HOME
The Info List - Liu Yao


--- Advertisement ---



Liu
Liu
Yao (died 329), courtesy name Yongming, was the final emperor of the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
state Han Zhao. He became emperor in 318 after most other members of the imperial Liu
Liu
clan were massacred by Jin Zhun in a coup. However, the empire was soon divided in half, as the general Shi Le declared independence and established Later Zhao. In a decisive battle in early 329, Shi captured and executed him, and while his sons Liu
Liu
Xi the Crown Prince and Liu
Liu
Yin the Prince of Nanyang continued to hold out for nearly a year, the Han Zhao
Han Zhao
state fell later that year.

Contents

1 Early life 2 During Liu
Liu
Yuan's reign 3 During Liu
Liu
Cong's and Liu
Liu
Can's reigns 4 Early reign 5 Late reign 6 Era name 7 Personal information 8 References

Early life[edit] Liu
Liu
Yao's father Liu
Liu
Lü (劉綠) died early, and he was raised by Liu Lü's cousin Liu
Liu
Yuan. When he was young, Liu
Liu
Yuan became impressed with his intelligence and strength. As he grew, he became known for his archery skills and his studiousness—although his studies were described to be surveys rather than careful readings, except for books on military strategy, which he spent much of his time on. He often deprecated Wu Han and Deng Yu, instead comparing himself to the great Warring States
Warring States
general Le Yi, the great Han Dynasty
Dynasty
prime minister Xiao He, and the Han general Cao Can
Cao Can
(曹參). When people heard these remarks, they often criticized him for being overly arrogant, but Liu Yuan's son Liu
Liu
Cong respected him and remarked, "Yongming should be compared to Shizu (the temple name of Emperor
Emperor
Guangwu of Han) and Emperor
Emperor
Wu of Wei (Cao Cao); Le, Xiao, and Cao Can
Cao Can
cannot be compared to him." When Liu
Liu
Yao was young, he, along with his cousin Liu
Liu
Cong, were studying in the Jin capital Luoyang, when on one occasion he committed an unspecified crime punishable by death. He therefore fled to Chaoxian (朝鮮, near modern Pyeongyang, North Korea—not, in this case, a generic geographic term for Korea). Later, after a general pardon, he returned, but decided to live in the mountains away from trouble. During Liu
Liu
Yuan's reign[edit] After Liu
Liu
Yuan declared himself the Prince of Han in 304, creating Han Zhao state and effectively declaring independence and war on Jin, he made Liu
Liu
Yao a major general. During Liu
Liu
Yuan's reign, Liu
Liu
Yao engaged in many campaigns against Jin forces and often was victorious, although he, like other Han Zhao
Han Zhao
generals, had difficulty permanently holding cities that he captured. In 307, along with his cousin Liu Cong and Wang Mi (王彌), he attacked Luoyang, but was repelled. They were again foiled in 309. Liu
Liu
Yao was probably created the Prince of Shi'an in 309, when Liu
Liu
Yuan declared himself the emperor. During Liu
Liu
Cong's and Liu
Liu
Can's reigns[edit] After Liu
Liu
Yuan's death in 310, Liu
Liu
Cong overthrew his older brother and Liu
Liu
Yuan's successor Liu
Liu
He (after Liu
Liu
He had tried to have him and the other brothers killed and successfully killed two) and succeeded to the throne himself as Emperor
Emperor
Zhaowu. He trusted Liu
Liu
Yao greatly and commissioned him with a large force, and Liu
Liu
Yao served his cousin faithfully. In 311, Liu
Liu
Yao, in conjunction with Wang, Shi Le, and Huyan Yan (呼延晏), captured Luoyang
Luoyang
and Emperor
Emperor
Huai of Jin. He took Emperor Huai's sister-in-law, the deceased Emperor
Emperor
Hui's wife, Yang Xianrong, as his own wife. Later that year, after Liu
Liu
Cong's son Liu
Liu
Can captured Chang'an, Liu Yao was put in charge of the Chang'an
Chang'an
region, although he subsequently lost that city to Jin forces under Qu Yun (麴允), allowing the Jin prince Sima Ye ( Emperor
Emperor
Huai's nephew) to occupy that city and subsequently declare himself emperor (as Emperor
Emperor
Min of Jin) in 313 after Liu
Liu
Cong executed the former Jin emperor. In 312, while fighting Liu
Liu
Kun the Jin governor of Bing Province (并州, modern central and northern Shanxi) and his ally Tuoba Yilu the Duke of Dai in conjunction with Liu
Liu
Can, Liu
Liu
Yao suffered a serious injury and was almost captured or killed by Jin forces, but was able to escape after the general Fu Hu (傅虎) yielded his own horse and sacrificed his own life in doing so. For the next few years, Liu
Liu
Yao fought largely inconclusive battles against Jin forces, both those directly under Emperor
Emperor
Min and those under Sima Bao the Prince of Nanyang. However, in 316, after Emperor Min's forces collapsed and Sima Bao failed to come to his aid, Liu
Liu
Yao captured Chang'an
Chang'an
and Emperor
Emperor
Min (whom Liu
Liu
Cong subsequently executed in 318). For this accomplishment, Liu
Liu
Cong created him the greater title of Prince of Qin. Late in Liu
Liu
Cong's reign, Liu
Liu
Cong grew increasingly cruel and extravagant, as well as increasingly trusting eunuchs and the treacherous official Jin Zhun. In 318, as Liu
Liu
Cong grew ill, he summoned Liu
Liu
Yao and Shi Le to be regents for his son Liu
Liu
Can, but both Liu
Liu
Yao and Shi declined, perhaps not wishing to contest the authorities of Jin Zhun, whose daughters had sway with Liu
Liu
Cong and Liu
Liu
Can as their wives. Subsequently, when Liu
Liu
Cong died later that year and Liu
Liu
Can succeeded to the throne, Jin Zhun became powerful and overthrew Liu
Liu
Can, slaughtering all members of the imperial Liu
Liu
clan in the capital Pingyang (平陽, in modern Linfen, Shanxi). In the massacre, Liu
Liu
Yao lost his mother Lady Hu, brother, and (he thought at the time) his son and heir Liu
Liu
Yin. (However, unknown to his father, Liu
Liu
Yin fled but was captured by or sold to a tribe named Heiniyuju (黑匿郁鞠) as a slave.) Upon hearing news of Jin Zhun's coup, Liu
Liu
Yao and Shi each led their armies against Jin, catching him trapped between their forces. Meanwhile, senior Han Zhao
Han Zhao
princes and officials who escaped the Pingyang massacre offered the throne to Liu
Liu
Yao, who accepted. He offered to not only spare Jin Zhun's life but continue to grant him power if Jin would surrender. However, when Jin Zhun was subsequently assassinated and succeeded by his cousin Jin Ming (靳明), who then surrendered to Liu
Liu
Yao, Liu
Liu
Yao massacred the Jin clan. As Pingyang was in ruins after the coup and the subsequent war, Liu
Liu
Yao moved the capital to Chang'an. Early reign[edit] As emperor, Liu
Liu
Yao showed flashes of brilliance, both at governance and military matters, at times, as well as willingness to listen to contrary opinions. However, he was also often impulsive and quick to anger, and toward the end of his reign appeared to develop alcoholism, which impaired his judgment. His first sign of impulsiveness might have contributed to the formal division of Han Zhao
Han Zhao
into two. In 319, when Shi Le sent messengers to offer tribute to Liu
Liu
Yao, Liu
Liu
Yao was initially very happy, as Shi was effectively the master of the eastern half of the empire and his submission therefore showed that his throne was secure. He created Shi the Prince of Zhao and granted him a number of imperial privileges. However, when one junior member of Shi's delegation, who wished to stay in Chang'an, thereafter submitted a report that Shi was in fact plotting an attack, Liu
Liu
became angry and slaughtered Shi's delegation. When Shi received the news, he became angry and was resolved to declare himself independent of Han Zhao. Later in 319, Liu
Liu
Yao created Princess Yang—the former Jin empress—empress, making her the only person in Chinese history to serve as empress for two emperors and two empires. He created her son Liu
Liu
Xi crown prince. He also changed the name of the state from Han to Zhao. ( Liu
Liu
Yuan had declared the empire's name Han to create a linkage with Han Dynasty—to which he claimed he was a descendant, through a princess, but Liu
Liu
Yao felt that it was time to end the linkage with Han and explicitly restore the linkage to the great Xiongnu
Xiongnu
chanyu Maodun, and therefore decided to change the name of the state. However, this was not a break from Liu
Liu
Yuan, as he continued to honor Liu
Liu
Yuan and Liu
Liu
Cong posthumously.) In winter 319, Shi declared himself the Prince of Zhao, thus establishing Later Zhao
Later Zhao
and officially breaking from Han Zhao. Liu
Liu
Yao's impulsiveness led to a major Di and Qiang rebellion in 320. After a conspiracy involving two Di chiefs, Ju Xu (句徐) and Ku Peng (庫彭) was discovered, Liu
Liu
Yao executed not only Ju and Ku but also 50 other Di chiefs, throwing their bodies into the Wei River. When his official You Ziyuan (游子遠) tried to persuaded him against these actions, he threw You into jail. Aggravated, Di and Qiang tribes declared independence in a state named Qin (秦). Subsequently, he released You and commissioned You with a force to suppression the rebellion, and You was able to persuade most of the rebels to surrender and defeat the rest. In 322, while on a campaign against the Di chief of Chouchi, Yang Nandi, Liu
Liu
Yao was stricken by a communicable disease, and while he was still able to force Yang to submit, his general Chen An (陳安), a former subordinate of Sima Bao, mistakenly thought that Liu
Liu
Yao had already died, and therefore declared independence as the Prince of Liang, controlling most of Qin Province (秦州, modern eastern Gansu). In 323, Liu
Liu
Yao, having recovered, personally attacked Chen's headquarters at Shanggui (上邽, in modern Tianshui, Gansu). Chen fled but was eventually captured and killed. Qin Province was once again Han Zhao
Han Zhao
domain. After his victory over Chen, Liu
Liu
Yao continued west and attacked the Jin vassal Former Liang, crushing all bases that Former Liang
Former Liang
had east of the Yellow River. He declared that he would next cross the Yellow River and head for the Former Liang
Former Liang
capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei, Gansu), but instead was intending to intimidate the Former Liang leader Zhang Mao (then carrying the Jin-created title Duke of Xiping) into submission. Zhang was indeed intimidated and submitted to Han Zhao
Han Zhao
suzerainty. Liu
Liu
Yao created him the Prince of Liang. Later that year, Liu
Liu
Yao's son Liu
Liu
Yin, who had been a slave with the Heiniyuju tribe, because Chen had been defeated, revealed his identity to the chief, who was surprised and respectfully delivered Liu
Liu
Yin back to Liu
Liu
Yao. (It is not clear where Heiniyuju was or why Liu
Liu
Yin waited until Chen's defeat to reveal his identity to the chief; it could have been that Heiniyuju was initially a Chen ally, and while Chen was, prior to his rebellion, nominally a Han Zhao
Han Zhao
general, Liu Yin might have been concerned about being detained by Chen as a bargaining chip.) Liu
Liu
Yao considered making Liu
Liu
Yin his crown prince instead (since Liu
Liu
Yin had previously been his heir), but, not having the heart to depose Liu
Liu
Xi, the son of Empress Yang (who died earlier that year), and particularly because Liu
Liu
Yin personally declined and did not wish to replace his brother, Liu
Liu
Yao left Liu
Liu
Xi as crown prince and created Liu
Liu
Yin the Prince of Yong'an with special honors. Late reign[edit] In 324, the first real battle between Later Zhao
Later Zhao
and Han Zhao
Han Zhao
occurred at Xin'an (新安, in modern Luoyang, Henan), ushering an era in which Later Zhao
Later Zhao
and Han Zhao
Han Zhao
would continuously battle for years. In 325, their armies fought a major battle near Luoyang
Luoyang
(which the two, as well as Jin, had fought over for months), and after some initial Han Zhao successes, Later Zhao's general Shi Hu decisively defeated and captured Han Zhao's general Liu
Liu
Yue (劉岳), after Liu
Liu
Yao himself encountered difficulties with his army discipline and could not come to Liu
Liu
Yue's aid. Later Zhao
Later Zhao
took this opportunity to effectively take the modern central Henan, northern Jiangsu, and western Shandong
Shandong
under its control. Later in 325, Liu
Liu
Yao created Liu
Liu
Yin the Prince of Nanyang and further bestowed on him the title of Grand Chanyu, putting Wu Hu tribal forces under his command. He also created a second empress, Empress Liu. In 326, Empress Liu
Liu
died, and according to her wishes, Liu
Liu
Yao married her cousin Liu
Liu
Fang as empress. In 327, believing that Han Zhao
Han Zhao
had been weakened by its defeat at Later Zhao's hands, Zhang Jun, Zhang Mao's nephew and successor as the head of Former Liang, declared himself again a Jin vassal and pillaged Han Zhao's Qin Province. Liu
Liu
Yin led an army and defeated Former Liang's forces, even crossing the Yellow River, but eventually settling for capturing Former Liang's remaining territory east of the Yellow River. In fall 328, Shi Hu attacked Han Zhao's Hedong Commandery (roughly modern Yuncheng, Shanxi). Liu
Liu
Yao personally led an army and defeated Shi Hu, and then headed south and surrounded Luoyang, capturing several commanderies around it. This greatly shocked Shi Le, as he was worried that Liu
Liu
Yao would next attack his capital Xiangguo (襄國, in modern Xintai, Hebei). In winter 328, Shi Le personally led a relief force to Luoyang. Meanwhile, during the siege of Luoyang, Liu Yao took no precautious to cut off Chenggao Pass (in modern Zhengzhou, Henan), and Shi was able to pass through it and arrive at Luoyang. In connection with the Shi Le fight against Liu
Liu
Yao in 328 CE was uttered the only phrase in the Jie native language which has survived to modern times, recorded phonetically in the Chinese annals, glossed with a Chinese translation.[1] The phrase has since been analyzed and translated in numerous publications.[2][3][4][5][6] Around the new year 329, the armies engaged in battle. Before the battle, Liu
Liu
Yao, who had taken to drinking in his late reign, drank a large amount of liquor. His usual horse had suffered leg spasms, and so he had to ride a smaller horse, and during battle Shi made a surprise attack, and the horse, unable to bear his weight, fell, and he was thrown off the horse. Later Zhao
Later Zhao
soldiers inflicted many wounds on him before capturing him and taking them to the general Shi Kan (石堪). Shi Le then ordered his army to stop engagement and allow the Han Zhao
Han Zhao
forces to retreat. Shi Kan delivered Liu
Liu
Yao to Shi Le. Shi ordered that Liu's wounds be treated, and he then took Liu
Liu
Yao to Xiangguo. He put Liu
Liu
Yao under heavy guard but supplied him with women, and also permitted his previously captured generals Liu
Liu
Yue and Liu
Liu
Zhen (劉震) to visit him. Shi then ordered Liu
Liu
Yao to write a letter to Liu
Liu
Xi and Liu
Liu
Yin, ordering them to surrender. Instead, Liu
Liu
Yao wrote a letter that stated: "Protect the empire with your officials. Do not care about me." Shi saw the letter and grew angry, and eventually executed Liu Yao. Late in 329, Shi Hu would capture and execute Liu
Liu
Xi and Liu
Liu
Yin, ending Han Zhao. Era name[edit]

Guangchu (光初 guāng chū) 318-329

Personal information[edit]

Father

Liu
Liu
Lü (劉綠), posthumously honored as Emperor
Emperor
Xuancheng

Mother

Lady Hu (killed by Jin Zhun 318), posthumoustly honored as Empress Dowager Xuanming

Wives

Princess Bu, mother of Prince Yin, posthumously honored as Empress Yuandao Yang Xianrong, mother of Princes Xī, Xí, and Chan (created empress in 319, d. 322) Empress Liu
Liu
( Liu
Liu
Yao's second empress) (created 325, d. 326) Liu
Liu
Fang (created empress in 326)

Major Concubines

Consort Jin, daughter of Jin Kang (靳康) the cousin of Jin Zhun

Children

Liu
Liu
Jian (劉儉), the Prince of Linhai Liu
Liu
Yin (劉胤), initially the Heir Apparent to Prince of Qin, later the Prince of Yong'an (created 323), later the Prince of Nanyang (created 325, killed by Later Zhao
Later Zhao
329) Liu
Liu
Xī (劉熙, note different tone than his brother), the Crown Prince (created 319, killed by Later Zhao
Later Zhao
329) Liu
Liu
Xí (劉襲, note different tone than his brother), the Prince of Changle (created 319) Liu
Liu
Chan (劉闡), the Prince of Taiyuan (created 319) Liu
Liu
Chong (劉沖), the Prince of Huai'nan (created 319) Liu
Liu
Chang (劉敞), the Prince of Qi (created 319) Liu
Liu
Gao (劉高), the Prince of Lu (created 319) Liu
Liu
Hui (劉徽), the Prince of Chu (created 319) A daughter who later became Later Zhao
Later Zhao
emperor Shi Hu's empress (b. 318)

References[edit]

Book of Jin, vol. 103. Spring and Autumn Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms, vol. 1. Zizhi Tongjian, vols. 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94.

^ Fang Xuanling, "Jin-shu" (History of Jin Dynasty), Peking, Bo-na, 1958, Ch. 95, pp. 12-b - 13-a ^ Ramstedt G.J., "Zur Frage nach der Stellung des Tschuwassischen" (On the question of the position of the Chuvash), JSFOu 38, 1922, pp. 1on ^ Bazin L., "Un texte prototürk du 4-e siecle", Oriens, Vol. 1. No. 2, 1948, pp. 211on ^ Von Gabain, A. "Animal traits in the army commander", Journal of Turkish Studies, 1:95-112, 1949 ^ Pulleyblank E.G., "The consonantal system of Old Chinese", Asia Major 9 (1963), p. 264 ^ Shervashidze I.N. "Verb forms in the language of the Turkic runiform inscriptions", Tbilisi, 1986, pp. 3-9

Lord Hou of (Han) Zhao House of Liu  Died: 329

Regnal titles

Preceded by Liu
Liu
Can Emperor
Emperor
of Han Zhao 318–329 Succeeded by Liu
Liu
Xi as Prince of Han Zhao

Titles in pretence

Preceded by Liu
Liu
Can — TITULAR — Emperor
Emperor
of China Royal descent claimant 318–329 Reason for succession failure: Sixteen Kingdoms Succeeded by Liu
Liu
Xi

v t e

Rulers of the Sixteen Kingdoms

Cheng Han

Li Te Li Liu Li Xiong Li Ban Li Qi Li Shou Li Shi

Han Zhao

Liu
Liu
Yuan Liu
Liu
He Liu
Liu
Cong Liu
Liu
Can (Jin Zhun) Liu
Liu
Yao Liu
Liu
Xi

Later Zhao

Shi Le Shi Hong Shi Hu Shi Shi Shi Zun Shi Jian Shi Zhi

Former Liang

Zhang Shi Zhang Mao Zhang Jun Zhang Chonghua Zhang Yaoling Zhang Zuo Zhang Xuanjing Zhang Tianxi

Later Liang

Lü Guang Lü Shao Lü Zuan Lü Long

Western Liang

Li Gao Li Xin Li Xun

Northern Liang

Duan Ye Juqu Mengxun Juqu Mujian Juqu Wuhui Juqu Anzhou

Southern Liang

Tufa Wugu Tufa Lilugu Tufa Rutan

Former Qin

Fu Jiàn Fu Sheng Fu Jiān Fu Pi Fu Deng Fu Chong

Later Qin

Yao Chang Yao Xing Yao Hong

Western Qin

Qifu Guoren Qifu Gangui Qifu Chipan Qifu Mumo

Former Yan

Murong Huang Murong Jun Murong Wei

Later Yan

Murong Chui Murong Bao Murong Xiang Murong Lin Lan Han Murong Sheng Murong Xi Murong Yun

Northern Yan

Gao Yun Feng Ba Feng Hong

Southern Yan

Murong De Murong Chao

Xia

Helian Bobo Helian Chang Helian Ding

Western Yan

Murong Hong Murong Chong Duan Sui Murong Yi Murong Yao Murong Zhong Murong Yong

Dai

Tuoba Yilu Tuoba Pugen Son of Tuoba Pugen Tuoba Yulü Tuoba Heru Tuoba Hena Tuoba Yihuai Tuoba Hena (2nd reign) Tuoba Yihuai (2nd reign) Tuoba Shiyijian

Ran Wei

Ran Min

Zhai Wei

Zhai Liao Zhai Zhao

Xia → Shang → Zhou → Qin → Han → 3 Kingdoms → Jìn / 16 Kingdoms → S. Dynasties / N. Dynasties → Sui → Tang → 5 Dynasties & 10 Kingdoms → Liao / Song / W. Xia / Jīn → Yuan → Ming →

.