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Ludwig Fischer
Ludwig Fischer
(April 16, 1905 – March 8, 1947) was a German National Socialist
National Socialist
lawyer, politician and a convicted war criminal who was executed for war crimes.

Contents

1 Background 2 Actions during the Nazi occupation of Poland 3 Postwar trial and execution 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

Background[edit] Born into a Catholic
Catholic
family in Kaiserslautern, Fischer joined the Nazi Party in 1926 while a student, and the Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
(SA) in 1929, eventually rising to the rank of Gruppenführer. In 1937, he was elected to the Reichstag. Actions during the Nazi occupation of Poland[edit] Main article: General Government
General Government
administration Germany
Germany
invaded Poland
Poland
in September 1939. On 24 October 1939 Fischer became Chief Administrator (and in 1941 Governor) of the Warsaw District in the occupied General Government
General Government
(the area of Poland
Poland
that Germany
Germany
did not formally annex). He held this position until the withdrawal of the German forces from Warsaw
Warsaw
in January 1945. Fischer was directly responsible for a number of war crimes, as well as crimes against humanity.[citation needed] He oversaw the establishment of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto and issued many anti-Semitic laws, as well as participating in the bloody Ghetto de-establishment and deportation. Fischer was also responsible for terror in the occupied city, including mass executions, slave-labor programs and the deportation of Poles and Polish Jews to the various German concentration camps. The Special Courts
Special Courts
of the Polish resistance movement sentenced him to death for crimes against Polish citizens. His name appeared first on the list of "Operation Heads"—the serial assassinations of Nazi personnel by the Polish Resistance. Before the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising in 1944, his car was shot at in Operation Hunting (Polish: Akcja Polowanie), but Fischer survived. After the failure of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising of August to October 1944, Fischer played an important role in Nazi Germany's planned destruction of Warsaw. He was also responsible for the poor conditions in the temporary transit camp on the western outskirts of Warsaw
Warsaw
in Pruszków, which the Nazis set up to intern people expelled from the capital. Postwar trial and execution[edit] Fischer, then aged 41, was arrested after the war by Allied forces and was handed over to the Polish authorities. He was tried before the Supreme National Tribunal
Supreme National Tribunal
and sentenced to death. Treblinka and Warsaw uprising survivor Jankiel Wiernik
Jankiel Wiernik
testified at his trial in 1947. He was executed by hanging in Warsaw's Mokotów Prison.[1] A 2013 National Geographic Channel
National Geographic Channel
documentary Bloody Tales claims that a film thought to be of the execution of the Nazi war criminal Amon Goeth is in fact that of Fischer's execution.[2] References[edit]

^ Prosecution of Nazi Crimes in Poland
Poland
in 1939–2004 Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Becky Evans, Historians claim video of camp commander being hanged is NOT him. Daily Mail Online, March 21, 2013. Retrieved June 2, 2013.

Further reading[edit]

Joseph Wulf, Das Dritte Reich und seine Vollstrecker, Frankfurt/Main 1984 Ernst Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, Frankfurt/Main 2003

External links[edit]

Testimonies collected during Fischer's trial in "Chronicles of Terror" database

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Poland

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia France Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Ukraine

v t e

Camps, ghettos and operations

Camps

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Chełmno Majdanek Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
death camps

Bełżec Sobibór Treblinka

Concentration

Kraków-Płaszów Potulice Soldau Stutthof Szebnie Trawniki Warsaw

Mass shootings

AB Action Bronna Góra Erntefest Jedwabne Kielce cemetery Aktion Krakau Lviv pogroms Lwów professors Palmiry Sonderaktion Krakau Tannenberg Tykocin Bydgoszcz Wąsosz Bloody Sunday

Ghettos

List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Poland
(1939–1942) Będzin Białystok Brest Częstochowa Grodno Kielce Kraków Lwów Łódź Lubartów Lublin Międzyrzec Podlaski Mizocz Nowy Sącz Pińsk Radom Siedlce Sambor Słonim Sosnowiec Stanisławów Tarnopol Wilno Warsaw

Other atrocities

Action T4 Grossaktion Warsaw Human medical experimentation

v t e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

Major perpetrators

Organizers

Josef Bühler Eichmann Eicke Ludwig Fischer Hans Frank Globocnik Glücks Greiser Himmler Hermann Höfle Fritz Katzmann Wilhelm Koppe Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger Kutschera Erwin Lambert Ernst Lerch Oswald Pohl Reinefarth Scherner Seyss-Inquart Sporrenberg Streckenbach Thomalla Otto Wächter Wisliceny

Camp command

Aumeier Baer Boger Braunsteiner Eberl Eupen Kurt Franz Karl Frenzel Karl Fritzsch Göth Grabner Hartjenstein Hering Höss Hössler Josef Kramer Liebehenschel Mandel Matthes Michel Möckel Mulka Johann Niemann Oberhauser Reichleitner Heinrich Schwarz Stangl Gustav Wagner Christian Wirth

Gas chamber executioners

Erich Bauer Bolender Hackenholt Klehr Hans Koch Herbert Lange Theuer

Physicians

von Bodmann Clauberg Gebhardt Fritz Klein Mengele Horst Schumann Trzebinski Eduard Wirths

Ghetto command

Auerswald Biebow Blösche Bürkl Konrad Palfinger von Sammern-Frankenegg Stroop

Einsatzgruppen

Wolfgang Birkner Blobel Felix Landau Schaper Schöngarth von Woyrsch

Personnel

Camp guards

Juana Bormann Danz Demjanjuk Margot Dreschel Kurt Gerstein Grese Höcker Kaduk Kollmer Muhsfeldt Orlowski Volkenrath

By camp

Sobibór Treblinka

Organizations

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
(SS) Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
(Orpo battalions) WVHA RKFDV VoMi General Government Hotel Polski

Collaboration

Belarusian

Belarusian Auxiliary Police BKA battalions Brigade Siegling Black Cats Central Rada

Jewish

Jewish Ghetto Police Żagiew ("Torch Guard") Group 13 Kapos Judenräte

Russian

Waffen-SS "RONA" Waffen-SS "Russland" Ostlegionen, Bataillone (Cossack Division, Russian "ROA")

Ukrainian

Ukrainian Auxiliary Police SS Galizien Ukrainian Liberation Army Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Battalion 118, Brigade Siegling, 30. Waffen SS Grenadier Division) Trawnikimänner

Other nationalities

Estonian Auxiliary Police Latvian Auxiliary Police
Latvian Auxiliary Police
(Arajs Kommando) Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
(Schutzmannschaft, Ypatingasis būrys) Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten
(Nederlandsche SS)

v t e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

Organizations

AK AOB Bund GL PKB ŻOB ŻZA

Uprisings

Ghetto uprisings Białystok Częstochowa Sobibór Treblinka Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising

Leaders

Mordechai Anielewicz Icchak Cukierman Mordechai Tenenbaum Marek Edelman Leon Feldhendler Paweł Frenkiel Henryk Iwański Itzhak Katzenelson Michał Klepfisz Miles Lerman Alexander Pechersky Witold Pilecki Frumka Płotnicka Roza Robota Szmul Zygielbojm

Judenrat

Jewish Ghetto Police Adam Czerniaków Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

Victim lists

Ghettos

Kraków Łódź Lvov (Lwów) Warsaw

Camps

Auschwitz Bełżec Gross-Rosen Izbica Majdanek Sobibór Soldau Stutthof Trawniki Treblinka

Documentation

Nazi sources

Auschwitz Album Frank Memorandum Höcker Album Höfle Telegram Katzmann Report Korherr Report Nisko Plan Posen speeches Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland Stroop Report Wannsee Conference

Witness accounts

Graebe affidavit Gerstein Report Vrba–Wetzler report Witold's Report Sonderkommando photographs

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

Technical and logistics

Identification in camps Gas chamber Gas van Holocaust train Human medical experimentation Zyklon B

v t e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

Aftermath

Holocaust survivors Polish population transfers (1944–1946) Bricha Kielce pogrom Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 Ministry of Public Security

Trials

West German trials

Frankfurt Auschwitz trials Treblinka trials

Polish, East German, and Soviet trials

Auschwitz trial
Auschwitz trial
(Poland) Stutthof trials Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Memorials

Museum of the History of Polish Jews Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum Majdanek State Museum Sobibór Museum International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz March of the Living

Righteous Among the Nations

Polish Righteous Among the Nations Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust Garden of the Righteous

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 1122391 LCCN: n87903291 ISNI: 0000 0001 0947 709X GND: 130546798 SUDOC: 161353908 BNF:

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