Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (English: /ˈæɡəsi/;
French: [agasi]; May 28, 1807 – December 14, 1873) was a
Swiss-American biologist and geologist recognized as an innovative and
prodigious scholar of Earth's natural history, with later American
writings that have received criticism for their endorsement of
scientific racism. Agassiz grew up in Switzerland, and studied and
received Doctor of Philosophy and medical degrees at Erlangen and
Munich, respectively. After further studies with Cuvier and Humboldt
in Paris, Agassiz proceeded with research leading to his appointment
as professor of natural history at University of Neuchâtel.
Harvard University mid-career, he emigrated to the
United States in 1847 and became a professor of zoology and geology at
Harvard, and to head its
Lawrence Scientific School
Lawrence Scientific School and found its
Museum of Comparative Zoology. Agassiz made extensive contributions to
ichthyological classification (including of extinct species) and to
the study of geological history (including to the founding of
glaciology), and has become broadly known through study of his
thorough regimen of observational data gathering and analysis. He made
vast institutional and scientific contributions to zoology, geology,
and related areas—including many multi-volume research series
running to thousands of pages.
In the 21st century, his resistance to Darwinian evolution, and the
scientific racism evident in his writings on human polygenism,
tarnished his reputation and led to controversies over his legacy.
1 Early life
3 Ice age
4 United States
8 See also
11 External links
Further information: Agassiz family
The son of a pastor,
Louis Agassiz was born in Môtier (now part of
Haut-Vully) in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. Educated first at
home, then spending four years of secondary school in
Bienne where he
entered in 1818, he completed his elementary studies in Lausanne.
Having adopted medicine as his profession, he studied successively at
the universities of Zürich, Heidelberg and Munich; while there he
extended his knowledge of natural history, especially of botany. In
1829 he received the degree of doctor of philosophy at Erlangen, and
in 1830 that of doctor of medicine at Munich. Moving to Paris he
came under the tutelage of
Alexander von Humboldt
Alexander von Humboldt (and later his
financial benevolence) Humboldt and
Georges Cuvier launched him on
his careers of geology and zoology respectively. Previously he had not
paid special attention to the study of ichthyology, but it soon became
the focus of his life's work.
Agassiz in 1870
Johann Baptist von Spix
Johann Baptist von Spix and Carl Friedrich Philipp von
Martius were engaged in an expedition to Brazil, and on their return
to Europe, amongst other collections of natural objects they brought
home an important set of the fresh water fish of Brazil, and
especially of the Amazon River. Spix, who died in 1826, did not live
long enough to work out the history of these fish, and Agassiz, having
just completed his studies, was selected by Martius for this project.
He at once threw himself into the work with an enthusiasm which
characterized him to the end of his busy life. The task of describing
the Brazilian fish was completed and published in 1829. This was
followed by research into the history of the fish found in Lake
Neuchâtel. Enlarging his plans, in 1830 he issued a prospectus of a
History of the Freshwater Fish of Central Europe. It was only in 1839,
however, that the first part of this publication appeared, and it was
completed in 1842.
In 1832 he was appointed professor of natural history in the
University of Neuchâtel. The fossil fish there soon attracted his
attention. The fossil-rich stones furnished by the slates of Glarus
and the limestones of Monte
Bolca were known at the time, but very
little had been accomplished in the way of scientific study of them.
Agassiz, as early as 1829, planned the publication of the work which,
more than any other, laid the foundation of his worldwide fame. Five
volumes of his Recherches sur les poissons fossiles ("Research on
Fossil Fish") appeared at intervals from 1833 to 1843. They were
magnificently illustrated, chiefly by Joseph Dinkel. In gathering
materials for this work Agassiz visited the principal museums in
Europe, and meeting Cuvier in Paris, he received much encouragement
and assistance from him. They had known him for seven years at the
With Benjamin Peirce
Agassiz found that his palaeontological labors made necessary a new
basis of ichthyological classification. The fossils rarely exhibited
any traces of the soft tissues of fish. They consisted chiefly of the
teeth, scales and fins, with the bones being perfectly preserved in
comparatively few instances. He therefore adopted a classification
which divided fish into four groups: Ganoids, Placoids, Cycloids and
Ctenoids, based on the nature of the scales and other dermal
appendages. While Agassiz did much to improve fish taxonomy, his
classification has been superseded by later work.
As Agassiz's descriptive work proceeded, it became obvious that it
would over-tax his resources unless financial assistance could be
found. The British Association came to his aid, and the Earl of
Ellesmere—then Lord Francis Egerton—stepped in to help. The 1,290
original drawings made for the work were purchased by the Earl, and
presented by him to the Geological Society of London. In 1836 the
Wollaston Medal was awarded to Agassiz by the council of that society
for his work on fossil ichthyology; and in 1838 he was elected a
foreign member of the Royal Society. Meanwhile, invertebrate animals
engaged his attention. In 1837 he issued the "Prodrome" of a monograph
on the recent and fossil Echinodermata, the first part of which
appeared in 1838; in 1839–40 he published two quarto volumes on the
fossil Echinoderms of Switzerland; and in 1840–45 he issued his
Études critiques sur les mollusques fossiles ("Critical Studies on
Before his first visit to England in 1834, the labours of Hugh Miller
and other geologists brought to light the remarkable fish of the Old
Red Sandstone of the northeast of Scotland. The strange forms of the
Coccosteus and other genera were then made known to
geologists for the first time. They were of intense interest to
Agassiz, and formed the subject of a special monograph by him
published in 1844–45: Monographie des poissons fossiles du Vieux
Grès Rouge, ou Système Dévonien (Old Red Sandstone) des Îles
Britanniques et de Russie ("Monograph on Fossil Fish of the Old Red
Sandstone, or Devonian System of the British Isles and of Russia").
In the early stages of his career in Neuchatel, Agassiz also made a
name for himself as a man who could run a scientific department well.
Under his care, the
University of Neuchâtel
University of Neuchâtel soon became a leading
institution for scientific inquiry.
Portrait photograph by
John Adams Whipple, c. 1865
He was the only person to name a species after
Mary Anning during her
lifetime. She was a paleontologist who was known around the world for
important finds, but because of her gender, usually omitted from
formal recognition for her work. In the early 1840s he named two
fossil fish species after her—Acrodus anningiae, and Belenostomus
anningiae—and another after her friend, Elizabeth Philpot. Agassiz
was grateful for the help the women had given him in examining fossil
fish specimens during his visit to Lyme Regis in 1834.
In 1837 Agassiz was the first to scientifically propose that the Earth
had been subject to a past ice age, when he proposed to the
Helvetic Society that ancient glaciers had not only flowed outward
from the Alps, but that even larger glaciers had simultaneously
encroached southward on the plains and mountains of Europe, Asia and
North America, smothering the entire northern hemisphere in a
prolonged Ice Age. In the same year, he was elected a foreign member
of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Prior to this proposal,
Goethe, de Saussure, Venetz, Jean de Charpentier, Karl Friedrich
Schimper and others had made the glaciers of the Alps the subjects of
special study, and Goethe, Charpentier as well as Schimper had
even arrived at the conclusion that the erratic blocks of alpine rocks
scattered over the slopes and summits of the
Jura Mountains had been
moved there by glaciers. The question having attracted the attention
of Agassiz, he not only discussed it with Charpentier and Schimper and
made successive journeys to the alpine regions in company with them,
but he had a hut constructed upon one of the
Aar Glaciers, which for a
time he made his home, in order to investigate the structure and
movements of the ice.
These labours resulted, in 1840, in the publication of his work in two
volumes entitled Études sur les glaciers ("Studies on Glaciers").
In it he discussed the movements of the glaciers, their moraines,
their influence in grooving and rounding the rocks over which they
travelled, and in producing the striations and roches moutonnees seen
in Alpine-style landscapes. He not only accepted Charpentier's and
Schimper's idea that some of the alpine glaciers had extended across
the wide plains and valleys drained by the
Aar and the Rhône, but he
went still farther. He concluded that, in the relatively recent past,
Switzerland had been another Greenland; that instead of a few glaciers
stretching across the areas referred to, one vast sheet of ice,
originating in the higher Alps, had extended over the entire valley of
northwestern Switzerland until it reached the southern slopes of the
Jura, which, though they checked and deflected its further extension,
did not prevent the ice from reaching in many places the summit of the
range. The publication of this work gave a fresh impetus to the study
of glacial phenomena in all parts of the world.
Thus familiarized with the phenomena associated with the movements of
recent glaciers, Agassiz was prepared for a discovery which he made in
1840, in conjunction with William Buckland. The two visited the
mountains of Scotland together, and found in different locations clear
evidence of ancient glacial action. The discovery was announced to the
Geological Society of London
Geological Society of London in successive communications. The
mountainous districts of England, Wales, and Ireland were also
considered to constitute centres for the dispersion of glacial debris;
and Agassiz remarked "that great sheets of ice, resembling those now
existing in Greenland, once covered all the countries in which
unstratified gravel (boulder drift) is found; that this gravel was in
general produced by the trituration of the sheets of ice upon the
subjacent surface, etc."
The man-sized iron auger used by Agassiz to drill up to 7.5 metres
deep into the Unteraar
Glacier to take its temperature.
In 1842–1846 he issued his Nomenclator Zoologicus, a classified
list, with references, of all names employed in zoology for genera and
groups — a work of great labour and research. With the aid of a
grant of money from the King of Prussia, Agassiz crossed the Atlantic
in the autumn of 1846 with the twin purposes of investigating the
natural history and geology of North America and delivering a course
of 12 lectures on "The Plan of Creation as shown in the Animal
Kingdom," by invitation from J. A. Lowell, at the Lowell Institute
in Boston, Massachusetts. The financial offers presented to him in the
United States induced him to settle there, where he remained to the
end of his life. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1846. Agassiz knew
Asa Gray and they had a cordial relationship but
disagreed on some scientific issues. For example, Agassiz was a
member of the Scientific Lazzaroni, a group of mostly physical
scientists who wanted American academia to mimic the autocratic
academic structures of European universities, whereas Gray was a
staunch opponent of that group. Agassiz also felt each human race had
different origins but Gray believed in the unity of all humans.
His engagement for the
Lowell Institute lectures precipitated the
establishment of the
Lawrence Scientific School
Lawrence Scientific School at
in 1847 with him as its head.
Harvard appointed him professor of
zoology and geology, and he founded the Museum of Comparative Zoology
there in 1859 serving as the museum's first director until his death
in 1873. During his tenure at Harvard, he was, among many other
things, an early student of the effect of the last Ice Age on North
He continued his lectures for the Lowell Institute. In succeeding
years, he gave series of lectures on "Ichthyology" (1847–48 season),
"Comparative Embryology" (1848–49), "Functions of Life in Lower
Animals" (1850–51), "Natural History" (1853–54), "Methods of Study
in Natural History" (1861–62), "Glaciers and the Ice Period"
(1864–65), "Brazil" (1866–67) and "Deep Sea Dredging"
(1869–70). In 1850 he married an American college teacher,
Elizabeth Cabot Cary, who later wrote introductory books about natural
history and, after his death, a lengthy biography of her husband.
Agassiz served as a non-resident lecturer at
Cornell University while
also being on faculty at Harvard. In 1852 he accepted a medical
professorship of comparative anatomy at Charlestown, Massachusetts,
but he resigned in two years. From this time his scientific
studies dropped off, but he was a profound influence on the American
branches of his two fields, teaching decades worth of future prominent
scientists, including Alpheus Hyatt, David Starr Jordan, Joel Asaph
Allen, Joseph Le Conte, Ernest Ingersoll, William James, Nathaniel
Shaler, Samuel Hubbard Scudder, Alpheus Packard, and his son Alexander
Emanuel Agassiz, among others. He had a profound impact on
Charles Doolittle Walcott
Charles Doolittle Walcott and natural scientist Edward
S. Morse. In return his name appears attached to several species, as
well as here and there throughout the American landscape, notably Lake
Pleistocene precursor to
Lake Winnipeg and the Red River,
and Mount Agassiz, a bastion of the Palisade Crest, the largest
glaciated region of California's Sierra Nevada.
During this time he grew in fame even in the public consciousness,
becoming one of the best-known scientists in the world. By 1857 he was
so well-loved that his friend
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote "The
fiftieth birthday of Agassiz" in his honor, and read it at a dinner
given for Agassiz by the Saturday Club in Cambridge. His own
writing continued with four (of a planned ten) volumes of Natural
History of the United States which were published from 1857 to 1862.
During this time he also published a catalog of papers in his field,
Bibliographia Zoologiae et Geologiae, in four volumes between 1848 and
Stricken by ill health in the 1860s, he resolved to return to the
field for relaxation and to resume his studies of Brazilian fish. In
April 1865 he led a party to Brazil. Returning home in August 1866, an
account of this expedition, entitled A Journey in Brazil, was
published in 1868. In December 1871 he made a second eight-month
excursion, known as the Hassler expedition under the command of
Commander Philip Carrigan Johnson (brother of Eastman Johnson),
visiting South America on its southern Atlantic and Pacific seaboards.
The ship explored the Magellan Strait, which drew the praise of
Elizabeth Agassiz wrote, at the Strait: '.....the Hassler pursued her
course, past a seemingly endless panorama of mountains and forests
rising into the pale regions of snow and ice, where lay glaciers in
which every rift and crevasse, as well as the many cascades flowing
down to join the waters beneath, could be counted as she steamed by
them.... These were weeks of exquisite delight to Agassiz. The vessel
often skirted the shore so closely that its geology could be studied
from the deck.'
Agassiz in middle age
From his first marriage to Cecilie Bruan, Agassiz had two daughters in
addition to son Alexander. In 1863, Agassiz's daughter Ida married
Henry Lee Higginson, later to be founder of the
Orchestra and benefactor to
Harvard University and other schools. On
November 30, 1860, Agassiz's daughter Pauline was married to Quincy
Adams Shaw (1825–1908), a wealthy
Boston merchant and later
benefactor to the
Boston Museum of Fine Arts.
In the last years of his life, Agassiz worked to establish a permanent
school where zoological science could be pursued amid the living
subjects of its study. In 1873, a private philanthropist (John
Anderson) gave Agassiz the island of Penikese, in Buzzards Bay,
Massachusetts (south of New Bedford), and presented him with $50,000
to permanently endow it as a practical school of natural science,
especially devoted to the study of marine zoology. The John
Anderson school collapsed soon after Agassiz's death; it is considered
a precursor of the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory, which is
Within his lifetime, Agassiz had developed a reputation for a
particularly demanding teaching style. He would allegedly "lock a
student up in a room full of turtle-shells, or lobster-shells, or
oyster-shells, without a book or a word to help him, and not let him
out till he had discovered all the truths which the objects
contained." Two of Agassiz's most prominent students detailed
their personal experiences under his tutelage, Samuel Hubbard Scudder
in a short magazine article for Every Saturday and Nathaniel
Southgate Shaler in his Autobiography. These and other
recollections were collected and published by Lane Cooper in 1917,
which Ezra Pound was to draw on for his anecdote of Agassiz and the
Agassiz is remembered today for his theories on ice ages, and for his
resistance to Charles Darwin's theories on evolution, which he kept up
his entire life. He died in
Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1873 and was
buried at Mount Auburn Cemetery, joined later by his wife. His
monument is a boulder selected from the moraine of the glacier of the
Aar near the site of the old Hôtel des Neuchâtelois, not far from
the spot where his hut once stood; and the pine-trees that shelter his
grave were sent from his old home in Switzerland.
The Cambridge elementary school north of
Harvard University was named
in his honor and the surrounding neighborhood became known as
"Agassiz" as a result. The school's name was changed to the Maria L.
Baldwin School on May 21, 2002, due to concerns about Agassiz's
racism, and to honor
Maria Louise Baldwin the African-American
principal of the school who served from 1889 until 1922. The
neighborhood, however, continues to be known as Agassiz.
Agassiz's grave, Mt Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Massachusetts, is a
boulder from the moraine of the
Aar Glaciers, near where he once
An ancient glacial lake that formed in the Great Lakes region of North
America, Lake Agassiz, is named after him, as are Mount Agassiz in
California's Palisades, Mount Agassiz, in the Uinta Mountains, Agassiz
Peak in Arizona and in his native Switzerland, the
Agassizhorn in the
Bernese Alps. Agassiz
Glacier and Agassiz Creek in
Park and Mount Agassiz in Bethlehem, New Hampshire in the White
Mountains also bear his name. A crater on
Crater Agassiz and a
promontorium on the
Moon are also named in his honour. A headland
situated in Palmer Land,
Antarctica is named in his honor, Cape
Agassiz. A main-belt asteroid named
2267 Agassiz is also named in
association with Louis Agassiz.
Several animal species are named in honor of Louis Agassiz, including
Apistogramma agassizi Steindachner, 1875 (Agassiz's dwarf cichlid);
Isocapnia agassizi Ricker, 1943 (a stonefly);
Publius agassizi (Kaup,
1871) (a passalid beetle);
Xylocrius agassizi (LeConte, 1861) (a
longhorn beetle); Exoprosopa agassizi Loew, 1869 (a bee fly); Chelonia
agassizii Bocourt, 1868 (Galápagos green turtle); Philodryas
agassizii (Jan, 1863) (a South American snake); and the most
Gopherus agassizii (Cooper, 1863) (the desert
An elementary school called the Agassiz Elementary School in
Minneapolis, Minnesota existed from 1922-1981.
In 2005 the EGU Division on Cryospheric Sciences established the Louis
Agassiz Medal, awarded to individuals in recognition of their
outstanding scientific contribution to the study of the cryosphere on
Earth or elsewhere in the solar system.
He took part in a monthly gathering called the Saturday Club at the
Parker House, a meeting of
Boston writers and intellectuals. He was
therefore mentioned in a stanza of the
Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr.
Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. poem
"At the Saturday Club":
There, at the table's further end I see
In his old place our Poet's vis-à-vis,
The great PROFESSOR, strong, broad-shouldered, square,
In life's rich noontide, joyous, debonair
How will her realm be darkened, losing thee,
Her darling, whom we call our AGASSIZ!
After Agassiz came to the United States he wrote prolifically on
polygenism, the idea that races were created separately, that they
could be classified on the basis of specific climatic zones, and that
they were endowed with unequal attributes, ideas now included
under the rubric of scientific racism.
Agassiz never supported slavery, and claimed his views on polygenism
had nothing to do with politics. He was influenced by
philosophical idealism and the scientific work of Georges Cuvier.
According to Agassiz, genera and species were ideas in the mind of
God; their existence in God's mind prior to their physical creation
meant that God could create humans as one species yet in several
distinct and geographically separate acts of creation. Per Church
historian Paul M. Blowers, Agassiz believed there is one species of
humans but many different creations of races.
Agassiz was in modern terms a creationist who believed nature had
order because God created it directly. Agassiz viewed his career in
science as a search for ideas in the mind of the creator expressed in
creation. Agassiz denied that migration and adaptation could account
for the geographical age or any of the past.
Adaptation takes time; in
an example, Agassiz questioned how plants or animals could migrate
through regions they were not equipped to handle. According to
Agassiz the conditions in which particular creatures live "are the
conditions necessary to their maintenance, and what among organized
beings is essential to their temporal existence must be at least one
of the conditions under which they were created".
After the 1906 San Francisco earthquake toppled Agassiz's statue
from the façade of Stanford's zoology building,
David Starr Jordan
David Starr Jordan wrote that "Somebody—Dr. Angell,
perhaps—remarked that 'Agassiz was great in the abstract but
not in the concrete.'"
In his work he noted similarities of distribution of like species in
different geological eras, a phenomenon clearly not the result of
migration. Agassiz questioned how fish of the same species live in
lakes well separated with no joining waterway, concluding they were
created at both locations. He held that the intelligent adaptation of
creatures to their environments testified to an intelligent plan.
According to historian Paul Blowers, the conclusions of his studies
led him to believe that whichever region each animal was found in, was
created there-"animals are naturally autochthones wherever they are
found". He later extended this idea to humans in his theory of
polygenism. This holds that animals, plants and humans were all
created in "special provinces" with distinct populations of species
created in and for each province. He claimed plants, animals and
humans did not originate in pairs but were created in large numbers.
According to Agassiz, the different races were created in different
provinces, with each race indigenous to the province it was created
in, citing evidence from Egyptian monuments to prove that racial types
had been fixed for at least five millennia. He held that all species
and human races are fixed, and that species do not evolve into other
species. The provinces that the different races were created in
included Western American Temperate (the indigenous peoples west of
the Rockies), Eastern American Temperate (east of the Rockies),
Tropical Asiatic (south of the Himalayas), Temperate Asiatic (east of
the Urals and north of the Himalayas), South American Temperate (South
America), New Holland (Australia), Arctic (Alaska and Arctic Canada).
Cape of Good Hope (South Africa), and American Tropical (Central
America and the West Indies).
Agassiz, like other polygenists, believed the Book of Genesis
recounted the origin of the white race only and that the animals and
plants in the Bible refer only to those species proximate and familiar
to Adam and Eve. Agassiz, Josiah Clark Nott, and other polygenists
such as George Gliddon, believed that the original Hebrew form of the
name Adam came from a Biblical Hebrew consonantal root referring to
redness, so that the name can be interpreted to mean "to show red in
the face" or "blusher". They also believed that since only
light-skinned people can blush, then the biblical Adam must have been
Caucasian. Agassiz believed that the writers of the Bible only
knew of local events, for example
Noah's flood was a local event only
known to the regions that were populated by ancient Hebrews. Agassiz
also believed that the writers of the Bible did not know about any
events other than what was going on in their own region and their
Per Blowers, Agassiz also opposed monogenism and evolution, believing
that the theory of evolution reduced the wisdom of God to an
Nathaniel Shaler studied under Agassiz at
Harvard, and shared his views on polygenism.
Stephen Jay Gould
Stephen Jay Gould asserted that Agassiz's observations sprang from
racist bias, in particular from his revulsion on first encountering
African-Americans in the United States. However, Blowers notes
that despite favoring polygenism, Agassiz rejected racism and believed
in a spiritualized human unity. According to Blowers, Agassiz
believed God made all men equal:
Those intellectual and moral qualities which are so eminently
developed in civilized society, but which equally exist in the natural
dispositions of all human races, constituting the higher unity among
men, making them all equal before God.
The accusations of racism have prompted the renaming of landmarks,
schoolhouses, and other institutions which bear the name of Agassiz
(which abound in Massachusetts). Opinions on these events are
often mixed, given his extensive scientific legacy in other areas.
In 2007 the Swiss government acknowledged the "racist thinking" of
Agassiz but declined to rename the
Agassizhorn summit. In 2017,
Swiss Alpine Club
Swiss Alpine Club declined to revoke Agassiz's status as a member
of honor, which he received in 1856 for his scientific work, because
the club considered this status to have lapsed on Agassiz's death.
"'Recherches sur les poissons fossiles (1833–1843)
History of the Freshwater Fishes of Central Europe (1839–1842)
Études sur les glaciers (1840)
Études critiques sur les mollusques fossiles (1840–1845)
Nomenclator Zoologicus (1842–1846)
Monographie des poissons fossiles du Vieux Gres Rouge, ou Systeme
Devonien (Old Red Sandstone) des Iles Britanniques et de Russie
Bibliographia Zoologiae et Geologiae (1848)
(with AA Gould) Principles of Zoology for the use of Schools and
Colleges (Boston, 1848)
Lake Superior: Its Physical Character, Vegetation and Animals,
compared with those of other and similar regions (Boston: Gould,
Kendall and Lincoln, 1850)
Contributions to the Natural History of the United States of America
(Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1857–1862)
Geological Sketches (Boston: Ticknor & Fields, 1866)
A Journey in
De l'espèce et de la classification en zoologie [Essay on
classification] (Trans. Felix Vogeli. Paris: Bailière, 1869)
Geological Sketches (Second Series) (Boston: J.R. Osgood, 1876)
Essay on Classification, by
Louis Agassiz (1962, Cambridge)
List of geologists
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^ Woodward 1911, pp. 367-368.
^ a b c d e f Woodward 1911, p. 368.
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^ Smith (1898), pp. 52–66.
^ A History of Cornell by Morris Bishop (1962), p. 83.
^ Irmscher, Christoph (2013). Louis Agassiz: Creator of American
Science. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
^ Museum of Fine Arts (1918). "
Quincy Adams Shaw
Quincy Adams Shaw Collection". Boston,
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^ James, William. "Louis Agassiz, Words Spoken..... at the Reception
of the American Society of Naturalists..... [Dec. 30 1896]. Pg 9-10.
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^ Erlandson, David A.; et al. (1993). Doing Naturalistic Inquiry: A
Guide to Methods. Sage Publications. pp. 1–4. ; Originally
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^ Shaler, Nathaniel; Shaler, Sophia Penn Page (1909). The
Nathaniel Southgate Shaler
Nathaniel Southgate Shaler with a Supplementary
Memoir by his Wife. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
^ Cooper, Lane (1917).
Louis Agassiz as a Teacher: Illustrative
Extracts on his Method of Instruction. Ithaca: The Comstock Publishing
^ Pound, Ezra (2010). ABC of Reading. New York: New Directions.
pp. 17–18. ISBN 9780811218931.
^ Committee Renames Local Agassiz School News The
^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original on June 7, 2010.
Retrieved October 3, 2005. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) .
^ a b c Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The
Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University
Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. ("Agassiz, J.L.R.",
^ "Agassiz". mpshistory.mpls.k12.mn.us. Retrieved 2017-07-06.
Louis Agassiz Medal". European Geosciences Union. 2005. Retrieved 8
^ Edward Lurie, "
Louis Agassiz and the Races of Man," Isis 45, no. 3
^ John P. Jackson, Nadine M. Weidman "Race, Racism, and science:
social impact and interaction, Rutgers University Press, 2005, p. 51
^ a b c d e f g h i j Paul M. Blowers, 2008, "Entering 'This Sublime
and Blessed Amphitheatre': Contemplation of Nature and Interpretation
of the Bible in the Patristic Period, In "Nature and Scripture in the
Abrahamic Religions: Up to 1700", 2 vols (Scott Mandelbrote &
Jitse van der Meer, Eds.), book DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004171916.i-782,
book ISBN 9789047425236, pp. 147–176, esp. 159-164 and 151-154,
chapter DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004171916.i-782.34, chapter
ISBN 9789047425236, see , accessed 8 June 2014.
^ "Earthquake impacts on prestige".
Stanford University and the 1906
Stanford University. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
^ Cohen, Nancy, The reconstruction of American liberalism,
1865–1914, UNC Press Books, 2002, p. 77
^ Stephen Jay Gould, "Flaws in a Victorian Veil," Chapter 16 in
The Panda's Thumb.
^ Committee Renames Local Agassiz School News The
^ See for instance: Author needed, 2001, "Political Correctness Run
Amok: School Students Dishonor a Genius of Science", Journal of Blacks
in Higher Education, no. 32 (Summer 2001): 74–75.
Louis Agassiz vom Sockel holen und dem Sklaven Renty die Würde
zurückgeben". Die Bundesversammlung – Das Schweizer Parlament. 14
Louis Agassiz ne sera pas déchu de son titre au Club alpin
Le Temps (in French). 23 August 2017. Retrieved 23 August
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Woodward, Horace Bolingbroke (1911). "Agassiz,
Jean Louis Rodolphe". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1
(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 367–368.
Dexter, R W (1979). "The impact of evolutionary theories on the Salem
group of Agassiz zoologists (Morse, Hyatt, Packard, Putnam)". Essex
Institute historical collections. 115 (3). pp. 144–71.
Emling, Shelley (2009). The Fossil Hunter: Dinosaurs, Evolution, and
the Woman whose Discoveries Changed the World. Palgrove Macmillan.
Irmscher, Christoph (2013). Louis Agassiz: Creator of American
Science. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 9780547577678.
Lurie, E (1954). "
Louis Agassiz and the races of Man". Isis; an
international review devoted to the history of science and its
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Lurie, Edward (1988). Louis Agassiz: A Life in Science. Johns Hopkins
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Menand, Louis (2002). "Agassiz". The Metaphysical Club: A Story of
Ideas in America. Macmillan. pp. 97–116.
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Nineteenth-Century America. Yale University Press.
Smith, Harriet Knight, The history of the Lowell Institute, Boston:
Lamson, Wolffe and Co., 1898.
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Wikiquote has quotations related to: Louis Agassiz
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Louis Agassiz.
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Publications by and about
Louis Agassiz in the catalogue Helveticat of
the Swiss National Library
Louis Agassiz at Project Gutenberg
Works by or about
Louis Agassiz at Internet Archive
Louis Agassiz at
LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
Louis Agassiz online at the Biodiversity Heritage Library.
Weisstein, Eric Wolfgang (ed.). "Agassiz, Jean (1807–1873)".
Pictures and texts of Excursions et séjours dans les glaciers et les
hautes régions des Alpes and of Nouvelles études et expériences sur
les glaciers actuels by
Louis Agassiz can be found in the database
"Geographical Distribution of Animals", by
Louis Agassiz (1850)
Runner of the Mountain Tops: The Life of Louis Agassiz, by Mabel
Louise Robinson (1939) – free download at A Celebration of Women
Writers - UPenn Digital Library
Thayer Expedition to Brazil, 1865–1866 (Agassiz went to
find glacial boulders and to refute Darwin.
Dom Pedro II
Dom Pedro II gave his
support for Agassiz's expedition on the Amazon River.)
Louis Agassiz at Find a Grave
Louis Agassiz Correspondence, Houghton Library,
digital version of Volume 3 "RECHERCHES SUR LES POISSONS FOSSILES"
Illustrations from 'Monographies d'échinodermes vivans et fossiles'
National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir
Agassiz, Louis (1842) "The glacial theory and its recent progress" The
Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, vol. 33. p. 217-283. (Linda
Agassiz, Louis (1863) Methods of study in natural history - (Linda
Agassiz Rock, Edinburgh — during a visit to Edinburgh in 1840,
Agassiz explained the striations on this rock's surface as due to
Aristotle (History of Animals)
Theophrastus (Historia Plantarum)
Aelian (De Natura Animalium)
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder (Natural History)
Dioscorides (De Materia Medica)
Gaspard Bauhin (Pinax theatri botanici)
Conrad Gessner (Historia animalium)
William Turner (Avium Praecipuarum, New Herball)
John Gerard (Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes)
Robert Hooke (Micrographia)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Carl Linnaeus (Systema Naturae)
Johan Christian Fabricius
John Ray (Historia Plantarum)
Comte de Buffon (Histoire Naturelle)
Bernard Germain de Lacépède
Gilbert White (The Natural History of Selborne)
Thomas Bewick (A History of British Birds)
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (Philosophie Zoologique)
George Montagu (Ornithological Dictionary)
Georges Cuvier (Le Règne Animal)
Charles Darwin (On the Origin of Species)
Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace (The Malay Archipelago)
Henry Walter Bates
Henry Walter Bates (The Naturalist on the River Amazons)
Alexander von Humboldt
John James Audubon
John James Audubon (The Birds of America)
Philip Henry Gosse
William Jackson Hooker
Joseph Dalton Hooker
William Jardine (The Naturalist's Library)
Ernst Haeckel (Kunstformen der Natur)
Richard Lydekker (The Royal Natural History)
Abbott Thayer (Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom)
Hugh B. Cott
Hugh B. Cott (Adaptive Coloration in Animals)
Niko Tinbergen (The Study of Instinct)
Konrad Lorenz (On Aggression)
Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch (The Dancing Bees)
Ronald Lockley (Shearwaters)
Natural history museums (List)
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Richard Owen (1851)
Alexander von Humboldt
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Heinrich Wilhelm Dove
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Johannes Peter Müller
Johannes Peter Müller (1854)
Léon Foucault (1855)
Henri Milne-Edwards (1856)
Michel Eugène Chevreul
Michel Eugène Chevreul (1857)
Charles Lyell (1858)
Wilhelm Eduard Weber
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Robert Bunsen (1860)
Louis Agassiz (1861)
Thomas Graham (1862)
Adam Sedgwick (1863)
Charles Darwin (1864)
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Arthur Cayley (1882)
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Carl Ludwig (1884)
August Kekulé von Stradonitz (1885)
Franz Ernst Neumann
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Joseph Dalton Hooker
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George Salmon (1889)
Simon Newcomb (1890)
Stanislao Cannizzaro (1891)
Rudolf Virchow (1892)
George Gabriel Stokes (1893)
Edward Frankland (1894)
Karl Weierstrass (1895)
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Hans F. K. Günther
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Thomas Griffith Taylor
John H. Van Evrie
Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer
An Essay upon the Causes of the Different Colours of People in
Different Climates (1744)
The Outline of History of Mankind (1785)
Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question (1849)
An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races
An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1855)
The Races of Europe (Ripley, 1899)
The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899)
Race Life of the Aryan Peoples
Race Life of the Aryan Peoples (1907)
Heredity in Relation to Eugenics (1911)
Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development (1916)
The Passing of the Great Race
The Passing of the Great Race (1916)
The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy
The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy (1920)
The Myth of the Twentieth Century
The Myth of the Twentieth Century (1930)
Annihilation of Caste
Annihilation of Caste (1936)
The Races of Europe (Coon, 1939)
An Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus
The Race Question
The Race Question (1950)
Great chain of being
History of anthropometry
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Nazism and race
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