The Info List - Lorraine

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(French pronunciation: ​[lɔʁɛn]; Lorrain: Louréne; Lorraine
Franconian: Lottringe; German:  Lothringen (help·info); Luxembourgish: Loutrengen) is a cultural and historical region in north-eastern France, now located in the administrative region of Grand Est. Lorraine's name stems from the medieval kingdom of Lotharingia, which in turn was named for either Emperor Lothair I
Lothair I
or King Lothair II. It later was ruled as the Duchy of Lorraine
before the Kingdom of France
annexed it in 1766. From 1982 until January 2016, Lorraine
was an administrative region of France. In 2016, under a reorganization, it became part of the new region Grand Est.[1] As a region in modern France, Lorraine
consisted of the four departments Meurthe-et-Moselle, Meuse, Moselle
and Vosges (of an historical point of view the Haute-Marne
departement is located in the region), containing 2,337 communes. Metz
is the regional prefecture. The largest metropolitan area of Lorraine
is Nancy, which had developed for centuries as the seat of the duchy. Lorraine
borders Germany, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Its inhabitants are called "Lorrains" in French and number about 2,356,000.


1 History 2 Development of the borders in modern history 3 Geography 4 Language and culture

4.1 Cross of Lorraine 4.2 Cuisine 4.3 Beverages 4.4 Traditions 4.5 Housing

5 Economy 6 Major communities 7 Fauna and flora

7.1 Fauna 7.2 Flora

8 Notable Lorrainers

8.1 Art and literature 8.2 Economy and industry 8.3 Military 8.4 Musicians and actors 8.5 Politicians 8.6 Religion 8.7 Sciences 8.8 Sport 8.9 Miscellaneous

9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links


Saint-Etienne cathedral in Metz, capital of Lorraine

Lorraine's borders have changed often in its long history. The location of Lorraine
led to it being a paramount strategic asset as the crossroads of four nations. This, along with its political alliances, marriage alliances, and the ability of rulers over the centuries to choose sides between East and West, gave it a tremendously powerful and important role in transforming all of European history. Its rulers intermarried with royal families over all of Europe, played kingmaker, and seated rulers on the thrones of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and Austro-Hungarian Empire Austria-Hungary, and others. In 840, Charlemagne's son Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious
died. The Carolingian Empire was divided among Louis' three sons by the Treaty of Verdun
Treaty of Verdun
of 843. The middle realm, known as Middle Francia, went to Lothair I, reaching from Frisia
in Northern Germany
through the Low Countries, Eastern France, Burgundy, Provence, Northern Italy, and down to Rome. On the death of Lothair I, Middle Francia
Middle Francia
was divided in three by the Treaty of Prüm in 855, with the northern third called Lotharingia
and going to Lothair II. Due to Lotharingia
being sandwiched between East and West Francia, the rulers identified as a duchy from 870 onward, enabling the duchy to ally and align itself nominally with either eastern or western Carolingian kingdoms in order to survive and maintain its independence. Thus it was a duchy in name but operated as an independent kingdom. In 870, Lorraine
allied with East Francia
East Francia
while remaining an autonomous duchy. In 962, when Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, restored the Empire (restauratio imperii), Lorraine
was designated as the autonomous Duchy of Lorraine
Duchy of Lorraine
within the Holy Roman Empire. It maintained this status until 1766, after which it was annexed under succession law by the Kingdom of France, via derivative aristocratic house alliances. The succession within these houses, in tandem with other historical events, would have later restored Lorraine's status as its own duchy, but a vacuum in leadership occurred. Its duke François Stephen de Lorraine
(Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor) took the throne of the Holy Roman Empire, and his brother Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine became governor of the Austrian Netherlands. For political reasons, he decided to hide those heirs who were not born by his first wife, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria, who was deceased when he took office. The vacuum in leadership, the French Revolution, and the political results and changes issuing from the many nationalistic wars that followed in the next 130 years, ultimately resulted in Lorraine becoming a permanent part of the modern Republic of France. Because of wars, it came under control of Germany
several times as the border between the nations shifted. While Lorrainian separatists do exist in the 21st century, their political power and influence is negligible. Lorraine
separatism today consists more of preserving its cultural identity rather than seeking genuine political independence. With enlightened leadership and at a crossroads between French and German cultures, Lotharingia
experienced tremendous economic, artistic, and cultural prosperity during the 12th and 13th centuries under the Hohenstaufen
emperors. Along with the rest of Europe, this prosperity was terminated in Lorraine
in the 14th century by a series of harsh winters, bad harvests, and the Black Death. During the Renaissance, a flourishing prosperity returned to Lotharingia
until the Thirty Years' War. France
annexed Lorraine
by force in 1766, and it retains control in the early 21st century. Due to the region's location, the population has been mixed. The north is largely Germanic, speaking Lorraine Franconian and other Germanic dialects. Strong centralized nationalism had only begun to replace the feudalist system which had formed the multilingual borders, and insurrection against the French occupation influenced much of the area's early identity. In 1871, the German Empire regained a part of Lorraine
Bezirk Lothringen, corresponding to the current department of Moselle). The department formed part of the new Imperial German State of Alsace-Lorraine. In France, the revanchist movement developed to recover this territory. The Imperial German administration strongly discouraged the French language and culture in favor of High German, which became the administrative language (Geschäftssprache.[2]) It required the use of German in schools in areas which it considered or designated as German-speaking, an often arbitrary categorisation. French was allowed to remain in use only in primary and secondary schools in municipalities definitely considered Francophone, such as Château-Salins
and the surrounding arrondissement,[3] as well and in their local administration.[4] But after 1877, higher education, including state-run colleges, universities and teacher seminaries, was conducted exclusively in German.[5] The predominance of German and the partial usage of French, though restricted, were both guaranteed by the 1911 constitution of Alsace-Lorraine.[6] While many toponyms of Germanic etymology in Lorraine
were adapted to the High German standard (i.e. Germanised[7]) a number of genuine Francophone toponyms remained untouched. During the Nazi occupation between 1940 and 1944, however, its government imposed arbitrary German translations to replace all French names. For instance, Château-Salins
was called Salzburg in Lothringen. In the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, the former German Empire
German Empire
suffered severe territorial losses, including the portion of Lorraine
territory that had been part of its state of Alsace-Lorraine. With the exception of its de facto annexation by Nazi Germany
during World War II, that area has since remained a part of France. During that war, the cross of Lorraine
was a symbol of Free France.

Development of the borders in modern history[edit]

in 1870: Colors show the original departments' territories

The administrative region of Lorraine
is larger than the 18th century duchy of Lorraine, which gradually came under French sovereignty between 1737 and 1766. The modern region includes provinces and areas that were historically separate from the duchy of Lorraine
proper. These are:

Barrois Three Bishoprics: non-contiguous territories around Metz, Verdun, and Toul, which were detached from the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in the 16th century and came under French sovereignty. several small principalities, which were still part of the Holy Roman Empire at the time of the French Revolution.

Some historians consider the traditional province of Lorraine
as limited to the duchy of Lorraine
proper, while others consider that it includes Barrois and the Three Bishoprics. The duchy of Lorraine
was originally the duchy of upper Lorraine, and did not include the entire area since called Lorraine.[citation needed] The case of Barrois is the most complicated: the western part of Barrois (west of the Meuse), known as Barrois mouvant, was detached from the rest of Barrois in the early 14th century and taken over by French sovereignty. The largest part of Barrois (east of the Meuse River) was the Duchy of Bar, part of the Holy Roman Empire. In the 15th century, it was united with the Duchy of Lorraine
Duchy of Lorraine
by the marriage of the Duke of Bar, René of Anjou, with Isabella, daughter of the Duke of Lorraine. Thus the duchies of Bar and Lorraine
were united in personal union under the same duke, although formally they were officially separate until being annexed and incorporated into the Kingdom of France
in 1766. During the French Revolution, four departments were created from the main parts of the territories of Barrois, Three Bishoprics
Three Bishoprics
and the Duchy of Lorraine:

Meuse, Meurthe, Moselle
and Vosges.

After 1870 some parts of Moselle
and Meurthe became German. Of the remaining parts, France
formed the new department named Meurthe-et-Moselle. After 1918 and the Great War, France
took over control again of Moselle. When France
created its administrative regions in the middle of the 20th century, it decided to gather Meurthe et Moselle, Meuse, Moselle and Vosges into a single region, known as Lorraine. Geography[edit]

Chajoux Valley

is the only French region to have borders with three other countries: Belgium
(Wallonia), Luxembourg, and Germany
(Saarland, Rhineland-Palatinate). It also borders the French regions of Franche-Comté, Champagne-Ardenne, which were at times part of historical Lorraine
Lotharingia, and Alsace, which, while still part of Lorraine's identity, is now a separate administrative region. Most of the region forms part of the Paris Basin, with a plateau relief cut by river valleys presenting cuestas in the north-south direction. The eastern part is sharper with the Vosges. Many rivers run through Lorraine, including Moselle, Meurthe, and Meuse. Most of them are on the Rhine
drainage basin. Lorraine
has an oceanic climate with continental influences. Language and culture[edit]

Opéra-Théâtre de Metz

Fortifications in Longwy, inscribed on the World Heritage list by UNESCO as part of the Fortifications of Vauban

Most of Lorraine
has a clear French identity, with the exception of the northeastern part of the region, today known as Moselle, which historically has had an ethnic German, and German-speaking, population. In 1871, Bismarck annexed about a third of today's Lorraine
to the newly formed German Empire
German Empire
following victory in the Franco-Prussian War. This disputed third has a culture not easily classifiable as either French or German, since both Romance and Germanic dialects are spoken here. Like many border regions, Lorraine
was a patchwork of ethnicities and dialects not mutually intelligible with either standard French or German (See Linguistic boundary of Moselle). Traditionally, two languages are native to Lorraine. The first is Lorrain, which is a moribund minority Romance language spoken in southeastern Lorraine. The second is the Germanic Lorraine
Franconian, a group of three Franconian dialects independently surviving in northern and western Lorraine. They are referred to collectively as Plàtt in Franconian or francique or platt (lorrain) in French (not to be confused with lorrain, the Romance language). Now mainly rural and isolated, these dialects gradually differ in the region, though they are mutually intelligible. Lorraine Franconian
Lorraine Franconian
is distinct from neighbouring Alsatian, to the south, although the two are often confused. Neither has official status where they are spoken, but Alsatian is far more widely used. Technically, Lorraine Franconian
Lorraine Franconian
is a catch-all term for what were historically three dialects: Luxemburgish, Mosel Franconian, and Rhine Franconian. Each is identical to the same dialects spoken in the neighboring Rhineland
of Germany. Like most of France's regional languages (e.g. Breton, West Flemish, Catalan, Provençal, and Alsatian), Lorrain and Lorraine
Franconian have largely been replaced in use by French. For more than a century, nationalistic policies of the central government required public schooling to be conducted only in French. Now, however, there are efforts being made to revive Lorraine
Franconian, whose linguistic vitality is still relatively high. Recent efforts include the use of bilingual signs in Franconian areas, and Franconian-language classes for young children whose parents can no longer speak their ancestral language. Cross of Lorraine[edit] Main article: Cross of Lorraine

Cross of Lorraine

A quiche Lorraine

During World War II, the cross was adopted as the official symbol of the Free French Forces (French: Forces Françaises Libres, or FFL) under Charles de Gaulle. The capitaine de corvette Georges Thierry d'Argenlieu suggested the adoption of the Cross of Lorraine
Cross of Lorraine
as the symbol of the Free French. In his General Order n° 2 of 3 July 1940, vice-admiral Émile Muselier, chief of the naval and air forces of the Free French for two days, created the bow flag displaying the French colours with a red Cross of Lorraine, and a cockade also featuring the Cross of Lorraine. De Gaulle is memorialised at his home village of Colombey-les-Deux-Églises
by a gigantic 44.3-meter (145 feet) high cross of Lorraine. Cuisine[edit] The use of the potato in Lorraine
can be traced back to 1665. It was imported to Europe from South America. It is used in what developed as various traditional dishes of the region, such as the potée lorraine. The Breux potato, which takes its name from the village of Breux in the north of the Meuse, is considered to be excellent due to the perfect conditions of the area for its cultivation. Smoked bacon is also a traditional ingredient of the cuisine of Lorraine. It is used in various traditional dishes of the region, including the famous quiche lorraine. The mirabelle plum of Lorraine is the emblematic fruit of Lorraine. It is used in pies and other desserts, as well as in alcoholic beverages. Traditional dishes in the region include:

Lorraine Pâté lorrain (chopped pork and veal flavoured with white wine and baked in puff pastry) Potée lorraine (a stew of smoked meats and sausages, with cabbage, potatoes and other root vegetables) Andouille
(tripe sausage)

Traditional cheeses of Lorraine
include the following: Carré de l'Est, Brouère, Munster-géromé, Tourrée de l'Aubier. Desserts include: Madeleine, Macaron, Rum baba, Plombières ice-cream, various pie recipes (brimbelles bilberry, mirabelle plum, rhubarb, quark...) Tea and carrots are a still consumed together in Lorraine. The origin of the tradition dates to medieval times. Knights errant would enjoy black tea and the local porous carrots (nicknamed Karotewasser in Germany); they would dunk the carrots into the liquid to soak up the tea. Medically, people now understand that there are health benefits from consuming the antioxidants of tea and the beta carotene of the carrots. Beverages[edit]

Wine: The most well-known wine of the region is the Côtes de Toul. There are vineyards in the valley of the Moselle, the valley of Seille, the valley of Metz, and the valley of Sierck. Beer: Historically, Lorraine
was the location of many breweries, including the Champigneulles founded on June 20, 1897.

Traditions[edit] Lorraine
has a Roman Catholic heritage. Almost every village has a church, often centuries old, although many do not have a dedicated priest anymore. Church bells are traditionally rung to announce Angelus
time (and often toll the hours). By tradition, they do not toll during Holy Week
Holy Week
preceding Easter. Instead, the children of the villages play ratchets and announce, C'est l'Angélus! (It's the Angelus). After Easter, the children go from house to house and receive small presents for their service. Sinterklaas
is celebrated in Lorraine, where he is called "Saint Nicolas". Each year, more than 150,000 people gather in the streets of Nancy to celebrate Sinterklaas. A total of that number gather in other areas across the region.[8] Housing[edit] Except for dispersed settlement in the Vosges mountains, traditional farms display linked houses, forming linear villages. They are built quite far from the road. The area between the house and the road is called l'usoir (fr). Until the 1970s, the usoir was used to store farming tools, firewood, or manure. Today this area is generally used as a garden or for car parking. Furniture developed a specific identity after the Thirty Years' War: the "Lorrain style". Economy[edit] At 44 billion euros (in 2000), Lorraine
generates 3.4% of France's GDP. Despite ranking 11th in population, it ranks 8th in GDP out of the 22 regions of France, making it per capita among the top economic producing regions in the country, along with Alsace
and Île-de-France (Paris). The logistics and service sectors have experienced the strongest growth in recent years. The traditional industries (textiles, mining, metallurgy) have undergone a decline due to restructuring and the move of some jobs offshore. Consequently, the region has struggled with rising unemployment, although its rate is still below the national average. In 1997 the last iron ore mine in Lorraine
was closed; it had once produced more than 50 million tonnes of iron.[9]

Lorraine France

GDP 2000 44.3 Billion Euros 1.816 Trillion Euros

Agriculture 2.5% 2.8%

Industry 30.7% 25.6%

Service 66.8% 71.6%

Unemployment June 2002 8.4% 9%

Major communities[edit]

Dawn sky in Metz

Épinal Forbach Lunéville Metz Montigny-lès-Metz Nancy Saint-Dié-des-Vosges Sarreguemines Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy Thionville

Fauna and flora[edit] Fauna[edit]

Eurasian lynx Fox


Ash tree Beech Buxus
boxwood Fern Geranium Hornbeam Lily of the Valley Maple Mirabelle Sage Spruce Thistle

Notable Lorrainers[edit] Art and literature[edit]

Émile Durkheim

Jacques Callot
Jacques Callot
(1592–1635) Claude Lorrain
Claude Lorrain
(Claude Gellée) (1600–1682) Émile Erckmann
Émile Erckmann
(1822–1899) Alexandre Chatrian
Alexandre Chatrian
(1826–1890) Paul Verlaine
Paul Verlaine
(1844–1896) Émile Jules Gallé (1846–1904) Jules Bastien-Lepage
Jules Bastien-Lepage
(1848–1884) Eugène Vallin
Eugène Vallin
(1856–1922) Émile Durkheim
Émile Durkheim
(1858–1917) (pictured) Victor Prouvé (1858–1943) Louis Majorelle
Louis Majorelle
(1859–1926) Lucien Weissenburger
Lucien Weissenburger
(1860–1929) Émile Friant
Émile Friant
(1863–1932) Paul Charbonnier (1865–1953) Henri Bergé (1870–1937) Jacques Gruber (1870–1936) Émile André
Émile André
(1871–1933) Jean-Marie Straub (1933-) Bernard-Marie Koltès (1948–1989) Philippe Claudel
Philippe Claudel
(1962-) Georges de La Tour
Georges de La Tour

Economy and industry[edit]

Albert Bergeret (1859–1932) Antonin (1864–1930) and Auguste Daum (1853–1909)


Godfrey de Bouillon
Godfrey de Bouillon
(1060–1100) Georges Mouton
Georges Mouton
(1770–1838) Jean Baptiste Eblé (1758–1812) Nicolas Oudinot
Nicolas Oudinot
(1767–1848) Joseph Léopold Sigisbert Hugo (1774–1828) Louis-Hubert Lyautey
Louis-Hubert Lyautey
(1854–1934) Charles Mangin
Charles Mangin

Musicians and actors[edit]

Florent Schmitt
Florent Schmitt
(1870–1958) Darry Cowl (1925–2006) Charlélie Couture (1956-) Tom Novembre (1959-) Patricia Kaas
Patricia Kaas


Raymond Poincaré

Pierre-Louis Roederer
Pierre-Louis Roederer
(1754–1835) Jules Ferry
Jules Ferry
(1832–1893) Raymond Poincaré
Raymond Poincaré
(1860–1934)(pictured) Maurice Barrès
Maurice Barrès
(1862–1923) Albert Lebrun
Albert Lebrun
(1871–1950) Robert Schuman
Robert Schuman
(1886–1963) Jack Lang (1939-) Christian Poncelet
Christian Poncelet
(1928- )(French politician, President of the Senate 1998-2008) Aurélie Filippetti
Aurélie Filippetti


Bruno d'Eguisheim-Dagsbourg Pope Leo IX
Pope Leo IX
(1002–1054) Henri Grégoire
Henri Grégoire
(1750–1831) Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc


Benoit de Maillet
Benoit de Maillet
(1656-1738) Charles Messier
Charles Messier
(1730–1817) Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier
Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier
(1757–1785) Jean-Victor Poncelet (1788–1867) Charles Hermite
Charles Hermite
(1822–1901) Edmond Laguerre
Edmond Laguerre
(1834–1886) Henri Poincaré
Henri Poincaré
(1854–1912) Marie Marvingt
Marie Marvingt
(1875–1963) Louis Camille Maillard
Louis Camille Maillard
(1878–1936) Hubert Curien
Hubert Curien


Michel Platini
Michel Platini
(1955-) Patrick Battiston (1957-) Morgan Parra
Morgan Parra


Antoine de Ville Raymond Schwartz
Raymond Schwartz
(1894–1973) Nicolas Chopin
Nicolas Chopin
(1771–1844) Pierre Gaxotte (1895-1982) Pierre Le Garde (1985–present)

See also[edit]

Belgian Lorraine Côtes de Toul List of rulers of Lorraine Lorraine
(duchy) Lotharingia Saar-Warndt coal mining basin


^ Loi n° 2015-29 du 16 janvier 2015 relative à la délimitation des régions, aux élections régionales et départementales et modifiant le calendrier électoral (in French) ^ cf. "Gesetz, betreffend die amtliche Geschäftssprache" (Law concerning the official transaction language) of 31 March 1872, Gesetzblatt für Elsaß-Lothringen (Legal gazette for Alsace-Lorraine), p. 159. ^ The imperial Statthalter
was entitled to allow French as language of instruction in elementary and secondary schools in areas that were predominately Francophone, cf. §4 of the "Gesetz, betreffend das Unterrichtswesen" ( Law
concerning the educational system) of 12 February 1873, Gesetzblatt für Elsaß-Lothringen, p. 37. ^ The ' Law
concerning the official transaction language' provided for exceptions from the German language
German language
in areas with Francophone majorities. ^ Otto Pflanze, Bismarck: Der Reichskanzler [Bismarck and the development of Germany), Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990; German], Munich: Beck, 2008, p. 484. ISBN 978 3 406 54823 9. ^ Cf. § 26 of the "Gesetz über die Verfassung Elsaß-Lothringens" ( Law
on the Constitution of Alsace-Lorraine), retrieved on 24 April 2013. ^ Such as replacing French pronunciation spellings of the local dialects to standard High German orthography, e.g. …bourg to …burg, …house to …hausen, …troff to …dorf, …ange to …ingen etc. ^ "Marche de Noel Fêtes: Saint Nicolas" ^ Iron Ore in 1997, Minerals, United States Geological Survey, Dept. of Interior]

Further reading[edit]

Putnam, Ruth. Alsace
and Lorraine: From Cæsar to Kaiser, 58 B.C.-1871 A.D. New York: 1915. Bontemps, Daniel and Martine Bontemps-Litique, with Nelly Benoit, Virginie Legrand and Jean-Pierre Thiollet, Les noms de famille en Lorraine, Archives et Culture, Paris,1999[1]

External links[edit]

Official homepage of the Regional Council at the Wayback Machine (archived November 27, 2015) Regional Prefecture at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived December 30, 2015) Lorraine : Between war and art: memories Lorraine
- Official French website (in English) A short guide to the Lorraine
region and its main attractions MyLorraine.fr - Share your Lorraine Business in Lorraine

v t e

Administrative regions of France

Current administrative regions (since 2016)

Metropolitan regions

Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Bourgogne-Franche-Comté Brittany Centre-Val de Loire Corsica Grand Est Hauts-de-France Île-de-France Normandy Nouvelle-Aquitaine Occitanie Pays de la Loire Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur

Overseas regions

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte Réunion

Former administrative regions (1982–2015)

Metropolitan regions

Alsace Aquitaine Auvergne Burgundy Brittany Centre-Val de Loire Champagne-Ardenne Corsica Franche-Comté Île-de-France Languedoc-Roussillon Limousin Lorraine Midi-Pyrénées Nord-Pas-de-Calais Lower Normandy Upper Normandy Pays de la Loire Picardy Poitou-Charentes Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Rhône-Alpes

Overseas regions

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte Réunion

v t e




French Community German-speaking Community Walloon Region




Rhineland-Palatinate Saarland


Diekirch Grevenmacher Luxembourg


Summit Conferences Regional Commission Interregional Parliamentary Council University Charter European cultural capital 2007 House of the Greater Region Private cooperations

v t e




Arrondissement of Briey Arrondissement of Lunéville Arrondissement of Nancy Arrondissement of Toul


Arrondissement of Bar-le-Duc Arrondissement of Commercy Arrondissement of Verdun


Arrondissement of Forbach-Boulay-Moselle Arrondissement of Metz Arrondissement of Sarrebourg-Château-Salins Arrondissement of Sarreguemines Arrondissement of Thionville

Vosges (Épinal)

Arrondissement of Épinal Arrondissement of Neufchâteau Arrondissement of Saint-Dié


Coat of arms Flag Symbol People Languages (Franconian, Lorrain, Alsatian) Demographics Religion


FC Metz FC Metz
(women) AS Nancy SAS Épinal US Raon-l'Étape SLUC Nancy Basket Metz
Handball ASPTT Nancy Dauphins d'Épinal Rallye Alsace-Vosges Lorraine


Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
( Mediomatrici
& Leuci) (22 BC–5th-century) Alemanni/ Ripuarian Franks
Ripuarian Franks
(5th-century–511) Austrasia
(511–751) Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
(751–843) Middle Francia
Middle Francia
(843–855) Lotharingia
(855–959) Duchy of Lorraine
Duchy of Lorraine
(959–1766) Duchy of Bar
Duchy of Bar
(circa 950-1766) Three Bishoprics
Three Bishoprics
(1552-1790) Bezirk Lothringen
Bezirk Lothringen
(1871–1918) CdZ-Gebiet Lothringen
CdZ-Gebiet Lothringen
(1940–1945) Lorraine
(1945–2016) Grand Est
Grand Est


Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 244072377 GND: 4036377-6 BNF: cb119342914 (data) HDS: 6631

Coordinates: 49°00′N 6°00′E / 49.000°N 6.000°E / 49.000; 6.000

^ http://catalogue.bnf.fr/servlet/biblio?idNoeud=1&ID=37096524&SN1=0&SN2=0&