Ludwik Krzywicki
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Ludwik Joachim Franciszek Krzywicki (21 August 1859 – 10 June 1941) was a Polish
Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern societies progress, ...
anthropologist, economist and sociologist. One of the early champions of
sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly ...
in Poland, he approached
historical materialism Historical materialism is a Historical method, methodology to understand human societies and their development throughout history, arguing that historical changes in social structure are ultimately driven by the struggles and conflicts unleashe ...
from a sociological viewpoint. From 1919 to 1936 he was a professor at the
University of Warsaw The University of Warsaw ( pl, Uniwersytet Warszawski, la, Universitas Varsoviensis), established in 1816, is the largest university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, hig ...
.


Life

Ludwik Krzywicki was born at
Płock Płock (pronounced ) is a city in central Poland, on the Vistula river. It is in the Masovian Voivodeship (since 1999), having previously been the capital of the Płock Voivodeship (1975–1998). According to the data provided by Central Statistic ...

Płock
in 1859 into an aristocratic but impoverished family. From an early age he showed an interest in psychology, philosophy and natural sciences, and studied the works of
Darwin Darwin most often refers to: * Charles Darwin (1809–1882), English naturalist and writer, best known as the originator of the theory of biological evolution by natural selection * Darwin, Northern Territory, a capital city in Australia * Darwin ( ...

Darwin
,
Taine
Taine
,
Ribot
Ribot
and
Comte
Comte
. Krzywicki studied
mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It has no generally ...
at the
University of Warsaw The University of Warsaw ( pl, Uniwersytet Warszawski, la, Universitas Varsoviensis), established in 1816, is the largest university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, hig ...
in
Congress Poland Congress Poland or Russian Poland, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland, was a polity created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a semi-autonomous Poland, Polish State (polity), state and successor to Napoleon's short-lived Duchy of Warsaw. ...
. After obtaining his degree, he enrolled in the Faculty of Medicine but was expelled from the University on account of his political activities. He then went abroad, first to
Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon Upper Saxon (german: Obersächsisch, ; ) is an East Central German dialect spoken in much of the modern States of Germany, German state of Saxony and in adjacent parts of southeastern Saxony-Anhalt and eastern Thuring ...

Leipzig
,
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, German , government_ ...

Germany
, then
Zürich , neighboring_municipalities = Adliswil , neighboring_municipalities = Kilchberg, Zurich, Kilchberg, Langnau am Albis, Rüschlikon, Stallikon, Zurich , twintowns = Adliswil is a List of towns in Switzerland, town and a Municipaliti ...

Zürich
,
Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_t ...

Switzerland
, and finally in 1885 to
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of 2018, in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, ...

Paris
,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territories. The metro ...

France
, where most of the Polish Socialist émigrés in Europe lived. It was in
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of 2018, in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, ...

Paris
that he began studying
anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture ...
,
archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, but archaeologists also draw from biological, geological ...
and
ethnology Ethnology (from the grc-gre, ἔθνος, meaning 'nation') is an academic field that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples A people is a plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that ...
.


Contributions to science

Krzywicki was one of the first scholars to research
Lithuania Lithuania (; lt, Lietuva ), officially the Republic of Lithuania ( lt, Lietuvos Respublika, links=no), is a country in the Baltic region The terms Baltic Sea Region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countri ...
n
hill forts A hill is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body. Landforms together make up a given terrain, and their arrangement in the landscape is known as topography. Landform ...
. Between 1900 and 1914 he conducted archeological digs in
Samogitia Samogitia or Žemaitija (Samogitian dialect, Samogitian: ''Žemaitėjė''; lt, Žemaitija; see Samogitia#Eytmology and alternate names, below for alternate and historical names) is one of the five ethnography, ethnographic regions of Lithuania. ...
and elsewhere, photographing and excavating fortress hills. In 1908 he published ''Żmudż starożytnia'' (Ancient Samogitia), in which he sought to correlate his findings with chronicles that mentioned the castles and fortifications that he was investigating. In the same year he published an article entitled, ''W poszukiwaniu grodu Mendoga'', dealing with where he believed the castle of King
Mindaugas Mindaugas (german: Myndowen, la, Mindowe, orv, Мендог, be, Міндоўг, pl, Mendog, c. 1203–1263) was the first known List of rulers of Lithuania, Grand Duke of Lithuania and the only Christian King of Lithuania. Little is known o ...

Mindaugas
had been located. Krzywicki donated a large part of his findings to the Culture Museum in
Kaunas Kaunas (; ; also see other names) is the second-largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclo ...

Kaunas
, Lithuania, in 1939. One of his most important contributions was the theory of the migration of ideas: that ideas, which are created from and spread thanks to social needs and social expectations, can "migrate" to other places or times which have not yet been capable of expressing them autonomously. When that happens, if the new ideas succeed in embodying the needs and expectations encountered at the new place, they will take root and accelerate its socio-economic development.


Return to Poland

Krzywicki returned to Congress Poland in 1893 and continued his political activity. When the Italian Spiritualist Eusapia Palladino revisited Warsaw in the second half of May 1898, she held at least two séances in Krzywicki's apartment.Krystyna Tokarzówna and Stanisław Fita, ''Bolesław Prus, 1847–1912: Kalendarz życia i twórczości'' (Bolesław Prus, 1847–1912: a Calendar of [His] Life and Work), p. 521. He was arrested many times, notably when he took part in the Revolution of 1905. During this period, he edited the paper of the Polish Socialist Party – Left, Socialist Party. He finished a doctorate in Lwów (today Lviv, Ukraine) with an ethnographic dissertation. Before World War I he lived in great hardship, but when the war broke out he was back in the front line of social activity, taking part in various workers and trade union organizations even though his relations with the Socialist Party had cooled. Krzywicki was one of the translators of Karl Marx's ''Das Kapital'' into Polish. After World War I he abandoned all political activity and focused on scientific research, intending to complete the works that he had never had the peace of mind or time to finish. However, he did take part in the organization and management of scientific bodies. He served as vice-director of the Central Statistical Office, Poland, Central Statistical Office, taught at the
University of Warsaw The University of Warsaw ( pl, Uniwersytet Warszawski, la, Universitas Varsoviensis), established in 1816, is the largest university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, hig ...
(1919–36) and other institutions of higher education, and directed the Socio-Economic Institute. During World War II he was injured during the defence of Warsaw in September 1939, and the bomb that destroyed his apartment also caused the loss of most of his papers and manuscripts. His working conditions worsened and he died of heart disease in 1941.


See also

* Meme * Irena Krzywicka * Central Statistical Office, Poland, Central Statistical Office * Eusapia Palladino#Poland, Eusapia Palladino * List of Poles#Social sciences, List of Poles


Notes


References

*Krystyna Tokarzówna and Stanisław Fita, ''Bolesław Prus, 1847–1912: Kalendarz życia i twórczości'' (Bolesław Prus, 1847–1912: a Calendar of [His] Life and Work), edited by Zygmunt Szweykowski, Warsaw, Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy, 1969.


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Krzywicki, Ludwik 1859 births 1941 deaths People from Płock 19th-century Polish scholars Polish Marxists Polish sociologists Marxist theorists 19th-century Polish scientists 20th-century Polish scientists