Luis Agote (September 22, 1868 – November 12, 1954) was an Argentine
physician and researcher. He was the first to perform a non-direct
blood transfusion using sodium citrate as an anticoagulant. The
procedure took place in Rawson hospital in the city of
Buenos Aires on
November 9, 1914. Agote was the first to perform this procedure in the
Americas. Unlike usually depicted, Agote worked independently and
separately from the Belgian surgeon Albert Hustin, who discovered that
sodium citrate in tolerable quantities could anticoagulate blood for
transfusion on March 27, 1914.
2 First recorded transfusions
4 External links
He studied first in the Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires, and then at
the University of Buenos Aires, where he was also a teacher. He
graduated as a doctor in 1893 with a thesis about suppurative
hepatitis. He became Secretary of the National Department of Hygiene
in 1894 and became head of the leper hospital in 1895 on the island of
Martin Garcia. He was elected Deputy in 1910 and Senator in 1916 of
the legislature in Argentina.
First recorded transfusions
The first recorded blood transfusion was made between dogs by the
English doctor Richard Lower around 1666. In 1667, French scientist
Juan Bautista Denys transfused a human with animal blood. In 1900,
Karl Landsteiner identified some of the blood substances responsible
for the agglutination of red blood cells, identifying blood groups for
the first time and some of their incompatibilities.
Luis Agote (2nd from right) overseeing one of the first safe and
effective blood transfusion in 1914
Direct transfusions were still not practiced at the beginning of the
20th century because it was impossible to keep unaltered blood outside
the body for later use. After 6–12 minutes, coagulation begins
manifested initially by a gradual increase of viscosity that
terminates with almost complete solidification.
Coagulation is the
defense of an organism to staunch wounds and minimize hemorrhages. Now
we know that clotting is almost totally formed by platelets fastened
by a network of filaments of fibrin.
Fibrin does not normally exist in blood and is created from protein
plasma by the action of the thrombin enzyme. Similarly, thrombin is
not naturally present in blood and is created by the precursor
substance prothombrin, in a process that involves platelets, some
exiting from calcium and substances produced by lesioned materials.
Since clots are not created if there is a lack of some of these
elements, the addition of sodium citrate (which eliminates calcium
ions from blood) prevents its formation.
^ "History of blood transfusion - The Institute of Biomedical
Science". IBMS. Retrieved 2016-06-14.
Agote's short biography (Spanish)