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Luna 9
Luna 9
(Луна-9), internal designation Ye-6 No.13, was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Union's Luna programme. On 3 February 1966 the Luna 9
Luna 9
spacecraft became the first spacecraft to achieve a soft landing on the Moon, or any planetary body other than Earth, and to transmit photographic data to Earth
Earth
from the surface of another planetary body.

Contents

1 Spacecraft 2 Launch and translunar coast 3 Descent and landing 4 Surface operations 5 Sources 6 External links

Spacecraft[edit] The lander had a mass of 99 kilograms (218 lb). It used a landing bag to survive the impact speed of 22 kilometres per hour (6.1 m/s; 14 mph).[3] It was a hermetically sealed container with radio equipment, a program timing device, heat control systems, scientific apparatus, power sources, and a television system. Launch and translunar coast[edit] Luna 9
Luna 9
was launched by a Molniya-M
Molniya-M
rocket, serial number 103-32, flying from Site 31/6 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome
Baikonur Cosmodrome
in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic. Liftoff took place at 11:41:37 UTC on 31 January 1966. The first three stages of the four-stage carrier rocket injected the payload and fourth stage into low Earth
Earth
orbit, at an altitude of 168 by 219 kilometres (104 by 136 mi) and 51.8 degrees inclination.[1] The fourth stage, a Blok-L, then fired to raise the orbit's perigee to a new apogee approximately 500,000 kilometres (310,000 mi), before deploying Luna 9
Luna 9
into a highly elliptical geocentric orbit.[1] The spacecraft then spun itself up to 0.67 rpm using nitrogen jets. On 1 February at 19:29 UT, a mid-course correction took place involving a 48-second burn and resulting in a delta-V of 71.2 metres per second (234 ft/s).[2] Descent and landing[edit]

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Cropped close-up image of lunar surface taken after landing

At an altitude of 8,300 kilometres (5,200 mi) from the Moon, the spacecraft was oriented for the firing of its retrorockets and its spin was stopped in preparation for landing. From this moment the orientation of the spacecraft was supported by measurements of directions to the Sun and the Earth
Earth
using an opto-mechanical system. At 74.885 kilometres (46.531 mi) above the lunar surface, the radar altimeter triggered the jettison of the side modules, the inflation of the air bags and the firing of the retro rockets. Approximately at 250 metres (820 ft) from the surface, the main retrorocket was turned off by the integrator of an acceleration having reached the planned velocity of the braking manoeuver. The four outrigger engines were used to slow the craft. Approximately 5 metres (16 ft) above the lunar surface, a contact sensor touched the ground triggering the engines to be shut down and the landing capsule to be ejected. The craft landed at 22 kilometres per hour (6.1 m/s; 14 mph)[2] The spacecraft bounced several times before coming to rest in Oceanus Procellarum west of Reiner and Marius craters at approximately 7.08 N, 64.37 W on 3 February 1966 at 18:45:30 UT.[2] The spacecraft was developed in the design bureau then known as OKB-1, under Chief Designer Sergei Korolev
Sergei Korolev
(who had died before the launch). The first 11 Luna missions were unsuccessful for a variety of reasons. At that time the project was transferred to Lavochkin
Lavochkin
design bureau since OKB-1
OKB-1
was busy with a manned expedition to the Moon. Luna 9
Luna 9
was the twelfth attempt at a soft-landing by the Soviet Union; it was also the first successful deep space probe built by the Lavochkin
Lavochkin
design bureau, which ultimately would design and build almost all Soviet (later Russian) lunar and interplanetary spacecraft. All operations prior to landing occurred without fault, and the 58-centimetre (23 in) spheroid ALS capsule landed on the Moon
Moon
at 18:45:30 UT on 3 February 1966 west of the craters Reiner and Marius in the Ocean of Storms (at 7°8' north latitude and 64°22' west longitude). Approximately five minutes after touchdown, Luna 9
Luna 9
began transmitting data to Earth, but it was seven hours (after the Sun had climbed to 7° elevation) before the probe began sending the first of nine images (including five panoramas) of the surface of the Moon. Surface operations[edit] Approximately 250 seconds after landing in the Oceanus Procellarum, four petals which covered the top half of the spacecraft opened outward for increased stability. The television camera system began a photographic survey of the lunar environment. Seven radio sessions with a total of 8 hours and 5 minutes were transmitted, as well as three series of TV pictures.[2] After assembly the photographs gave a panoramic view of the immediate lunar surface, comprising views of nearby rocks and of the horizon, 1.4 kilometres (0.87 mi) away.[2] The pictures from Luna 9
Luna 9
were not released immediately by the Soviet authorities, but scientists at Jodrell Bank Observatory
Jodrell Bank Observatory
in England, which was monitoring the craft, noticed that the signal format used was identical to the internationally agreed Radiofax
Radiofax
system used by newspapers for transmitting pictures. The Daily Express
Daily Express
rushed a suitable receiver to the Observatory and the pictures from Luna 9
Luna 9
were decoded and published worldwide. The BBC
BBC
speculated that the spacecraft's designers deliberately fitted the probe with equipment conforming to the standard, to enable reception of the pictures by Jodrell Bank.[4] The radiation detector, the only scientific instrument on board, measured a dosage of 30 millirads (0.3 milligrays) per day.[5] The mission also determined that a spacecraft would not sink into the lunar dust; that the ground could support a lander. Last contact with the spacecraft was at 22:55 UTC on 6 February 1966.[2] Sources[edit]

^ a b c d e f g McDowell, Jonathan. "Satellite Catalog". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 14 August 2013.  ^ a b c d e f g "NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details". NASA. Retrieved 4 April 2013.  ^ Astronautix ^ BBC
BBC
ON THIS DAY 3 1966: Soviets land probe on Moon ^ <NASA Luna 9: In Depth>

External links[edit]

Spaceflight portal

Zarya - Luna 9
Luna 9
chronology Animation of mission Luna 9
Luna 9
panoramas

v t e

Luna programme

Luna E-1 No.1 Luna E-1 No.2 Luna E-1 No.3 Luna 1 Luna E-1A No.1 Luna 2 Luna 3 Luna E-3 No.1 Luna E-3 No.2 Luna E-6 No.2 Luna E-6 No.3 Luna 4 Luna E-6 No.6 Luna E-6 No.5 Kosmos 60 Luna E-6 No.8 Luna 5 Luna 6 Luna 7 Luna 8 Luna 9 Kosmos 111 Luna 10 Luna 11 Luna 12 Luna 13 Luna E-6LS No.112 Luna 14 Luna E-8 No.201 Luna E-8-5 No. 402 Luna 15 Kosmos 300 Kosmos 305 Luna E-8-5 No. 405 Luna 16 Luna 17 Luna 18 Luna 19 Luna 20 Luna 21 Luna 22 Luna 23 Luna E-8-5M No. 412 Luna 24

v t e

Spacecraft missions to the Moon

Programs

American

Apollo Lunar Orbiter Lunar Precursor Pioneer Ranger Surveyor

Chinese (CLEP) Indian (Chandrayaan) Japanese Russian

Luna-Glob

Soviet

Crewed Luna Zond Lunokhod

Current

Orbiters

ARTEMIS Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

Past

Orbiters

Apollo 8 10 Apollo 15
Apollo 15
Subsatellite (PFS-1) Apollo 16
Apollo 16
Subsatellite (PFS-2) Chandrayaan-1 Chang'e 1 Chang'e 2 Clementine Explorer 35 Explorer 49 GRAIL Hiten LADEE Luna 10 11 12 14 19 22 Lunar Orbiter 1 2 3 4 5 Lunar Prospector SELENE
SELENE
(Kaguya, Okina & Ouna) SMART-1 Chang'e 5-T1
Chang'e 5-T1
(Service Module)

Flybys

4M Apollo 13 AsiaSat-3 Cassini–Huygens Chang'e 5-T1
Chang'e 5-T1
(Xiaofei) Galileo Geotail ICE Luna 1 Luna 3 Mariner 10 Nozomi Pioneer 4 Pioneer 10 Ranger 5 STEREO Zond 3 5 6 7 8

Impactors

LCROSS Luna 2 MIP Ranger 4 6 7 8 9

Landers

Apollo Lunar Module
Apollo Lunar Module
x6 ALSEP (x5) and EASEP (x1) Chang'e 3 Luna 9 13 17 21 Surveyor 1 3 5 6 7

Rovers

Apollo 15 16 17 Lunokhod 1 2 Yutu

Sample return

Apollo 11 12 14 15 16 17 Luna 16 20 24

Human landing

Apollo 11 12 14 15 16 17

Planned

EM-1 (2019)

Orion EM-1

ArgoMoon BioSentinel Cislunar Explorers CuSP CU-E3 EQUULEUS LunaH-Map Lunar Flashlight Lunar IceCube NEA Scout OMOTENASHI SkyFire Team Miles

Luna-Glob

Luna 25
Luna 25
(2019) Luna 26
Luna 26
(2021) Luna 27
Luna 27
(2022) Luna 28
Luna 28
(2025) Luna 29

Others

Chandrayaan-2
Chandrayaan-2
(2018) Chang'e 4
Chang'e 4
(2018) TESS (2018) Astrobotic / Hakuto
Hakuto
/ AngelicvM (2019) Chang'e 5
Chang'e 5
(2019) MX-1E (2019) PTScientists
PTScientists
(2019) Chang'e 6
Chang'e 6
(2020) SLIM (2021) DESTINY+
DESTINY+
(2022) EM-2 (2023) EM-3 (2023+)

Proposed

Baden-Württemberg 1 Blue Origin Blue Moon DSE-Alpha International Lunar Network Lunar Lander Lunar Mission One Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway Lunar Orbital Station MoonLITE OpenLuna Resource Prospector SELENE-R SpaceIL Synergy Moon TeamIndus

Cancelled

Altair European Lunar Explorer LEO LK Lunar-A Lunar Observer Lunokhod 3 MoonRise Prospector SpaceX lunar tourism mission Ukrselena

See also

Colonization of the Moon Exploration of the Moon Google Lunar X Prize List of Apollo astronauts List of lunar probes List of artificial objects on the Moon List of missions to the Moon Lunar rover Moon
Moon
landing

Conspiracy theories

Manned missions in italics.

v t e

← 1965  ·  Orbital launches in 1966  ·  1967 →

Kosmos 104 OPS 2394 OPS 7253 · OPS 3179 Kosmos 105 Kosmos 106 OPS 1593 Luna 9
Luna 9
OPS 7291 ESSA-1
ESSA-1
OPS 1439 Kosmos 107 Kosmos 108 OPS 1184 · OPS 3011 · OPS 3031 Dipason Kosmos 109 DS-K-40 No.2 Kosmos 110
Kosmos 110
ESSA-2 Kosmos 111 OPS 3488 GATV-5003 Gemini VIII Kosmos 112 OPS 0879 · OPS 0974 Kosmos 113 N-4 No.3 OPS 1117 Molniya-1 No.5 OV1-4 · OV1-5 OPS 0340 Luna 10
Luna 10
Kosmos 114 OPS 1612 Surveyor SD-3 OAO-1 OPS 0910 Kosmos 115 OV3-1 Molniya 1-03 Kosmos 116 OPS 1508 Kosmos 117 Kosmos 118 OPS 1950 · OPS 6785 Nimbus 2 Zenit-4 GATV-5004 OPS 0082 OPS 1788 Kosmos 119 Explorer 32
Explorer 32
Surveyor 1
Surveyor 1
ATDA Gemini IX-A OPS 1577 · OPS 1856 OGO-3 Kosmos 120 OV3-4 FTV-1351 · Secor 6 · ERS-16 OPS 9311 · OPS 9312 · OPS 9313 · OPS 9314 · OPS 9315 · OPS 9316 · OPS 9317 · GGTS Kosmos 121 OPS 1599 PAGEOS
PAGEOS
Kosmos 122 Explorer 33
Explorer 33
AS-203
AS-203
Proton 3 Kosmos 123 OPS 1850 OV1-7 · PasComSat
PasComSat
Kosmos 124 GATV-5005 Gemini X Kosmos 125 Kosmos 126 OPS 3014 OV3-3 Kosmos 127 OPS 1545 Lunar Orbiter 1 OPS 1832 · OPS 6810 Pioneer 7
Pioneer 7
OPS 2366 FTV-1352 · Secor 7 · ERS-15 Luna 11
Luna 11
IDCSP · IDCSP · IDCSP · IDCSP · IDCSP · IDCSP · IDCSP · IDCSP · GGTS-2 Kosmos 128 GATV-5006 Gemini XI OPS 6026 OPS 1686 · OPS 6874 Zenit-2 No.40 OPS 6026 OPS 1686 · OPS 6874 OGCh No.05L Surveyor 2
Surveyor 2
OPS 1703 Ōsumi 1 OPS 4096 ESSA-3 FTV-1583 · Secor 8 OPS 2055 · OPS 5345 Kosmos 129 Molniya 1-04 Kosmos 130 Luna 12
Luna 12
Surveyor SM-3 Intelsat II F-1 OV3-2 OGCh No.06L OPS 2070 · OPS 5424 OPS 0855 · OV4-1R · OV4-1T · OV1-6 Lunar Orbiter 2 OPS 1866 GATV-5001A Gemini XII Kosmos 131 Strela-2 No.1 Kosmos 132 Kosmos 133
Kosmos 133
Kosmos 134 OPS 1890 ATS-1
ATS-1
OV1-9 · OV1-10 Kosmos 135 Soyuz 7K-OK No.1 OPS 8968 Biosatellite 1
Biosatellite 1
Kosmos 136 Ōsumi 2 Kosmos 137 Luna 13
Luna 13
OPS 1584

Payloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes ( ). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are de

.