Lockheed JetStar (company designations L-329 and L-1329;
designated C-140 in US military service) is a business jet produced
from the early 1960s to the 1970s. The JetStar was the first dedicated
business jet to enter service. It was also one of the largest aircraft
in the class for many years, seating ten plus two crew. It is
distinguishable from other small jets by its four engines, mounted on
the rear of the fuselage, and the "slipper"-style fuel tanks fixed to
1 Design and development
2 Operational history
4.1 Civil operators
4.2 Military and government operators
5 Accidents and incidents
6 Aircraft on display
7 Specifications (JetStar II)
8 Notable appearances in media
9 See also
Design and development
The prototype L-329 twin-engine JetStar, operated by the Lockheed
Aircraft Corporation, at Washington DCA airport in 1972
Lockheed VC-140B. The bare metal on the fin at the trim hinge is
easily visible here.
An Air Force Communications Service C-140A facilities checking
aircraft displayed at the 1963 Paris Air Show
A Cayman Islands-registered Jetstar 731 in France in 2011
The Dryden C-140 JetStar during testing of advanced propfan designs
The JetStar originated as a private project within Lockheed, with an
eye to winning a
United States Air Force
United States Air Force (USAF) requirement that was
later dropped due to budget cuts. Lockheed decided to continue the
project on its own for the business market.
The first two prototypes were equipped with two Bristol Siddeley
Orpheus engines, the first of these flying on 4 September 1957. The
second of these was also equipped with the wing-mounted "slipper
tanks", which was originally to be an option. Lockheed attempted to
arrange a contract to produce the Orpheus in the US, but when these
negotiations failed it re-engined the second prototype with four Pratt
& Whitney JT12s in 1959. The slipper tanks were removed and placed
on the first prototype. The JT12 fit proved successful and was
selected for the production versions, the first of which flew in mid
1960. These versions entered commercial service in 1961.
The JetStar has a fairly typical business jet design layout, with a
swept wing and a cruciform tail. The wing has a 30° sweepback and
features large fuel tanks at about half-span, extending some distance
in front and behind the wing. The wings hold 10,000 pounds of fuel,
and each slipper tank holds 4,000 pounds of fuel for a total fuel load
of 18,000 pounds. The wing also includes leading edge flaps (not
slats) along the front of the wing outboard of the tanks (these
leading edge flaps reduce the stalling speed by an additional three
knots), while double-slotted trailing edge flaps span the entire rear
surface inboard of the ailerons. The wing incorporates inflatable
rubber deicing boots for the removal of accumulated inflight ice. The
horizontal stabilizer is mounted nearly halfway up the fin to keep it
clear of the engines' jet blast. One feature is that the horizontal
stabilizer is trimmable by pivoting the entire tail fin and stabilizer
assembly, which has a distinctive unpainted area at the base of the
fin that is noticeable in most pictures. The JetStar does not have any
tail deicing capability, nor was it required for certification. A
speed brake is located on the underside of the fuselage to aid
deceleration for landing. The original prototypes used a tricycle
landing gear with one wheel per leg, but after an accident in 1962 the
nose gear was modified with two tires.
The JetStar is a relatively heavy aircraft for its class, at
44,500 lb (19,278 kg). Maximum cruising speed is
Mach 0.8, or 567 mph (912 km/h) at 21,000 ft
(6,401 m). Range is typically quoted as 2,500 mi
(4,023 km) with a 3,500 lb (1,588 kg) payload.
Typically, interiors feature seating for eight with a full-sized
lavatory, or a slightly denser arrangement for ten. The JetStar is one
of the few aircraft of its class which allow a person to walk upright
in the cabin, although to do this the aisle is sunk slightly so that
the seats are raised on either side. The windows are relatively
Noise regulations in the United States and high fuel consumption led
to the development of the 731 JetStar, a modification program which
Garrett TFE731 turbofan engines with a number of detail
changes. It has redesigned larger external fuel tanks that sit with
their upper surfaces flush with the wing, rather than being centered
on it. The cockpit area has a somewhat more "modern" looking nose and
window arrangement. The 731 JetStar modification program was so
successful that Lockheed produced 40 new JetStars, designated the
JetStar II, from 1976 through 1979. The JetStar IIs were factory-new
aircraft with the turbofan engines and revised external fuel tanks.
Both 731 JetStars and JetStar IIs have greatly increased range,
reduced noise, and better runway performance compared to the original
JetStar production totaled 204 aircraft by final delivery in 1978.
Most original JetStars have been retired, but many 731 JetStars and
JetStar IIs are still flying in various roles, mainly as corporate and
The first prototype served as the personal transport of Lockheed's
Vice President of Advanced Development Projects Kelly Johnson for some
Elvis Presley owned two JetStars at different times; the second
was named Hound Dog II and is on display at Graceland. Frank Sinatra
also owned one.
Sixteen JetStars were produced for the USAF; Five C-140As were flight
inspection aircraft for the Air Force Communications Service and were
used to perform airborne testing of airport navigational aids
(navaids) from 1962 onwards. They began service during the Vietnam War
and remained in service until the early 1990s. The "Flight Check"
C-140As were combat-coded aircraft that could be distinguished from
the VIP transport version by their distinctive paint scheme. The
C-140As were deployed to southeast Asia during the Vietnam War, where,
in addition to their more usual navaid testing, they would loiter off
the coast and act as communications relays between the Pentagon and
the battlefield. The last C-140A to be retired was placed on static
display at Scott AFB, Illinois.
An additional eleven airframes were designated C-140B, although the
first of these predated the C-140As when it was delivered in 1961. The
C-140Bs were used to transport personnel by the Military Airlift
Command. Six of the aircraft were operated as VIP transports by the
89th Military Airlift Wing at Andrews Air Force Base. These VIP
aircraft were designated as VC-140Bs. Members of the VIP transport
fleet occasionally served as
Air Force One
Air Force One during the 1970s and 1980s.
Several other countries, such as
Germany and Canada, have used
military JetStars as transports for their heads of state, heads of
government, and other VIPs.
Business, executive transport aircraft, with accommodation for a crew
of two and ten passengers, powered by four 3,300 lbf
(14.7 kN) thrust Pratt & Whitney JT12A-8 turbojet engines.
New production version, powered by four 3,700 lbf (16.5 kN)
thrust Garrett TFE731-3 turbofan engines, and fitted with revised
external fuel tanks, 40 built.
Modified version, fitted with four Garrett TFE731-1 turbofan engines,
and equipped with redesigned external fuel tanks.
Flight inspection aircraft for the US Air Force, similar to the
JetStar I, five built.
Passenger, cargo transport aircraft for the US Air Force, similar to
the C-140A, five built.
VIP transport aircraft for the US Air Force, similar to the C-140B,
Two JetStar 6s were ordered by the United States Navy, originally
designated UV-1, but not delivered.
US military designation for a proposed trainer version of the C-140
for evaluation, not built.
Conversion by American Aviation Industries with two General Electric
CF34 engines in place of the four JT12 turbojets or TFE731 turbofans
which first flew on 5 September 1986. Only one aircraft was
Department of Transport former operator
Federal Aviation Administration
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Military and government operators
German Air Force former operator
Indonesian Air Force former operator
Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force
Libyan Arab Air Force
Mexican Air Force
Royal Saudi Air Force
United States Air Force
Accidents and incidents
On January 5, 1995 an
Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force
Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF)
JetStar crashed during an emergency landing, killing all 12 on board
including General Mansour Sattari, commander of the IRIAF.
Aircraft on display
Elvis Presley's Lockheed JetStar.
VC-140B at the USAF Museum
1001 – The prototype JetStar is undergoing restoration at the Museum
of Flight's Restoration Center in Everett, Washington. This
aircraft is one of only two JetStars with only two engines.
1002 – On pylon display near Base Operations and the AMC Air
Terminal at Andrews AFB, Maryland.
5004 – A JetStar owned by
Elvis Presley in his later years, named
Hound Dog II, is on display at Graceland.
5010 – The Jimmy Doolittle Air & Space Museum, Travis Air Force
Base, Fairfield, California, has a C-140A (59-5958) on
5017 – The Museum of Aviation next to
Robins Air Force Base
Robins Air Force Base has a
VC-140B (61-2488) in its collection.
5018 – The
Canada Aviation and Space Museum in Ottawa, has an L-1329
Jetstar 6 that the Department of Transport used to carry government
officials and foreign dignitaries.
5022 – In the collection of the (61-2489) Pima Air and Space Museum,
Davis-Monthan AFB in Tucson, Arizona.
5024 – President Lyndon Johnson's JetStar (61-2490) is on display at
the Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park.
5026 – In the Scott Field Heritage Air Park at Scott AFB, Illinois
5031 – In the Presidential Aircraft collection of the National
Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson AFB,
5045 – The Hill Aerospace Museum, Hill Air Force Base, Ogden, Utah
has a VC-140B (62-4201) on display with a fully restored interior and
a fully painted exterior. This was confirmed by former members of the
89th SAM from
Andrews Air Force Base
Andrews Air Force Base to have carried President Johnson
and his wife.
5046 – In the
Garuda Indonesia Training Center in Jakarta, a former
Indonesian Air Force
Indonesian Air Force Lockheed Jetstar numbered A-9446 named "Sapta
Marga" is displayed on their premises.
5049 – used by A&P students for learning purposes at South
5059 – The
Dirgantara Mandala Museum
Dirgantara Mandala Museum in Yogyakarta, near Adisucipto
International Airport, has an ex-
Indonesian Air Force
Indonesian Air Force VVIP Squadron
C-140 JetStar in the Display Hangar, name "Pancasila"
5088 – The Atlantic
Canada Aviation Museum has a Jetstar that was
used by the Canadian Prime Minister and other government
5145 – The Greater Saint Louis Air & Space Museum at Saint Louis
Downtown Airport in Cahokia, Illinois has a JetStar on display outside
the museum that was once owned by Howard Hughes (N511TD).
5157 – On display at the entrance to Dodson International Parts in
5215 – The
Miami Auto Museum
Miami Auto Museum in North Miami,
Florida has a complete
JetStar on display inside the museum.
The Athens Scuba Park in
Athens, Texas has a sunken C-140 for
exploration by scuba divers.
The cockpit of a JetStar II is on exhibit at the Tellus Science
In the Pediatrics Wing of the Spanish Hospital in Mexico City,
Specifications (JetStar II)
Data from Lockheed Aircraft since 1913
Crew: two pilots & typically one flight attendant
Capacity: 8–10 passengers
Length: 60 ft 5 in (18.41 m)
Wingspan: 54 ft 5 in (16.59 m)
Height: 20 ft 5 in (6.22 m)
Wing area: 542.5 ft² (50.4 m²)
Empty weight: 24,750 lb (11,226 kg)
Loaded weight: 41,535 lb (18,840 kg)
Max. takeoff weight: 44,500 lb (20,185 kg)
Powerplant: 4 × Garrett TFE731-3 turbofan, 3,700 lbf (16.5 kN)
Maximum speed: 547 mph (476 knots, 883 km/h) at 30,000 ft (9,145 m)
Cruise speed: 504 mph (438 knots, 811 km/h)
Range: 2,995 mi (2,604 nmi, 4,820 km)
Service ceiling: 43,000 ft (13,105 m)
Rate of climb: 4,150 ft/min (21.1 m/s)
Notable appearances in media
Main article: Aircraft in fiction § Lockheed JetStar
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
British Aerospace 125
North American Sabreliner
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lockheed L-1329.
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^ JetStar 6
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access-date= requires url= (help)
Taylor, John W.R. (ed) Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1989–90.
London:Jane's Yearbooks, 1989. ISBN 0-7106-0896-9
Lockheed Martin aircraft and spacecraft
Model 10 Electra family
L-188 Electra family
Shooting Star family
Desert Hawk III
United States trainer aircraft designations, Army/Air Force and
1 Not assigned
United States military transport aircraft designations, Army/Air Force
and Tri-Service systems
Army/Air Force sequence
Revived original sequence
1 Not assigned
See also: AC-47 • AC-119 • AC-130 • DC-130
• EC-130 • HC-130 • KC-130 •
LC-130 • MC-130 • WC-130 • CT-39 •
USN/USMC utility aircraft designations 1955–1962
de Havilland Canada