HOME
The Info List - Louis-Ferdinand Céline





Louis-Ferdinand Céline (French: [selin] ( listen)) was the pen name of Louis Ferdinand Auguste Destouches (pronounced [detuʃ]; 27 May 1894 – 1 July 1961), a French novelist, pamphleteer and physician. He developed a new style of writing that modernized French literature. His most famous work is the 1932 novel, Journey to the End of the Night. Céline used a working-class, spoken style of language in his writings, and attacked what he considered to be the overly polished, "bourgeois" language of the "academy". His works influenced a broad array of literary figures, not only in France but also in the English-speaking world
English-speaking world
and elsewhere in the Western World; this includes authors associated with modernism, existentialism, black comedy and the Beat Generation. Céline's vocal support for the Axis powers
Axis powers
during the Second World War and his authorship of antisemitic pamphlets has complicated his legacy as cultural icon.

Contents

1 Life

1.1 Early life 1.2 World War I and Africa 1.3 Becoming a doctor 1.4 Becoming a writer 1.5 Literary life and awards 1.6 Antisemitism, collaborationism and exile 1.7 Later life and death

2 Work and legacy 3 Bibliography 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Life[edit] Early life[edit] The only child of Fernand Destouches and Marguerite-Louise-Céline Guilloux, he was born Louis Ferdinand Auguste Destouches in 1894 at Courbevoie, just outside Paris in the Seine département (now Hauts-de-Seine). The family came originally from Normandy
Normandy
on his father's side and Brittany
Brittany
on his mother's side. His father was a middle manager in an insurance company and his mother owned a boutique where she sold antique lace.[1][2] In 1905, he was awarded his Certificat d'études, after which he worked as an apprentice and messenger boy in various trades.[2] Between 1908 and 1910, his parents sent him to Germany and England for a year in each country in order to acquire foreign languages for future employment.[2] From the time he left school until the age of eighteen Céline worked in various jobs, leaving or losing them after only short periods of time. He often found himself working for jewellers, first, at eleven, as an errand boy, and later as a salesperson for a local goldsmith. Although he was no longer being formally educated, he bought schoolbooks with the money he earned, and studied by himself. It was around this time that Céline started to want to become a doctor.[3] World War I and Africa[edit] In 1912, in what Céline described as an act of rebellion against his parents he joined the French army, two years before the start of the First World War
First World War
and its mandatory French conscription. This was a time in France when, following the Moroccan crisis of 1911, nationalism reached "fever pitch" – a period one historian described as "The Hegemony of Patriotism" (1911–1914), particularly affecting opinion in the lycées and grandes écoles of Paris.[4] In 1912, Céline began a three-year enlistment in the 12th Cuirassier Regiment stationed in Rambouillet.[2] At first he was unhappy with military life, and even considered deserting. However, he adapted, and eventually attained the rank of Sergeant.[5] The beginning of the First World War
First World War
brought action to Céline's unit. On 25 October 1914, Céline volunteered to deliver a message, when others were reluctant to do so because of heavy German fire. Near Ypres, during his attempt to deliver the message, he was wounded in his right arm. (He was not wounded in the head, contrary to a popular rumour that he perpetuated.)[6] For his bravery, Céline was awarded the médaille militaire in November, and appeared one year later in the weekly l'Illustré National (November 1915, p16).[2] In March 1915, he was sent to London
London
to work in the French passport office. While in London
London
he married Suzanne Nebout but they divorced one year later.[2] In September, his arm wounds were such that he was declared unfit for military duty and was discharged. He returned to France, where he began working at a variety of jobs. In 1916, Céline set out for Africa as a representative of the Sangha-Oubangui company. He was sent to the Cameroons
Cameroons
and returned to France in 1917.[2] Little is known about this trip except that it was unsuccessful.[7] After returning to France he worked for the Rockefeller Foundation: as part of a team it was his job to travel to Brittany
Brittany
teaching people how to fight tuberculosis and improve hygiene.[8] Becoming a doctor[edit] In June 1919, Céline went to Bordeaux and completed the second part of his baccalauréat. Through his work with the Institute Céline had come into contact, and good standing, with Monsieur Follet, the director of the medical school in Rennes. On 11 August 1919, Céline married Follet's daughter Édith Follet, whom he had known for some time.[9] With Monsieur Follet's influence, Céline was accepted as a student at the university. On 15 June 1920, his wife gave birth to a daughter, Colette Destouches. During this time, he studied intensively obtaining certificates in physics, chemistry, and natural sciences. By 1923, three years after he had started the medical program at Rennes, Céline had almost completed his medical degree. His doctoral thesis, The Life and Work of Ignaz Semmelweis, completed in 1924, is actually considered to be his first literary work. Ignaz Semmelweis's contribution to medicine "was immense and, according to Céline, was directly proportional to the misery of his life."[10] In 1924 Céline took up the post of intern at a Paris maternity hospital. Becoming a writer[edit]

French literature

by category

French literary history

Medieval Renaissance 17th 18th 19th 20th century Contemporary

French writers

Chronological list Writers by category Essayists Novelists Playwrights Poets Short story writers Children's writers

Portals

France French language Literature French/Francophone literature

v t e

In 1925, Céline left his family, never to return. Working for the newly founded League of Nations, he travelled to Switzerland, England, the Cameroons, Canada, the United States, and Cuba. At this time he wrote the play L'Eglise (1933; The Church). In 1926, he visited America, and was sent to Detroit to study the conditions of the workers at the Ford Automotive Company. Seeing the effects of the "assembly line" disgusted him. His article described the plant as a sensory attack on the worker, and how this attack had literally made the worker part of the machine. In 1928, Céline returned to medicine to establish a private practice in Montmartre, in the north of Paris, specializing in obstetrics.[11] He ended his private practice in 1931 to work in a public dispensary. Literary life and awards[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Céline's best-known work is considered to be Journey to the End of the Night (Voyage au bout de la nuit, 1932). It violated many of the literary conventions of the time, using the rhythms and the vocabulary of slang and vulgar speech in a more consistent and occasionally more difficult way than earlier writers, who had made similar attempts in the tradition of François Villon
François Villon
(notably Émile Zola).[citation needed] The book was a success, but Céline was not awarded the Prix Goncourt despite strong support. The award went to Guy Mazeline's novel Les Loups (The Wolves). The voting was controversial enough to become the subject of a book (Goncourt 32 by Eugène Saccomano, 1999). The first English translation was by John H. P. Marks in 1934. A more current English translation is by Ralph Manheim in 1983. In 1936, Céline published Mort à crédit (Death on the Installment Plan), presenting an innovative, chaotic, and antiheroic vision of human suffering. In it he extensively used ellipses throughout the text to enhance the rhythm and emphasise the style of speech. In both these books he showed himself to be a great stylistic innovator and a masterly storyteller. French author Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
publicly praised Céline at this time. Antisemitism, collaborationism and exile[edit] In 1935, British critic William Empson had written that Céline appeared to be "a man ripe for fascism".[12] Two years later Céline began a series of pamphlets containing antisemitic themes: Bagatelles pour un massacre (Trifles for a Massacre) (1937), L'École des cadavres (The School of Corpses) (1938) and Les Beaux draps (The Fine Mess) (1941). The Fine Mess was last published in France during the German occupation. These works were characterized by a virulent antisemitism, racism and bigotry. His Trifles for a Massacre is an endless litany critical of French Jews and their influence on French society. Both The School of Corpses and The Fine Mess contain antisemitic themes.[13] Before the war, Céline campaigned for an alliance between France and Nazi Germany.[14] In L'École des cadavres he contrasted Hitler with the French Communist party leader Maurice Thorez, writing:

Who is the true friend of the people? Fascism
Fascism
is. Who has done the most for the working man? The USSR or Hitler? Hitler has... Who has done the most for the small businessman? Not Thorez but Hitler![15]

During the Occupation of France, he wrote letters to several collaborationist journals, denouncing the Jews.[16] Even some Nazis thought Céline's antisemitic pronouncements were so extreme as to be counter-productive. Bernhard Payr, the German superintendent of propaganda in France, considered that Céline "started from correct racial notions" but his "savage, filthy slang" and "brutal obscenities" spoiled his "good intentions" with "hysterical wailing".[17][18] When Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, he expressed his support for Jacques Doriot's recently founded collaborationist force Legion of French Volunteers Against Bolshevism
Legion of French Volunteers Against Bolshevism
(LVF):

We do not think enough about the protection of the white Aryan
Aryan
race. Now is the time to act, because tomorrow will be too late. ... Doriot behaved as he always has. This is a man ... one must work and campaign with. ... This Legion, so maligned, so criticised, is proof of life. ... I tell you, the Legion it's very good, it is all that is good.[19]

Despite this, Céline could also be critical of Hitler, and of what he called " Aryan
Aryan
baloney".[20][21] In February 1944, while Céline was having dinner in the German embassy in Paris with his friends Jacques Benoist-Méchin, Pierre Drieu La Rochelle and Gen Paul, he asserted to German ambassador Otto Abetz that Hitler was dead and had been replaced by a Jewish double.[22] After Germany's defeat in 1945, Céline fled to Denmark. France claimed his extradition, and while the case was processed, he was imprisoned[23] in Vestre Fængsel
Vestre Fængsel
for more than a year. Named a collaborator, in 1950 he was convicted in absentia in France, sentenced to one year of imprisonment and declared a national disgrace. He was subsequently granted amnesty and returned to France in 1951. Later life and death[edit]

Drawing of Louis-Ferdinand Céline

Céline regained fame in later life with a trilogy of books which described his exile: Castle to Castle, (describing the fall of Schloss Sigmaringen), North and Rigadoon. Following his return from exile he lamented his ruined reputation but never voiced regret for his antisemitic works, rather preferring to make additional statements of Holocaust denial.[24] He declared that "white Aryan
Aryan
Christian civilization" had ended with Stalingrad and that early in his life he had recognized the Jews as "exploiters."[25] He settled in Meudon, where he was visited by several friends and artists, among them the famous actress Arletty. He became famous among the Beat Movement. Both William S. Burroughs
William S. Burroughs
and Allen Ginsberg
Allen Ginsberg
– who was Jewish – visited him in his Paris apartment during the 1950s. Céline died on 1 July 1961 of a ruptured aneurysm, the day after finishing Rigadoon, and was buried in a small cemetery at Bas Meudon
Meudon
(part of Meudon
Meudon
in the Hauts-de-Seine
Hauts-de-Seine
département). His house burned down during the night of 23 May 1968, destroying manuscripts, furniture and mementos, but leaving his parrot Toto alive in the adjacent aviary. Work and legacy[edit]

This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (September 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Céline's writings are examples of black comedy, where unfortunate and often terrible things are described humorously. While his writing is often hyper-real and its polemic qualities can often be startling, his chief strength lies in his ability to discredit almost everything and yet not lose a sense of enraged humanity. Pessimism pervades Céline's fiction as his characters sense failure, anxiety, nihilism, and inertia. Will Self
Will Self
has described Céline's work as an "invective, which – despite the reputation he would later earn as a rabid antisemite – is aimed against all classes and races of people with indiscriminate abandon".[26] The narrative of betrayal and exploitation, both real and imagined, corresponds with his personal life. His two truest loves, his wife, Lucette Almanzor, and his cat, Bébert, are always mentioned with kindness and warmth. Where some critics see a progressive disintegration of personality reflected in the stylistic incoherence of his books based on his life during the war (Guignol's Band, D'un château l'autre and Nord), others claim that the books are less incoherent than intentionally fragmented. They see the development of the style introduced with Journey to the End of the Night
Journey to the End of the Night
continuing, suggesting that Céline maintained his faculties in clear working order to the end of his days. In Conversations with Professor Y (1955) Céline defends his style, indicating that his heavy use of the ellipse and his disjointed sentences are an attempt to embody human emotion in written language. Céline saw literature as the art of mapping human emotions on a piece of paper.[citation needed] Such a mapping is far from natural, and it distorts the emotions.[citation needed] He likens it to looking at a stick partially immersed in a tub filled with water.[citation needed] Because of the refraction of light you see the ruler as if it were broken.Template:Luce, Stanford pp. 113-114 If your aim is to give as accurate a picture of a straight ruler as is possible in this environment, then before immersing the ruler in the water you have to bend it in such a way that after refraction it will look straight.[citation needed] If you want to convey human emotions as accurately as you can on a piece of paper, you must “bend” them before describing them on the page. According to Céline, the tool for “bending” emotions is style.[citation needed] Journey to the End of the Night
Journey to the End of the Night
is among the most acclaimed novels of the 20th century.[citation needed] Few first novels have had a comparable impact. Written in an explosive and highly colloquial style, the book shocked most critics but found immediate success with the French reading public, which responded enthusiastically to the violent misadventures of its petit-bourgeois antihero, Bardamu, and his characteristic nihilism. The author's military experiences in World War I, his travels to colonial French West Africa, New York, and his return to postwar France all provide episodes within the sprawling narrative.[27] Guignol's Band
Guignol's Band
and its companion novel London
London
Bridge center on the London
London
underworld during World War I. In London
London
Bridge a sailboat appears, bearing the name King Hamsun, obviously a tribute to Knut Hamsun, another collaborationist writer. Céline's autobiographical narrator recounts his disastrous partnership with a mystical Frenchman (intent on financing a trip to Tibet by winning a gas-mask competition); his uneasy relationship with London's pimps and prostitutes and their common nemesis, Inspector Matthew of Scotland Yard.[28] Céline's legacy survives in the writings of Samuel Beckett, Queneau and Jean Genet
Jean Genet
among others. Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio, Robbe-Grillet, and Barthes
Barthes
expressed admiration for him. In the United States, writers Charles Bukowski, Henry Miller, Jack Kerouac, Joseph Heller, Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., William S. Burroughs, Edward Abbey, Jim Morrison and Ken Kesey
Ken Kesey
owe an obvious debt to the author of Voyage au bout de la nuit, yet not in terms of style in writing, but as major aesthetic, amoralistic influence.[29] Bukowski wrote "'first of all read Céline; the greatest writer of 2,000 years"[30] Céline was also an influence on Irvine Welsh, Günter Grass, Karl Parkinson (The Blocks) and Raymond Federman. At the 50th anniversary of Céline's death in 2011, Frédéric Mitterrand, the French Minister of Culture and Communication, announced that Céline would be excluded from the list of 500 French Cultural Icons to be honoured that year because of his antisemitic writings.[31] For decades, the antisemitic books of the 1930s had not been reprinted because Céline's wife has forbidden their publication.[32] However in 2017, the 105-year-old widow gave permission for their publication by Gallimard
Gallimard
in the spring of 2018.[32] The French government and Jewish leaders expressed concern and said they would try to intervene.[32][33] On 11 January 2018, it was reported that Gallimard
Gallimard
was suspending publication.[34] Bibliography[edit]

Carnet du Cuirassier Destouches, 1913 Des vagues short story, 1917 The Life and Work of Semmelweis (La Vie et l'œuvre de Philippe Ignace Semmelweis), Ph. D. thesis, 1924; tr. by Robert Allerton Parker, Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1937 La Quinine en thérapeutique, 1925, published as Docteur Louis Destouches (untranslated) Journey to the End of the Night
Journey to the End of the Night
(Voyage au bout de la nuit), 1932; tr. by John H. P. Marks, 1934 The Church (L'Église), 1933; tr. by Mark Spitzer and Simon Green, Green Integer, 2003 Hommage à Émile Zola, a 1933 speech that was published in 1936 Death on Credit (Mort à crédit), 1936; tr. by John H. P. Marks, Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1938 – aka Death on the Installment Plan (US), tr. by Ralph Manheim Mea Culpa, 1936; tr. by Robert Allerton Parker, Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1937 Trifles for a Massacre (Bagatelles pour un massacre), 1937; translated anonymously School for Corpses (L'École des cadavres), 1938; tr. by Szandor Kuragin, 2016, http://schoolforcorpses.wordpress.com A Nice Mess (Les Beaux Draps), 1941 (untranslated) Guignol's Band, 1944; tr. by Bernard Frechtman and Jack T. Nile, 1954, Vision Press., London Reply to Charges of Treason Made by the French Department of Justice (Réponses aux accusations formulées contre moi par la justice française au titre de trahison et reproduites par la Police Judiciaire danoise au cours de mes interrogatoires, pendant mon incarcération 1945–1946 à Copenhague, 6 November 1946; tr. by Julien Cornell, South Atlantic Quarterly 93, no. 2, 1994 Cannon-Fodder (Casse-pipe), 1949; tr. by Kyra De Coninck and Billy Childish, Hangman, 1988 Fable for Another Time (Féerie pour une autre fois), 1952; tr. by Mary Hudson, U of Nebraska Press, 2003 Normance, 1954; tr. by Marlon Jones, Dalkey Archive Press, 2009; sequel to Fable for Another Time Conversations with Professor Y (Entretiens avec le Professeur Y), 1955; tr. by Stanford Luce, Dalkey Archive Press, 2006 Castle to Castle
Castle to Castle
(D'un château l'autre), 1957; tr. by Ralph Manheim, Delacorte Press, New York, 1968 North (Nord), 1960; tr. by Ralph Manheim, Delacorte Press, New York, 1972 London
London
Bridge: Guignol's Band
Guignol's Band
II (Le Pont de Londres − Guignol's band II), published posthumously in 1964; tr. by Dominic Di Bernardi, Dalkey Archive Press, 1995 Rigadoon (Rigodon), completed in 1961 but published posthumously in 1969; tr. by Ralph Manheim, Delacorte Press, New York, 1974

See also[edit]

Henri-Robert Petit

Notes[edit]

^ Chronology given in the Pleiade edition of his novels, volume I, Bibliothèque de la Pléiade, éditions Gallimard, ISBN 978-2-07-011000-1, pp. LV-LVI. ^ a b c d e f g O'Connell, David (1976). Twayne's World Author Series: Louis Ferdinand-Céline. Twayne Publishers. ISBN 0-8057-6256-6.  p. 14 ^ McCarthy, Patrick (1975). Céline: A Biography. Viking Press. ISBN 0140045341.  ^ David Cottington, Cubism in the Shadow of War: The Avant-garde and Politics in Paris, 1905–1914 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1998), pp. 33–37 ^ McCarthy p. 22 ^ McCarthy p. 24 ^ McCarthy p. 26 ^ McCarthy p. 27 ^ McCarthy p. 28 ^ McCarthy p. 30 ^ O'Connell, David (1976). Twayne's World Author Series: Louis Ferdinand-Céline. Twayne Publishers. ISBN 0-8057-6256-6.  p. 15 ^ Empson, William, Some Versions of the Pastoral, Chatto & Windus, 1935, p.11 ^ Fraser, Nicholas (2002-11-26). The Voice of Modern Hatred: Tracing the Rise of Neo- Fascism
Fascism
in Europe. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press, The. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-58567-332-2. Retrieved 4 April 2012.  ^ Stephen E. Atkins, Holocaust Denial As an International Movement, ABC-CLIO, 2009, p. 87. ^ Axelrod, Mark (2004). Borges' Travel, Hemingway's Garage: Secret Histories. University of Alabama Press. p. 101.  ^ See the article « lettres aux journaux » in Philippe Alméras, Dictionnaire Céline, Plon. Also, "Notre combat pour la nouvelle France socialiste", reprinted in Mémoire juive et Éducation; 9 July 1943, in the collaborationist journal Je suis partout. ^ Edward Andrew, "George Grant's Celine, Thoughts on the Relation of Litereature and Art", Arthur Davis (ed), George Grant and the Subversion of Modernity, University of Toronto Press, 1996, p.83. ^ Gérard Loiseaux, La Littérature de la défaite et de la collaboration, Fayard, 1995. ^ «On n’y pense pas assez à cette protection de la race blanche. C’est maintenant qu’il faut agir, parce que demain il sera trop tard. […] Doriot s’est comporté comme il l’a toujours fait. C’est un homme… il faut travailler, militer avec Doriot. […] Cette légion si calomniée, si critiquée, c'est la preuve de la vie. […] Moi, je vous le dis, la Légion, c'est très bien, c'est tout ce qu'il y a de bien". Interview with Céline. "Ce que l'auteur du Voyage au bout de la nuit « pense de tout ça »… ", L'Émancipation nationale, 21 novembre 1941, in Cahiers Céline, n° 8, pp. 134-135. ^ O'Connell p. 32 ^ Introduction to Conversations with Professor Y by Stanford Luce p. xii ^ Jacques Benoist-Méchin, À l’épreuve du temps. Souvenirs, Perrin, 2011 ^ [1] Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Atkins, Stephen E. (April 2009). Holocaust denial
Holocaust denial
as an international movement. ABC-CLIO. pp. 87–8. ISBN 978-0-313-34538-8. Retrieved 4 April 2012.  ^ Céline, Louis-Ferdinand. Castle to Castle. New York: Delacorte Press. pp. v, xii.  ^ Will Self
Will Self
(10 September 2006). "Céline's Dark Journey". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 July 2010.  ^ The Nation, quoted in the New Directions Paperbook (Eighteenth Printing) of Journey to the End of the Night ^ Dalkey Archive Press, London
London
Bridge translation by Dominic Di Bernardi ^ O'Connell p. 148 ^ Bukowski, Charles. Notes of a Dirty Old Man. San Francisco: City Light Books 1969. p. 69. ^ « Mitterrand retire Céline des célébrations nationales », Le Figaro, 21 janvier 2011 ^ a b c James McAuley (December 27, 2017). "A beloved French author was also an anti-Semite. Now his most notorious works are being republished". Washington Post. Retrieved December 29, 2017.  ^ http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-42661452 ^ http://www.lemonde.fr/livres/article/2018/01/11/gallimard-suspend-son-projet-de-reedition-des-pamphlets-antisemites-de-celine_5240448_3260.html

References[edit]

"Louis-Ferdinand Céline Is Dead". The New York Times. 5 July 1961. p. 33.  The Nation, quoted on back of New Directions Paperbook Eighteenth Printing of Journey to the End of the Night Philadelphia Inquirer, quoted on back of Dalkey Archive Press French Literature Series Translation by Dominic Di Bernardi of London
London
Bridge Dalkey Archive Press Translation by Dominic Di Bernardi of London Bridge

Further reading[edit]

L'Art de Céline et son temps by Michel Bounan (1997) Critical Essays on Louis-Ferdinand Céline edited by W. K. Buckley (1988) Céline's Imaginative Space by J. Carson (1989) The Golden Age of Louis-Ferdinand Céline by N. Hewitt (1987) Céline: Man of Hate by Bettina Knapp (1974) Introduction to Conversations with Professor Y by Stanford Luce (1986) Louis-Ferdinand Céline by David O'Connell (1976) Céline and his Vision by Erika Ostrovsky (1967) Louis-Ferdinand Céline by M. Thomas (1980) Céline: A Biography by Frédéric Vitoux, trans. by Jesse Browner (1992). The Crippled Giant by M. Hindus (1950) Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890
Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890
edited by Philip Rees (1991, ISBN 0-13-089301-3) Notes of a Dirty Old Man
Notes of a Dirty Old Man
by Charles Bukowski
Charles Bukowski
p. 86 (1969) Gran Enciclopedia Catalana, edited by Joan Carreras i Martí (1977, ISBN 84-300-5511-8) Céline seul, by Stéphane Zagdanski, edited by Gallimard, (1993)

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Louis-Ferdinand Céline

Trifles for a Massacre – English translation Petri Liukkonen. "Louis-Ferdinand Céline". Books and Writers Louis-Ferdinand Céline Collection at the Harry Ransom Center
Harry Ransom Center
at the University of Texas at Austin Louis Destouches/Céline, a double imposture, a conference held on 22 May 1999 about Céline and Semmelweis Society of Céline Studies – French association that organizes international symposia on Céline

Bibliowiki has original media or text related to this article: Louis-Ferdinand Céline (in the public domain in Canada)

v t e

Works by Louis-Ferdinand Céline

Journey to the End of the Night Death on Credit Guignol's Band Cannon-Fodder Fable for Another Time Normance Conversations with Professor Y Castle to Castle North London
London
Bridge: Guignol's Band
Guignol's Band
II Rigadoon

v t e

Historical revisionism (negationism)

Denialism Relativism Rationalization Victim blaming Vergangenheitsbewältigung Historiography

school textbook controversies

Genocide denial

Holocaust

trivialization criticism

Armenian genocide Serbian genocide Holodomor Rwandan genocide Cambodian genocide Srebrenica massacre Nanking massacre

Proponents

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Austin App Claude Autant-Lara Maurice Bardèche Harry Elmer Barnes John Tuson Bennett Jane Birdwood, Baroness Birdwood Don Black Eric Butler Arthur Butz Gheorghe Buzatu Willis Carto Louis-Ferdinand Céline Norberto Ceresole Thies Christophersen Craig Cobb Doug Collins Louis Darquier de Pellepoix Günter Deckert Léon Degrelle Luis D'Elía David Duke François Duprat Richard Edmonds Saeed Emami Robert Faurisson James H. Fetzer Bobby Fischer Paul Fromm Hermann Gauch Hutton Gibson Stephen Goodson Jürgen Graf Nick Griffin Hans F. K. Günther Anthony Hancock Peter Hartung Ursula Haverbeck Taj El-Din Hilaly Adolf Hitler Michael A. Hoffman II David Hoggan Ahmed Huber Augustus Sol Invictus David Irving Colin Jordan Ilias Kasidiaris James Keegstra Ali Khamenei Nicholas Kollerstrom Franz Kurowski Gottfried Küssel Laurent Louis Fred A. Leuchter Alex Linder Horst Mahler Naser Makarem Shirazi Princess Marie Adelheid of Lippe James J. Martin Anders Greif Mathisen Carlo Mattogno David McCalden Nikolaos Michaloliakos Eustace Mullins Issam Naaman Michael Collins Piper Oleg Platonov Konstantinos Plevris Robert Poulet Roeland Raes Ahmed Rami Mohammad-Ali Ramin Paul Rassinier Otto Ernst Remer Michèle Renouf Vincent Reynouard Jürgen Rieger Ingrid Rimland Thomas Robb Manfred Roeder Malcolm Ross Germar Rudolf Bernhard Schaub Hans Schmidt Simon Sheppard Bradley R. Smith Wilhelm Stäglich Kevin Alfred Strom Sultan bin Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan Robert Sungenis Tomislav Sunić Mohammed Taheri Serge Thion H. Keith Thompson Fredrick Töben Ferdinand Topacio Franjo Tuđman Hal Turner Richard Verrall Louis Vezelis James von Brunn Udo Walendy Adam Walker Mark Weber Bill White Richard Williamson Sami Abu Zuhri Ernst Zündel

Organizations

Adelaide Institute Centre for the Study of the Causes of the War CODOH HIAG Institute for Historical Review

Publications

Did Six Million Really Die? Leuchter report Journal of Historical Review The Hoax of the Twentieth Century

Conferences

International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust Bali Holocaust Conference

Publishing houses

Arndt Verlag J.J. Fedorowicz Publishing Munin Verlag Nation Europa Verlag

Legal status

Statute law

Austria Belgium France Germany

Case law

Lehideux and Isorni v France R v Zundel

Treaties

Additional Protocol to the Convention on Cybercrime

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 36916020 LCCN: n79063419 ISNI: 0000 0003 6864 0226 GND: 118519867 SELIBR: 180759 SUDOC: 026774240 BNF: cb11895729d (data) BIBSYS: 90068905 ULAN: 500340530 MusicBrainz: 22220116-8fce-4bfd-8c8f-aa11ebf72487 NDL: 00435592 NKC: jn19981000542 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV30337 BNE: XX822960 SN

.