Lucerne (/ˌluːˈsɜːrn/; German: Luzern
[luˈtsɛrn] ( listen); French:
Lucerne [lysɛʁn]; Italian:
Lucerna [luˈtʃɛrna]; Romansh: Lucerna;
Lozärn) is a city in central Switzerland, in the German-speaking
portion of the country.
Lucerne is the capital of the canton of
Lucerne and part of the district of the same name. With a population
of about 81,057 people (as of 2013[update]),
Lucerne is the most
populous town in Central Switzerland, and a nexus of economics,
transportation, culture, and media of this region. The city's urban
area consists of 17 municipalities and towns located in three
different cantons with an overall population of about 250,000 people
(as of 2007[update]).
Owing to its location on the shores of
Lake Lucerne (German:
Vierwaldstättersee) and its outflow, the river Reuss, within sight of
the mounts Pilatus and
Rigi in the Swiss Alps,
Lucerne has long been a
destination for tourists. One of the city's famous landmarks is the
Chapel Bridge (German: Kapellbrücke), a wooden bridge first erected
in the 14th century.
The official language of
Lucerne is (the Swiss variety of Standard)
German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the
Alemannic Swiss German dialect.
1.1 Early history and founding (750–1386)
1.2 From city to city-state (1386–1520)
1.3 Swiss-Catholic town (1520–1798)
1.4 Century of revolutions (1798–1914)
1.5 21st century
2 Geography and climate
3.4 National elections
3.4.1 National Council
3.5 International relations
3.5.1 Twin towns — sister cities
4.2 Historic population
6 Culture and events
10 Notable people
11 See also
13 Further reading
14 External links
Early history and founding (750–1386)
After the fall of the Roman Empire beginning in the 6th century,
Germanic Alemannic peoples increased their influence on this area of
present-day Switzerland. Around 750 the Benedictine Monastery of St.
Leodegar was founded, which was later acquired by
Murbach Abbey in
Alsace in the middle of the 9th century, and by this time the area had
become known as Luciaria. In 1178
Lucerne acquired its independence
from the jurisdiction of Murbach Abbey, and the founding of the city
proper probably occurred that same year. The city gained importance as
a strategically located gateway for the growing commerce from the
Gotthard trade route.
Lucerne had become a self-sufficient city of reasonable size
with about 3000 inhabitants. About this time King Rudolph I von
Habsburg gained authority over the Monastery of St. Leodegar and its
lands, including Lucerne. The populace was not content with the
Habsburg influence, and
Lucerne allied with neighboring
towns to seek independence from their rule. Along with Lucerne, the
three other forest cantons of Uri,
Unterwalden formed the
"eternal" Swiss Confederacy, known as the Eidgenossenschaft, on
November 7, 1332. Later the cities of Zürich,
Bern joined the
alliance. With the help of these additions, the rule of
the area came to an end. The issue was settled by Lucerne’s victory
over the Habsburgs in the
Battle of Sempach
Battle of Sempach in 1386. For
victory ignited an era of expansion. The city shortly granted many
rights to itself, rights which had been withheld by the Habsburgs
until then. By this time the borders of
Lucerne were approximately
those of today.
From city to city-state (1386–1520)
Reichsfreiheit from Emperor Sigismund and
became a strong member of the Swiss confederacy. The city developed
its infrastructure, raised taxes, and appointed its own local
officials. The city’s population of 3000 dropped about 40% due to
Black Plague and several wars around 1350.
In 1419 town records show the first witch trial against a male person.
Swiss-Catholic town (1520–1798)
Lucerne in 1642
Among the growing towns of the confederacy,
Lucerne was especially
popular in attracting new residents. As the confederacy broke up
during Reformation after 1520, most cities became Protestant, but
Lucerne remained Catholic. After the victory of the Catholics over the
Protestants in the Battle at Kappel in 1531, the Catholic towns
dominated the confederacy. The future, however, belonged to the
Protestant cities like Zürich,
Bern and Basel, which defeated the
Catholics in the 1712 Toggenburg War. The former prominent position of
Lucerne in the confederacy was lost forever. In the 16th and 17th
centuries, wars and epidemics became steadily less frequent and as a
result the population of the country increased strongly.
Lucerne was also involved in the Swiss peasant war of 1653.
Century of revolutions (1798–1914)
Conflict at Lucerne, Illustrated London News, 1845
In 1798, nine years after the beginning of the French Revolution, the
French army marched into Switzerland. The old confederacy collapsed
and the government became democratic. The industrial revolution hit
Lucerne rather late, and by 1860 only 1.7% of the population worked in
industry, which was about a quarter of the national average at that
time. Agriculture, which employed about 40% of the workers, was the
main form of economic output in the canton. Nevertheless, industry was
attracted to the city from areas around Lucerne. From 1850 to 1913,
the population quadrupled and the flow of settlers increased. In 1856
trains first linked the city to
Olten and Basel, then
Zug and Zürich
in 1864 and finally to the south in 1897.
On June 17, 2007, voters of the city of
Lucerne and the adjacent town
Littau agreed to a merger in a simultaneous referendum. This took
effect on January 1, 2010. The new city, still called Lucerne, has
a population of around 80,000 people, making it the seventh-largest
city in Switzerland. The results of this referendum are expected to
pave the way for negotiations with other nearby cities and towns in an
effort to create a unified city-region, based on the results of a
Geography and climate
Lake Lucerne from the Pilatus
Lucerne has an area of 29.1 square kilometers (11.2 sq mi).
Of this area As of 2009[update], 28.0% is used for agricultural
purposes, while 22.3% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 47.6% is
settled (buildings or roads) and the remainder (2.1%) is
non-productive (rivers, glaciers or mountains).
Before the merger,
Littau had an area of 13.3 square kilometers
(5.1 sq mi). Of this area, 52.3% is used for agricultural
purposes, while 21.1% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 24.8% is
settled (buildings or roads) and the remainder (1.7%) is
non-productive (rivers, glaciers or mountains). In the 1997 land
survey[update], 21.08% of the total land area was forested. Of the
agricultural land, 49.17% is used for farming or pastures, while 3.16%
is used for orchards or vine crops. Of the settled areas, 10.47% is
covered with buildings, 4.29% is industrial, 1.96% is classed as
special developments, 2.33% is parks or greenbelts and 5.8% is
transportation infrastructure. Of the unproductive areas, 1.66% is
unproductive flowing water (rivers) and 0.08% is other unproductive
Between 1961 and 1990
Lucerne had an average of 138.1 days of rain per
year and on average received 1,171 mm (46.1 in) of
precipitation. The wettest month was June during which time Lucerne
received an average of 153 mm (6.0 in) of rainfall. During
this month there was rainfall for an average of 14.2 days. The driest
month of the year was February with an average of 61 mm
(2.4 in) of precipitation over 10.2 days. Climate in this
area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is
adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification
subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic
Climate data for Lucerne
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average snowfall cm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)
Average snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Percent possible sunshine
The City Council (Stadtrat) constitutes the executive government of
the city of
Lucerne and operates as a collegiate authority. It is
composed of five councilors (German: Stadtrat/-rätin), each presiding
over a directorate (Direktion) comprising several departments and
bureaus. The president of the executive department acts as mayor
(Stadtpräsident). In the mandate period (Legislatur) September 2016
– August 2020 the City Council is presided by Stadtpräsident Beat
Züsli. Departmental tasks, coordination measures and implementation
of laws decreed by the Grand City Council are carried by the City
Council. The regular election of the City Council by any inhabitant
valid to vote is held every four years. Any resident of Lucerne
allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the City Council. The
delegates are selected by means of a system of Majorz. The mayor is
elected as such as well by public election while the heads of the
other directorates are assigned by the collegiate.
As of September 2016[update], Luzern's City Council is made up of one
representative of the SP (Social Democratic Party, who is also the
mayor), and one each of CVP (Christian Democratic Party), GPS (Green
Party), FDP (FDP.The Liberals), and glp (Green Liberal Party). The
last regular election was held on 1 May/5 June 2016.
The City Council (Stadtrat) of Luzern
Head of Directorate (Direktion, since) of
Beat Züsli[SR 1]
Mayor's Office and City's Chancellary (Präsidialdirektion und
Franziska Bitzi Staub
Finances (Finanzdirektion, 2016)
Environment, Transport, and Security (Direktion Umwelt, Verkehr und
Building and Civil Engineering (Baudirektion, 2012)
Social Services (Sozialdirektion, 2012)
Toni Göpfert (FDP) is Town Chronicler (Stadtschreiber) since 1990.
The Grosse Stadtrat of Luzern for the mandate period of 2016-2020
The Grand City Council (Grosser Stadtrat) holds legislative power. It
is made up of 48 members, with elections held every four years. The
Grand City Council decrees regulations and by-laws that are executed
by the City Council and the administration. The delegates are selected
by means of a system of proportional representation.
The sessions of the Grand City Council are public. Unlike members of
the City Council, members of the Grand City Council are not
politicians by profession, and they are paid a fee based on their
attendance. Any resident of Luzern allowed to vote can be elected as a
member of the Grand City Council. The parliament holds its meetings in
the Rathaus (Town Hall) am Kornmarkt.
The last regular election of the Grand City Council was held on 1 May
2016 for the mandate period (German: Legislatur) from September 2016
to August 2020. Currently the Grand City Council consist of 13 members
of the Social Democratic Party (SP/PS) and one of its junior section,
the JUSO, 9 The Liberals (FDP/PLR), 7 Christian Democratic People's
Party (CVP/PDC), 7
Swiss People's Party
Swiss People's Party (SVP/UDC), 6 Green Party
(GPS/PES) and one of its junior section, the jg of Luzern, and 4 Green
Liberal Party (GLP/PVL).
In the 2015 election for the Swiss National Council the most popular
party was the SPS which received 25.8% of the vote. The next five most
popular parties were the SVP (19.5%), the FDP (15.4%), the CVP
(14.1%), the GPS (13.3%), and the GLP (8.9%). In the federal election,
a total of 26,521 voters were cast, and the voter turnout was
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Switzerland
Twin towns — sister cities
Lucerne is twinned with the following towns:
United Kingdom (1981)
United States (1999)
Guebwiller / Murbach,
Czech Republic (1994)
Largest groups of foreign residents 2013
% of total
(% of foreigners)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Republic of Macedonia
Lucerne has a population (as of 31 December 2016) of 81,592. As of
2013[update], 19,264 or 25.0% of the population was made up of foreign
nationals, of which 19.9% are from Europe, 2.8% from Asia, 1.2% from
Africa and 1.0% from America. Over the last 10 years the
population has grown at a rate of 1.2%. Most of the population (as of
2010[update]) speak German (87%), with Italian, as well as
Serbo-Croatian and English with 5% being second most common languages,
followed by French and Albanian with 3%, and Portuguese and Spanish
with 2% each.
The age distribution in
Lucerne is (as of 2013[update]); 12,916 people
or 15.7% of the population is 0–19 years old. 26,381 people or 33.8%
are 20–39 years old, and 25,863 people or 32.1% are 40–64 years
old. The senior population distribution is 10,530 people or 13.1% are
65–79 years old, 4,208 or 5.2% are 80–89 years old and 900 people
or 1.1% of the population are 90+ years old.
Lucerne about 73.6% of the population (between age 25–64) have
completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional
higher education (either university or a Fachhochschule).
The crowded Rathausquai
As of 2000[update] there are 30,586 households, of which 15,452
households (or about 50.5%) contain only a single individual. 853 or
about 2.8% are large households, with at least five members. As of
2000[update] there were 5,707 inhabited buildings in the municipality,
of which 4,050 were built only as housing, and 1,657 were mixed use
buildings. There were 1,152 single family homes, 348 double family
homes, and 2,550 multi-family homes in the municipality. Most homes
were either two (787) or three (1,468) story structures. There were
only 74 single story buildings and 1,721 four or more story
The historical population is given in the following chart:
Historic Population Data 
No religion given
The city grew up around Sankt Leodegar Abbey, founded in AD 840, and
Roman Catholic into the 21st century. By 1850, 96.9%
of the population was Catholic, in 1900 it was 81.9% and in 1950 it
was still 72.3%. In the 2000 census[update] the religious membership
Lucerne was: 35,682 (60%) Roman Catholic, 9,227 (15.5%) Protestant,
with an additional 1,979 (3.33%) who were of some other Christian
denominations; 1,824 individuals (3.07% of the population) Muslim; 196
individuals (0.33% of the population) Jewish. Of the remainder, 1,073
(1.8%) individuals were another religion; 6,310 (10.61%) stated they
do not belong to any organized religion; and 3,205 (5.39%) did not
answer the question.
Lucerne city, lake and mountains view from the tower
Since the city straddles the Reuss where it drains the lake, it has a
number of bridges. The most famous is the Chapel Bridge
(Kapellbrücke), a 204 m (669 ft) long wooden covered bridge
originally built in 1333, the oldest covered bridge in Europe,
although much of it had to be replaced after a fire on 18 August 1993,
allegedly caused by a discarded cigarette. Part way across, the bridge
runs by the octagonal Water Tower (Wasserturm), a fortification from
the 13th century. Inside the bridge are a series of paintings from the
17th century depicting events from Lucerne's history. The Bridge with
its Tower is the city's most famous landmark.
Downriver, between the Kasernenplatz and the Mühlenplatz, the Spreuer
Bridge (Spreuerbrücke or Mühlenbrücke, Mill Bridge) zigzags across
the Reuss. Constructed in 1408, it features a series of medieval-style
17th century plague paintings by Kaspar Meglinger (de) titled Dance of
Death (Totentanzzyklus). The bridge has a small chapel in the middle
that was added in 1568.
Lucerne is mainly located just north of the Reuss, and still
has several fine half-timber structures with painted fronts. Remnants
of the old town walls exist on the hill above Lucerne, complete with
eight tall watch towers. An additional gated tower sits at the base of
the hill on the banks of the Reuss.
The twin needle towers of the Church of St. Leodegar, which was named
after the city's patron saint, sit on a small hill just above the lake
front. Originally built in 735, the present structure was erected in
1633 in the late
Renaissance style. However, the towers are surviving
remnants of an earlier structure. The interior is richly decorated.
The church is popularly called the Hofkirche (in German) and is known
locally as the Hofchile (in Swiss-German).
The Lion Monument
Bertel Thorvaldsen's famous carving of a dying lion (the Lion
Monument, or Löwendenkmal) is found in a small park just off the
Löwenplatz. The carving commemorates the hundreds of
Swiss Guards who
were massacred in 1792 during the French Revolution, when an armed mob
Tuileries Palace in Paris.
Swiss Museum of Transport
Swiss Museum of Transport is a large and comprehensive museum
exhibiting all forms of transport, including locomotives, automobiles,
ships, and aircraft. It is to be found beside the lake in the
northern-eastern section of the city.
Culture and Convention Center
Culture and Convention Center (KKL) beside the lake in the center
of the city was designed by Jean Nouvel. The center has one of the
world's leading concert halls, with acoustics by Russell Johnson.
Culture and events
Lucerne Culture and Congress Centre
Lucerne Culture and Congress Centre at night
Since plans for the new culture and convention center arose in the
Lucerne has found a balance between the so-called
established culture and alternative culture. A consensus was reached
that culminated in a culture compromise (Kulturkompromiss). The
established culture comprises the
Lucerne Culture and Congress Centre
(KKL), the city theater (Luzerner Theater) and, in a broader sense,
smaller establishments such as the Kleintheater, founded by comedian
Emil Steinberger, a
Lucerne native, or Stadtkeller, a music restaurant
in the city's old town. KKL houses a concert hall as well as the
Museum of Art
Lucerne (Kunstmuseum Luzern).
Alternative culture took place mostly on the premises of a former tube
factory, which became known as Boa. Other localities for alternative
culture have since emerged in the same inner city area as Boa.
Initially, Boa staged various plays, but concerts became more and more
common; this new use of the building clashed with the development of
apartment buildings on nearby lots of land. Due to possible noise
pollution, Boa was closed and a replacement in a less heavily
inhabited area is currently under construction. Critics claimed though
that the new establishment would not meet the requirements for an
Südpol is a center for performing arts in
Lucerne presenting music-,
dance- and theatre-events. The house at the foot of Pilatus is opened
since November 2008.
Lucerne is home to the Luzerner Sinfonieorchester, a category A
symphonic orchestra, and to the
21st Century Symphony Orchestra, and
they both hold most of their performances in the
Lucerne Culture and
Lucerne is also home to Keramikkonzerte (http://keramikkonzerte.com/),
a series of classical chamber music concerts held throughout each
Jodelling festival 2008
Every year, towards the end of winter,
Fasnacht (Carnival) breaks out
in the streets, alleyways and squares of the old town. This is a
glittering outdoor party, where chaos and merriness reign and nothing
is as it normally is. Strange characters in fantastic masks and
costumes make their way through the alleyways, while Guggenmusiken
(carnival bands) blow their instruments in joyful cacophony and
thousands of bizarrely clad people sing and dance away the winter. The
Lucerner Fasnacht, based on religious, Catholic backgrounds, starts
every year on the Thursday before Aschermittwoch (Ash Wednesday) with
a big bang at 5am called Morgenwacht (Morning Watch). There are big
parades in the afternoon on Schmotzige Donnerstag (literally: Lardy
Thursday) and the following Monday, called Güdismontag
(literally: Paunch Monday), which attract tens of thousands of people.
Carnival ends with a crowning finish on Güdisdienstag
(literally: Paunch Tuesday) evening with the Monstercorso, a
tremendous parade of Guggenmusiken, lights and lanterns with even a
larger audience. Rather recently a fourth
Fasnacht day has been
introduced on the Saturday between the others
Fasnacht days, the
Rüüdige Samstag while mainly several indoor balls take place. From
dusk till dawn on the evenings of Schmotzige Donnerstag, Güdismontag,
and after the Monstercorso many bands wander through the historical
part of the city playing typical
Fasnacht tunes. Until midnight, the
historical part of the city usually is packed with people
participating. A large part of the audience are also dressed up in
costumes, even a majority in the evenings.
The city hosts various renowned festivals throughout the year. The
Lucerne Festival for classical music takes place in the summer. Its
Lucerne Festival Orchestra, is hand-picked from some of
the finest instrumentalists in the world. In June yearly the pop music
festival B-Sides takes place in Lucerne. In July, the Blue Balls
Festival brings jazz, blues and punk music to the lake promenade and
halls of the Culture and Convention Center. The
Lucerne Blues Festival
is another musical festival which usually takes place in November.
Since spring 2004,
Lucerne has hosted the
Festival Rose d'Or
Festival Rose d'Or for
television entertainment. And in April, the well-established comics
Fumetto attracts an international audience.
Being the cultural center of a rather rural region,
holds different folklore festivals, such as
Lucerne Cheese Festival,
held annually. In 2004,
Lucerne was the focus of Swiss Wrestling fans
when it had hosted the Swiss Wrestling and Alpine festival
(Eidgenössisches Schwing- und Älplerfest), which takes place every
three years in a different location. A national music festival
(Eidgenössiches Musikfest) attracted marching bands from all parts of
Switzerland in 2006. In summer 2008, the jodelling festival
(Eidgenössisches Jodlerfest) is expected to have similar impact.
Every year in June the B-Sides Festival takes place. B-Sides focuses
on international acts in alternative music, indie rock, experimental
rock and other cutting edge and left field artistic musical genres.
2021 Winter Universiade
2021 Winter Universiade will be hosted by Lucerne.
As of 2012[update], there were a total of 77,641 people employed
in the municipality. Of these, a total of 166 people worked in 53
businesses in the primary economic sector. The secondary sector
employed 7,326 workers in 666 separate businesses. Finally, the
tertiary sector provided 70,149 jobs in 6,929 businesses. In 2013 a
total of 11.0% of the population received social assistance.
As of 2000[update] 51.7% of the population of the municipality were
employed in some capacity. At the same time, women made up 47.9% of
Thanks to its continuous tax-cutting policies,
Lucerne has become
Switzerland's most business-friendly canton. As of 2012[update]
Lucerne offers Switzerland's lowest corporate tax rate at cantonal
Lucerne also offers very moderate personal income tax
rates. In a recent published study of BAK
Basel Economics taxation
Lucerne made it to the 4th place with an only marginally
2% higher tax rate compared to the top canton in this comparison.
Since November 2009,
Zürich Airport can be reached from Lucerne
within 1 hour and 2 minutes by a direct (every hour) train
connection every half an hour with a stop just below the airport, and
within 40 minutes by car due to a direct motorway from
Lucerne to the
Airport, but only if you travel outside of rush hours.
There are several football clubs throughout the city. The most
successful one is
FC Luzern which plays in Switzerland's premier
league (Swiss Super League). The club plays its home matches at the
new Swissporarena, with a capacity of 16,800.
The city's main hockey team is the HC Luzern which plays in the Swiss
Second League, the fourth tier of Swiss hockey. They play their home
games in the 5,000-seat Swiss Life Arena.
In the past,
Lucerne also produced national successes in men's
handball and women's volleyball and softball.
Having a long tradition of equestrian sports,
Lucerne has co-hosted
CSIO Switzerland, an international equestrian show jumping event,
until it left entirely for
St. Gallen in 2006. Since then, the Lucerne
Equestrian Masters replaced it. There is also an annual horse racing
event, usually taking place in August.
Lucerne annually hosts the final leg of the
Rowing World Cup
Rowing World Cup on Rotsee
Lake, and has hosted numerous World Rowing Championships, among others
the first ever in 1962.
Lucerne was also bidding for the 2011 issue
Lucerne hosts the annual
Spitzen Leichtathletik Luzern Track and field
meeting, which attracts world class athletes such as
Yohan Blake and
The city also provides facilities for ice-hockey, figure-skating,
golf, swimming, basketball, rugby, skateboarding, climbing and more.
Lucerne hosted FIVB Beach
Volleyball World Tour event
2015 and FIVB Beach
Volleyball U21 World Championship in 2016.
Lucerne railway station
Lucerne boasts a developed and well-run transport network, with the
Verkehrsbetriebe Luzern (VBL), running both the
Lucerne and a motor buses network in the city and to
neighboring municipalities. Other operators, such as PostAuto Schweiz
and Auto AG Rothenburg, provide bus services to other towns and
Lucerne railway station
Lucerne railway station is one of Switzerland's principal railway
stations situated in the middle of the town and just next to the lake,
and enjoys excellent connection to the rest of
Switzerland via railway
services operated by
Swiss Federal Railways
Swiss Federal Railways (SBB CFF FFS)
Zentralbahn (zb). Two other stations are located within the
city boundaries, with
Lucerne Allmend/Messe railway station
Lucerne Allmend/Messe railway station close to
Swissporarena in the south of the city, and the Lucerne
Verkehrshaus railway station adjacent to the Swiss Museum of Transport
in the east.
Lucerne's city transit system is fully integrated into the coherent
and integrated fare network system called passepartout encompassing
all kind of public transport in the cantons of Lucerne, Obwalden, and
Main article: List of people from Lucerne
List of mayors of Lucerne
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Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Statistical Office. 4 March
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^ a b c d e f g "Partnerstädte der Stadt Luzern". Stadt Luzern (in
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^ "Dorset Twinning Association List". The Dorset Twinning Association.
Archived from the original on 2012-06-21. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
^ "Die Partnerstädte der Landeshauptstadt Potsdam". www.potsdam.de
(in German). Archived from the original on 25 June 2010. Retrieved 24
^ a b "Ausländische Personen nach Nationalität und Status Ende 2013
- Stadt Luzern". www.lustat.ch (Database excerpt) (in German). lustat
- Statistik Luzern, Kanton Luzern. 19 August 2014. Archived from the
original on 23 November 2014. Retrieved 2014-11-23.
^ "Wohnbevölkerung nach Hauptsprachen seit 2010 – Stadt Luzern".
www.lustat.ch (Database excerpt) (in German). lustat - Statistik
Luzern, Kanton Luzern. 10 March 2014. Archived from the original on 23
November 2014. Retrieved 2014-11-23.
^ "Ständige Wohnbevölkerung nach Altersgruppen Ende 2013 –
Gemeinden Kanton Luzern – Männer und Frauen - in Prozent".
www.lustat.ch (Database excerpt) (in German). lustat - Statistik
Luzern, Kanton Luzern. 18 August 2014. Archived from the original on
10 February 2015. Retrieved 2015-02-09.
^ "Woher hat der Schmutzige Donnerstag seinen Namen?". Regionalzeitung
Rontaler AG (in German). 17 February 2013. Retrieved 2015-02-07.
^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - Regional portraits Archived
2016-01-05 at the Wayback Machine. accessed 2 May 2016
^ Schöchli, Hansueli (17 January 2012). "Die Steuern sind weiter
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^ "Zwischenbericht Executive Summary" (PDF). BAK
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^ "City pocket timetable: Luzern –
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"Lucerne". Switzerland. Coblenz: Karl Baedeker. 1863.
"Lucerne", Switzerland, Together with Chamonix and the Italian Lakes
(26th ed.), Leipzig: Karl Baedeker, 1922, OCLC 4248970
André Meyer: The Jesuit church of Lucerne, Berne 1985 (=
Schweizerische Kunstführer, ser. 32, Nr. 314).
Laura Stokes: Demons of urban reform. Early European witch trials and
criminal justice, 1430-1530. Basingstoke 2011.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lucerne.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Lucerne.
Lucerne official website
University of Luzern
Business School in Luzern
Lucerne (municipality) in German, French and Italian in the online
Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
Municipalities in the district of Lucerne, Switzerland
Canton of Lucerne
Districts of Canton Lucerne
Municipalities of the canton of Lucerne
Capitals of Swiss cantons
Herisau, Appenzell Ausserrhoden
Appenzell, Appenzell Innerrhoden
St. Gallen, St. Gallen
ISNI: 0000 0001 1230 0017