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The LITHUANIAN SECURITY POLICE (LSP), also known as SAUGUMAS (Lithuanian : Saugumo policija), was a local police force that operated in Nazi-occupied Lithuania from 1941 to 1944. Collaborating with the Nazi Sipo (security police) and SD (intelligence agency of the SS ), the unit was directly subordinate to the German Kripo (criminal police). The LSP is a controversial unit due to its role in perpetrating the Holocaust in Lithuania , persecuting Polish resistance and communist underground.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background and formation

* 2 Organization

* 2.1 External structure * 2.2 Internal structure

* 3 Activities

* 3.1 Persecution of communists and Polish resistance * 3.2 Persecution of Jews

* 4 Postwar developments * 5 See also * 6 References

BACKGROUND AND FORMATION

When Soviet Union occupied Lithuania on 15 June 1940, the Lithuanian Ministry of Internal Affairs was liquidated and replaced by the Soviet NKVD
NKVD
. Many former employees of the Ministry were arrested and imprisoned as "enemies of the people ". When Nazi Germany
Germany
invaded Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, Lithuanians organized an anti-Soviet June Uprising in hopes that they could restore Lithuanian independence. Therefore, they started restoring pre-Soviet state institutions under the Provisional Government of Lithuania . On 24 June 1941, the Provisional Government recreated the pre-war Ministry of Internal Affairs with three departments – State Security, Police, and Prisons. The State Security Department headed by Vytautas Reivytis . The government asked all those who worked there prior to 15 June 1940 to report back for duty. Many of them were just released from Soviet prisons.

After the German take-over of Lithuania, it became apparent that the Germans had no intention to grant autonomy to Lithuania and the Provisional Government was dissolved on 5 August 1941. At the same time, the police and intelligence agencies recreated during the transitional period were found useful and were incorporated into the German security system . The former State Security Department was reorganised to the Lithuanian Security Police.

ORGANIZATION

EXTERNAL STRUCTURE

The police in German-occupied Lithuania consisted of separate German and Lithuanian units. The most important German police organizations were the SiPo (security police, German : Sicherheitspolizei ) and SD (security service, German : Sicherheitsdienst ), commanded by Karl Jäger and headquartered in Kaunas, and the public police (German : Schutzpolizei ). The major Lithuanian police organisations were the Public Police, Lithuanian Security and Criminal Police (combined at the end of 1942 into one force), Lithuanian Self-Defence Units ( Lithuanian Schutzmannschaft ), Railway Police and Fire Police. Lithuanian police organizations were subordinate to their respective German counterparts. Neighboring Latvia and Estonia did not have an equivalent to LSP.

The LSP was dependent on the German SiPo and SD. It had the authority to sentence suspects up to three years. Larger sentences had to be reviewed and approved by Karl Jäger
Karl Jäger
who always increased the sentences. Wilhelm Fuchs
Wilhelm Fuchs
, the new commander of Einsatzkommando 3 , wanted to liquidate LSP and incorporate it into the German police, but Stasys Čenkus wrote him a letter defending LSP usefulness and it was left undisturbed.

INTERNAL STRUCTURE

The head of the Lithuanian Security and Criminal Police was Stasys Čenkus , an agent of Abwehr
Abwehr
. He kept this position until the end of the German occupation. His deputy assistants were head of the Security Police Kazys Matulis and personal secretary Vytenis Stasiškis. Petras Pamataitis headed Criminal Police.

LSP had a staff of approximately 400 people, 250 of them in Kaunas
Kaunas
and around another 130 in Vilnius
Vilnius
. Many of its members came from the fascist Iron Wolf organisation . For comparison, as of December 1943, the German SiPo and SD had 112 employees in Kaunas
Kaunas
and 40 employees in Vilnius. The combined Lithuanian Security and Criminal Police had 886 employees in 1943.

LSP was headquartered in Kaunas
Kaunas
. The headquarters were divided onto several directories: Organization (recruitment and employee selection), Economical and Financial (general administration), and Information (collected reports from other departments and agencies, created registry of state enemies, organized archive).

LSP had six regional branches in Kaunas
Kaunas
(headed by Albinas Čiuoderis), Vilnius
Vilnius
(Aleksandras Lileikis), Šiauliai (Juozas Pakulis), Ukmergė (Aleksandras Braziukaitis), Marijampolė (Petras Banys) and Panevėžys (Antanas Liepa). Regional branches usually had seven commissariats:

* Guards' Commissariat – guarded buildings and prisons * General Commissariat – general administrative functions * Information Commissariat – screened applicants to governmental institutions, gathered operative information, created lists of state enemies, gathered information on political attitudes of local population, preparing reports and publications * Communist Commissariat – gathered information on communists and Soviet partisans
Soviet partisans
, arrested and interrogated suspects, recruited agents * Polish Commissariat – investigated activities of illegal Polish organizations , arrested and interrogated suspects, recruited agents * Commissariat of Ethnic Minorities – investigated activities of Russians, Belarusians and other ethnic minorities * Reconnaissance Commissariat

Regional branches sometimes had different set of commissariats, for example Kaunas's branch had a separate commissariat for right-wing organizations.

ACTIVITIES

PERSECUTION OF COMMUNISTS AND POLISH RESISTANCE

The initial task of LSP was identifying and arresting communists. During the first months of German occupation, the Communist Commissariat of the Vilnius
Vilnius
branch, headed by Juozas Bagdonis , was especially active. This commissariat in documents of 1941 is sometimes referred to as the Communist-Jewish section (Komunistų-žydų sekcija). This commissariat was responsible for spying on, arresting and interrogating communists, members of Komsomol
Komsomol
, former Soviet government workers, NKVD
NKVD
collaborators, Jews and supporters of Jews. In Kaunas, the LSP arrested about 200 communists; about 170 of them were on a list of known communists. On 26 June 1941, this group was transferred to the Seventh Fort and executed. The next day Germans forbade Lithuanians to order executions independently.

As the war continued, the focus shifted to operations against Soviet partisans and Polish resistance particularly active in eastern Lithuania. In February 1942, German SiPo and SD mandated registration of Polish intelligentsia (cf. proscription list ).

PERSECUTION OF JEWS

Main article: The Holocaust in Lithuania
The Holocaust in Lithuania

During the first weeks of German occupation, LSP was focused on persecuting communists regardless of their nationality. At that time, Jews were persecuted only if they were involved in communist activities. Members of LSP collected at least some evidence to support the charge. However, that quickly changed and Jews became persecuted because of their ethnicity. The LSP targeted Jews and suspected Jews, supporters of Jews, people evading imprisonment in the ghettos, escapees from ghettos, or those who violated the Nazi racial laws .

The activities of the LSP offices in major cities (Vilnius, Kaunas) and in the provinces differed in principle. The LSP officers in major cities would most often study more complicated cases of political and strategic character, thus not directly participating in mass killings of the Jews. After interrogations, the Jews were handed over either to the Gestapo
Gestapo
or to another Lithuanian collaborationist force named Ypatingasis būrys
Ypatingasis būrys
, which then transported them to the mass murder site of Paneriai or to other places of mass execution. The LSP offices in the province took an active role in the Holocaust and, altogether, were more active. Here, the LSP officials would not only conduct the interrogations, but would also organize mass arrests, transport Jews to the venues of imprisonment or execution, and carry out the executions. As an estimated 80% of Lithuanian Jews were murdered by the end of 1941, the Jewish problem lost its prominence.

POSTWAR DEVELOPMENTS

At the end of the war many members of the Lithuanian Security Police fled to Western Europe
Western Europe
, notably to Germany
Germany
. In 1955, the former commander of its Vilnius
Vilnius
branch, Aleksandras Lileikis , emigrated to the United States, where he obtained citizenship, of which he was stripped in 1996. In Lithuania, Lileikis's trial was postponed several times due to his poor health; he died at age 93 without trial. Lileikis gave interviews to the press and published a memoir Pažadinto laiko pėdsakais (ISBN 9789986847281 ) in which he denied any wrongdoing.

Kazys Gimžauskas, deputy of Lileikis, who returned to Lithuania after US authorities began to investigate him in 1996, was convicted in 2001 of participation in genocide. In 2006 Algimantas Dailidė was convicted in Lithuania of persecuting and arresting two Poles and 12 Jews while he was a member of Lithuanian Security Police.

SEE ALSO

* Lithuanian collaboration during World War II

REFERENCES

* ^ A B United States Department of Justice
United States Department of Justice
(1996-06-26). "Court Revokes U.S. Citizenship of Former Security Police Official in Nazi-Occupied Lithuania". Retrieved 2006-06-09. * ^ A B Gitelman, Zvi (1998). Bitter Legacy: Confronting the Holocaust in the USSR. Indiana University Press. p. 98. ISBN 0-253-33359-8 . * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L Bubnys, Arūnas (1997). "Vokiečių ir lietuvių saugumo policija (1941–1944)". Genocidas ir rezistencija (in Lithuanian). 1. ISSN 1392-3463 . Retrieved 2006-06-09. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L Bubnys, Arūnas (1997). "Lietuvių saugumo policija ir holokaustas (1941–1944)". Genocidas ir rezistencija (in Lithuanian). 13. ISSN 1392-3463 . Retrieved 2015-04-05. * ^ A B C D Stankeras, Pertas (2008). Lietuvių policija Antrajame pasauliniame kare (in Lithuanian). Mintis. pp. 274–275, 279. ISBN 978-5-417-00958-7 . * ^ A B MacQueen, Michael (2005). "Lithuanian Collaboration in the "Final Solution": Motivations and Case Studies". Lithuania and the Jews; The Holocaust
The Holocaust
Chapter (PDF). Washington, D.C.: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum . p. 6. * ^ Jewish Telegraphic Agency (1996-07-12). "World Report. Deported Nazi Denies any Guilt". Jewish Bulletin of Northern California. Retrieved 2006-06-09. * ^ Krzyżak, Tomasz (2004-09-19). "Lawina Steinbach". Wprost (in Polish). 34 (1138). ISSN 0209-1747 . Retrieved 2006-06-09. * ^ Koprowski, Marek A. (2001). "Ponarski Wyrzut Sumienia". Gość Niedzielny (in Polish). 17. ISSN 0137-7604 . * ^ Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (2001-02-23). "Lithuania. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2000". Retrieved 2006-06-12. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Walsh, Nick Paton (2004-01-18). "Refugee Faces Nazi War Trial". The Observer . Retrieved 2006-06-12. * ^ "Nazi helper avoids Lithuania jail". BBC News
BBC News
. 2006-03-27. Retrieved 2006-06-09. * ^ United States Department of Justice
United States Department of Justice
(2001-07-11). "Justice Department Moves to Deport Florida Man Who Participated in Wartime Nazi Roundups of Lithuanian Jews". Retrieved 2006-06-09.

* v * t * e

The Holocaust in Lithuania
The Holocaust in Lithuania

Main article The Holocaust
The Holocaust
Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Latvia Poland Russia Ukraine

PEOPLE

PERPETRATORS

* Algimantas Dailidė * Erich Ehrlinger
Erich Ehrlinger
* Joachim Hamann * Karl Jäger
Karl Jäger
* Bruno Kittel * Algirdas Klimaitis * Hinrich Lohse * Franz Murer * Helmut Rauca * Adrian von Renteln * Rudolf Joachim Seck * Franz Walter Stahlecker
Franz Walter Stahlecker
* Martin Weiss

Victims and resistance

* Chaim Yellin * Alexander Bogen * Josef Glazman * Jay M. Ipson * Zelig Kalmanovich * Abba Kovner * Ephraim Oshry * Abraham Sutzkever * Elchonon Wasserman * Yitzhak Wittenberg * Jacob Wygodzki * Wolf Durmashkin * See also: Songs of the Vilna Ghetto

RESCUERS

* Kazys Binkis * Petronėlė Lastienė * Karl Plagge * Antanas Poška * Ona Šimaitė * Chiune Sugihara * Jan Zwartendijk * See also: List of Lithuanian Righteous Among the Nations

GROUPS

PERPETRATORS

* Einsatzgruppen * Police Battalions * Lithuanian Security Police * Rollkommando Hamann * TDA * Ypatingasis būrys
Ypatingasis būrys

RESISTANCE

* Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje

EVENTS

* Jäger Report * Kaunas
Kaunas
June 1941 * Kaunas
Kaunas
29 October 1941 * Ninth Fort November 1941 * Ponary

PLACES

* HKP 562 forced labor camp * Kailis forced labor camp * Kovno Ghetto * Lukiškės Prison * Marcinkonys Ghetto * Ninth Fort * Šiauliai Ghetto * Švenčionys Ghetto * Vilna Ghetto

* Occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany
Germany
* History of the Jews in Lithuania
History of the Jews in Lithuania

* v * t * e

Einsatzgruppen and Einsatzkommandos

PEOPLE

DIRECTOR

* Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
* Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Commanders of Einsatzgruppen

* Humbert Achamer-Pifrader * Walther Bierkamp * Horst Böhme * Erich Ehrlinger
Erich Ehrlinger
* Wilhelm Fuchs
Wilhelm Fuchs
* Heinz Jost
Heinz Jost
* Erich Naumann
Erich Naumann
* Arthur Nebe * Otto Ohlendorf
Otto Ohlendorf
* Friedrich Panzinger * Otto Rasch * Heinrich Seetzen * Franz Walter Stahlecker
Franz Walter Stahlecker
* Bruno Streckenbach

Commanders of Einsatzkommandos, Sonderkommandos

* Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski * Rudolf Batz * Ernst Biberstein
Ernst Biberstein
* Wolfgang Birkner
Wolfgang Birkner
* Helmut Bischoff * Paul Blobel
Paul Blobel
* Walter Blume * Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock * Otto Bradfisch * Werner Braune
Werner Braune
* Friedrich Buchardt * Fritz Dietrich * Karl Jäger
Karl Jäger
* Friedrich Jeckeln * Waldemar Klingelhöfer
Waldemar Klingelhöfer
* Wolfgang Kügler * Walter Kutschmann * Rudolf Lange * Gustav Adolf Nosske * Hans-Adolf Prützmann * Walter Rauff * Martin Sandberger * Hermann Schaper
Hermann Schaper
* Karl Eberhard Schöngarth
Karl Eberhard Schöngarth
* Erwin Schulz
Erwin Schulz
* Franz Six
Franz Six
* Eugen Steimle * Eduard Strauch
Eduard Strauch
* Martin Weiss * Udo von Woyrsch
Udo von Woyrsch

OTHER MEMBERS

* August Becker
August Becker
* Lothar Fendler * Joachim Hamann * Emil Haussmann
Emil Haussmann
* Felix Landau * Albert Widmann

COLLABORATORS

* Viktors Arājs * Herberts Cukurs * Antanas Impulevičius * Konrāds Kalējs * Algirdas Klimaitis

GROUPS

GERMAN

* SS * RSHA * SD * Orpo * 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer * Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz * Sonderdienst
Sonderdienst

NON-GERMAN

* Schutzmannschaft (Belarusian , Estonian , Latvian , Lithuanian , Ukrainian ) * Arajs Kommando
Arajs Kommando
* Lithuanian Security Police * Rollkommando Hamann * TDA * Ypatingasis būrys
Ypatingasis būrys

CRIMES

BELARUS

* Łachwa Ghetto
Łachwa Ghetto
* Minsk Ghetto
Minsk Ghetto
* Slutsk Affair

ESTONIA

* Kalevi-Liiva
Kalevi-Liiva

LATVIA

* Burning of the Riga synagogues * Dünamünde Action * Jelgava * Pogulianski * Rumbula * Liepāja (Šķēde)

LITHUANIA

* Ninth Fort * Kaunas
Kaunas
June 1941 * Kaunas
Kaunas
29 October 1941 * Ninth Fort November 1941 * Ponary

POLAND

* Operation Tannenberg
Operation Tannenberg
* Intelligenzaktion
Intelligenzaktion
* AB-Aktion * Operation Reinhard

RUSSIA

* Gully of Petrushino
Gully of Petrushino
* Zmievskaya Balka
Zmievskaya Balka
* Lokot Autonomy

UKRAINE

* Babi Yar * Drobytsky Yar * Drohobycz * Kamianets-Podilskyi * Lviv pogroms * Mizocz Ghetto
Mizocz Ghetto
* Odessa

RECORDS

* The Black Book * Commissar Order
Commissar Order
* Einsatzgruppen trial * Generalplan Ost * Jäger Report * Korherr Report * Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland (Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen)

* v * t * e

Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS)

BRANCHES

* Allgemeine SS * Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV) * Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS

LEADERSHIP

* Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
* SS and Police Leader * SS personnel * SS commands

LEADERS

* Julius Schreck * Joseph Berchtold * Erhard Heiden * Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
* Karl Hanke
Karl Hanke

MAIN DEPARTMENTS

* Personal Staff Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
* SS Main Office * Head Operational Office * Reich Main Security Office
Reich Main Security Office
(RSHA) * Economics and Administration Office * Office of Race and Settlement (RuSHA) * Main Office for Ethnic Germans (VOMI) * Office of the Reich Commissioner for Germanic Resettlement (RKFDV)

* Courts Office * Personnel Office * Education Office

IDEOLOGICAL INSTITUTIONS

* Ahnenerbe
Ahnenerbe
* Das Schwarze Korps * SS-Junkerschule Bad Tölz * Lebensborn
Lebensborn

POLICE AND SECURITY SERVICES

* Regular uniform police (Orpo) * Schutzpolizei (Schupo) * Criminal police (Kripo) * Secret State police (Gestapo) * State Security police (SiPo) * SS Security Service (SD)

FüHRER PROTECTION

* SS-Begleitkommando des Führers * Reichssicherheitsdienst

PARAMILITARY UNITS

* Einsatzgruppen * Schutzmannschaft * Belarusian Auxiliary Police *