota 2 player
Oleh Luzhny, Ukrainian former professional soccer player
Elena Vesnina, Ukrainian tennis player
Twin towns and sister cities
Aleksander Fredro Monument, moved from
Lviv to Wrocław, its sister
city, after World War II.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Ukraine
Freiburg im Breisgau
Bosnia and Herzegovina
List of Leopolitans
Polish football clubs established in Lviv: Pogoń Lwów, Czarni Lwów,
Lechia Lwów, Hasmonea Lwów
Great Suburb Synagogue
^ Чисельність наявного населення
України на 1 січня 2019 року (PDF) (in Ukrainian).
State Statistics Service of Ukraine. 2019. p. 49.
ISBN 978-966-8459-82-5..mw-parser-output cite.citation
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бізнесовий Карта Львова". map.lviv.ua.
^ "Низькопідлоговий трамвай ось-ось
завершать. У червні він уже може
^ Обсяг реалізованої промислової
продукції за основними видами
діяльності у місті Львові за 2015 рік (PDF)
(in Ukrainian), ukrstat.gov.ua, 2016
^ ОВІДОМЛЕННЯ ПРО
СОЦІАЛЬНО-ЕКОНОМІЧНЕ СТАНОВИЩЕ МІСТА
ЛЬВОВА У СІЧНІ 2015 РОКУ (PDF) (in Ukrainian),
^ Стратегія економічного розвитку (in
Ukrainian), city-adm.lviv.ua, 2015
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об'єднаний бізнес-сервіс-центр Nestlé" (in
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^ "У Львові відкрили перший у Європі
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^ Події 2009 року, що змінили Львів (in
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^ IT Research 2.0, IT Cluster, 2017
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Hinrichs (Eds.), Lemberg: Eine Reise nach Europa Berlin: Christoph
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Scribner's Sons, 1976. ISBN 0-684-15064-6
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Lviv officially enters race to stage
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магазинів, ресторанів і кафе у
найбільших містах України Источник:
External link in |title= (help)
^ a b Two cities prepare for Euro 2012,
BBC News (2 December 2011)
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See also: Bibliography of the history of Lviv
Lvivat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
Resources from Wikiversity
Official website (in Ukrainian)
Official travel website
Ukraine at JewishGen
Siege by Turks (1675)
Ruthenian National House
Secret Ukrainian University
Warsaw school of logic
Lwów School of Mathematics
Massacre of Lwów professors
Sknyliv air show disaster
Cathedral of St. George
Convent of Benedictines
Church of St. Anne
Church of John the Baptist
Church of Mary of Snow
Church of St. Elizabeth
Church of St. Mary Magdalene
Monastery and church of St. Onuphrius
Church of the Dormition
Church of the Purification, Lviv
Church of the Transfiguration
Cemetery of the Defenders of Lwów
King Cross Leopolis
Lviv High Castle
Theatre of Opera and Ballet
Lviv railway station
Lviv Suburban railway station
Pidzamche railway station
vte Administrative divisions of LvivDistricts
Administrative divisions of Lviv OblastAdministrative
vte Administrative divisions of UkraineCapital: KievOblasts
Cities with special status
1Claimed and controlled by
Russia as the
Republic of Crimea
Republic of Crimea and the
Federal City of
Sevastopol 2Regions are partly controlled by
Pro-Russian seperatists states of
Donetsk People's Republic and
Luhansk People's Republic
vteWorld Heritage Sites in UkraineCultural
Kiev (Saint-Sophia Cathedral and Related Monastic Buildings, Kiev
Lviv - Ensemble of the Historic Centre
Residence of Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans
Struve Geodetic Arc1
Ancient City of Tauric Chersonese and its Chora
Wooden tserkvas of the Carpathian region2
Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other
Regions of Europe3
1 with Estonia, Belarus, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Moldova,
Russia, and Sweden
2 with Poland
3 with Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Italy,
Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain
vteCities in Ukraine
City with special status
City of regional significance
City of district significance
Crimea is the subject of a territorial dispute between Ukraine
(Autonomous Republic of Crimea) and
Russia (Republic of Crimea)
vteHistorical Capitals of Rus', Ukrainian states and states on
Ukrainian soil1Medieval Ukrainian statesKievan Rus'
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
Grand Principality of Rus'
Ukrainian states after
Russian Empire andbefore Ukrainian SSRWest
Ukrainian People's Republic
Ukrainian People's Republic
Ukrainian SSR (since 1917), independent
Ukraine (since 1991)Ukrainian
SSR (part of theSU 1922-91), Ukraine
Kiev (since 1934)
1Meaning (Cossack) states on the territory of current Ukraine
BNF: cb11985932t (data)
WorldCat Identities (via