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The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
Soviet Socialist Republic
(Lithuanian SSR; Lithuanian: Lietuvos Tarybų Socialistinė Respublika; Russian: Литовская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Litovskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), one of the USSR republics that existed in 1940–1941 and 1944–1990, was formed on the basis of the Soviet occupation rule. It was also known as Soviet Lithuania. After 1946, its territory and borders mirrored those of today's Republic of Lithuania
Lithuania
(with the exception of minor adjustments at the Belarusian border). Established on 21 July 1940 as a puppet state,[1] during World War II in the territory of the previously independent Republic of Lithuania after it had been occupied by the Soviet army
Soviet army
on 16 June 1940, in conformity with the terms of the 23 August 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. Between 1941 and 1944, the German invasion of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
caused its de facto dissolution. However, with the retreat of the Germans in 1944–1945, Soviet hegemony was re-established, and existed for fifty years. As a result, many western countries (including the United States) continue to recognize Lithuania
Lithuania
as an independent, sovereign de jure state subject to international law represented by the legations appointed by the pre-1940 Baltic states which functioned in various places through the Lithuanian Diplomatic Service. On 18 May 1989, the Lithuanian SSR declared state sovereignty within its borders during perestroika. On 11 March 1990, the Republic of Lithuania
Lithuania
was declared to be re-established as an independent state and the declaration (while considered illegal by the Soviet authorities) was recognized by Western powers immediately prior to the breakup of the Soviet Union. Soviet Union
Soviet Union
itself recognized Lithuanian independence on 6 September 1991.

Contents

1 History

1.1 The premises for the establishment of the LSSR 1.2 Occupation and annexation 1.3 The war between Germany
Germany
and the USSR and the second Soviet occupation

1.3.1 The sovietisation of Lithuania

1.4 Armed resistance 1.5 Deportations of LSSR citizens 1.6 Dissident movement 1.7 Cultural life in the LSSR 1.8 The collapse 1.9 Independence 1.10 First secretaries of the Communist Party of Lithuania

2 Economy 3 In astronomy 4 See also 5 Notes

5.1 References

6 External links

History[edit] The premises for the establishment of the LSSR[edit] Main article: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
Soviet Socialist Republic
(1918–1919) On 23 August 1939, Germany
Germany
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
signed the so-called Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
and its secret protocols.[2] These documents allowed the two states to divide Europe into spheres of influence. After originally falling into Germany's sphere of influence, when on 28 September 1939 the USSR and Germany
Germany
signed the Frontier Treaty and its secret protocol, Lithuania
Lithuania
was put into the USSR's sphere of influence in exchange for Poland, which had already been occupied.[3] The very next day, the USSR offered to Lithuania
Lithuania
signing an agreement on the deployment of military bases on its territory. During the negotiations, the Lithuanian delegation was frankly told about the division of the spheres of influence. The Soviets threatened that if Lithuania
Lithuania
declined to host the bases, Vilnius
Vilnius
could be annexed to Belarus. It was on these conditions that a Lithuania–USSR agreement on mutual assistance was signed in Moscow
Moscow
on 10 October 1939, opening a door for Soviet regiments to Lithuania.[4] A total of 18,786 Red Army troops were deployed at strategically important locations within the country: Alytus, Prienai, Gaižiūnai, and Naujoji Vilnia.[5] This actually meant that the country had lost its neutrality and came under the direct influence of the USSR. Occupation and annexation[edit] Main articles: Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
and Occupation of the Baltic states When Germany
Germany
launched its military campaign in Western Europe in May 1940, the USSR invaded the Baltic states.[6] On 14 June 1940, an ultimatum was served to Lithuania
Lithuania
on the alleged grounds of abduction of Red Army troops. The ultimatum demanded the Lithuania
Lithuania
should remove officials that were the USSR found unsuitable (the Minister of the Interior and the Head of the Security Department); replace the government; allow an unlimited number of Red Army troops to enter the country. The acceptance of the ultimatum meant the loss of the statehood, yet V. Molotov declared to J. Urbšys that, whatever the reply may be, "the troops will enter Lithuania
Lithuania
tomorrow nonetheless".[7] This document was a complete violation of every prior agreement between Lithuania
Lithuania
and the USSR and of the international law governing the relations of sovereign states.[8] The last session of the government of the Republic of Lithuania
Lithuania
was called to discuss the ultimatum,[8] with most of the members in favour of accepting the ultimatum. On 15 June, President Smetona left Lithuania
Lithuania
for the West, leaving Prime Minister Antanas Merkys in his stead and expecting to come back when the geopolitical situation changes,[9] while the 8th and 11th armies of the USSR (a total of 15 divisions) crossed the borders of the Republic of Lithuania. Flying squads took over the airports of Kaunas, Radviliškis, Šiauliai. Regiments of the Red Army put a stop to possible resistance, disarmed the Lithuanian military, took over its assets, and supported local communists. Under pressure from Moscow, on 17 June 1940 A. Merkys appointed Justas Paleckis Prime Minister and resigned soon after. J. Paleckis then assumed presidential duties, and Vincas Krėvė was appointed Prime Minister[10] The Communist Party was legalised again and began publication of its propaganda-driven papers and staging meetings to support the new authority. At the same time, the opposition, its newspapers, organisations were outlawed, and ties with abroad cut short. On July 14–15, elections to the People's Parliament took place. The only contender was the Union of Working People of Lithuania, which had been founded by far-left radicals and their supporters. Citizens were forced to attend the elections, and the results of the elections were falsified. At its first meeting on 21 July, the new Parliament declared that Lithuania
Lithuania
had expressed its will to become part of the USSR. Resolutions to effectuate the country's sovietisation were made the very same day. On 3 August, a Lithuanian delegation of prominent public figures was dispatched to Moscow
Moscow
to sign the document of Lithuania's accession to the USSR. After the document had been signed, Lithuania
Lithuania
was annexed to become part of the USSR.[11] On 25 August 1940, an extraordinary session of the People's Parliament ratified the Constitution of the LSSR (in form and substance similar to the USSR Constitution of 5 December 1936). The war between Germany
Germany
and the USSR and the second Soviet occupation[edit] Lithuania
Lithuania
was dragged into the war on 22 June 1941, with Germany invading the USSR. Back in November 1940, the Lithuanian activist front, founded in Berlin and led by Kazys Škirpa, organised an uprising in Kaunas and Vilnius. The Lithuanians
Lithuanians
drove the Soviets out and formed a provisional government under Juozas Ambrazevičius. The provisional government was looking forward to recognition from the Germans, but was disbanded by the Nazis, who had no intentions of granting any rights of political independence to Lithuania. In 1941–1944, Lithuania
Lithuania
was made part of the German Reichskommissariat Ostland as a general region of Lithuania
Lithuania
under the government of a civil administration. In July–October 1944, with the frontline moving westwards, the USSR occupied Lithuania
Lithuania
once again, and the second Soviet occupation began. The first post-war elections took place in the winter of 1946 to elect 35 representatives to the LSSR Supreme Council. Since the populace were slacking, the results were falsified to show an attendance rate of at least 90% and to establish an absolute victory for the candidates from the Communist Party. The LSSR Supreme Council under J. Paleckis was formally the supreme governmental authority. In reality, the reigns were in the hands of the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, a post held by A. Sniečkus for many years.

1940 Soviet map of the Lithuanian SSR

The sovietisation of Lithuania[edit] The sovietisation of Lithuania
Lithuania
began with the consolidation of the dictatorship of the Communist Party. Officials loyal to the regime were sent from Moscow
Moscow
to Lithuania
Lithuania
to set up bodies of local governance. To keep up the appearance that everything was being done on the initiative of the locals, the appointed heads of said bodies were exclusively Lithuanian, who had trusty Russian-speaking specialists for assistants – it was these latter that controlled the situation for all practical purposes. By the spring of 1945 alone, 6,100 Russian-speaking workers were sent to Lithuania.[11] A second nationalisation kicked off since day one. The people were being deprived of all of their property but personal belongings. This was followed by the collectivisation, which started in 1947, with people being forced to join the kolkhozes[12] These were being established on the grounds of well-off farmers, who would be exiled, and their farms would be turned into kolkhoz farmhouses where livestock of the peasants from the surrounding areas would be kept. Since kolkhozes had to donate a large portion of their produce to the state, the people working there lived in poverty. The pay would often be delayed and made in kind. They were not allowed to move to cities, because they had no IDs. The collectivisation finally ended in 1953. The collectivisation went hand in hand with industrialisation. The territory of Lithuania
Lithuania
became home to factories, power plants, in a bid to involve the country into the economic system of the whole of the USSR. The output of major factories would be exported from the republic for absence of local demand. The entire process of industrialisation was inevitably followed by urbanisation as villages for the workers had to be established or expanded in the vicinity of the new factories.[13] That was how new towns, such as Elektrėnai, Jonava, Naujoji Akmenė, Visaginas, were built. This was where residents would be relocated not only from other LSSR towns and villages, but from other USSR republics as well. To ensure the success of the sovietisation, tools of culture and science were employed.[14] All symbols of the former independent Republic of Lithuania
Lithuania
were being removed from all sources available to the public, the country had its history rewritten, its achievements belittled. The cult of Stalin was being spread actively by erasing the names of famous Lithuanian figures from the people's minds. The role of Russia and the USSR in the history of Lithuania
Lithuania
was continuously highlighted. The society was forced into the Communist Party and communist organisations. Science, art were completely ridden by ideology and controlled by censorship mechanisms. To strengthen the influence on the society, people were forced into atheism. The clergy would be persecuted, monasteries closed, religion classes banned, church-goers victimised. Armed resistance[edit]

Lithuanian partisans

The second Soviet occupation was followed by armed resistance from the residents of Lithuania
Lithuania
in 1944–1953, aiming to restore an independent state of Lithuania, establish democracy by eradicating communism in the country, bring back the national values and freedom of faith. Partisans were people of various social backgrounds, age groups, and education. The authorities labelled them bandits. They were forced into the woods and into armed resistance by the Soviet occupation rule. Armed resistance had three stages. Stage one began in the summer of 1944 and ended in the summer of 1946. In that period, large companies were formed with no uniform organisation. Armed skirmishes with the RA were quite common. Stage two covered the period from the summer of 1946 until the end of 1948. At that time, a partisan organisational structure was formed, and companies diminished to 5–15 people who lived in bunkers. Guerrilla warfare with surprise hits was the tactic. Stage three continued since 1949 until the end of 1953. During the period, the Union of Lithuanian Freedom Fighters under Jonas Žemaitis–Vytautas was founded. Companies became smaller still and only consisted of 3 to 5 people; open skirmishes were a rarity, opting for sabotage and terrorism instead. Despite the fact that guerrilla warfare had failed to achieve its objective to liberate Lithuania
Lithuania
and had claimed the lives of more than 20,000 fighters, the armed resistance showed the world that Lithuania's joining the USSR had not been a voluntary act and legitimised the nation's desire to be independent.[15] Deportations of LSSR citizens[edit] In the fall of 1944, the first lists of 'bandits' and 'bandit families' appeared, which included members or family members of armed resistance. Deportees were marshalled and put on a USSR-bound train in Kaunas in early May 1945, reaching their destination in Tajikistan in summer. Once there, they were forced into gratuitous labour at cotton plantations.[16] In May 1945, a decision was made to have a new wave of deportations from every county. Battlegroups were made of NKVD and NKGB staff and NKVD troops – the destruction battalions, or istrebitels. On 18–21 February 1946, deportations began in four counties: Alytus, Marijampolė, Lazdijai, and Tauragės. However, on 12 December 1947 the CC of the LCP resolved that repressions against the supporters of resistance in Lithuania
Lithuania
were weak and that additional measures were in order.[17] A new series of deportations began the very same day. A total of 2,782 people were deported in December. In January–February 1948, another 1,134 persons[18] were exiled from every county in Lithuania. By May 1948, the number of deportees had risen to 13,304. Most of them found themselves in exile due to the class fight they were engaged in. In May 1948, preparations for very large-scale deportations were being made, with 30,118 staff members from USSR repressive structures engaged for that purpose.[19] On 22–23 May 1948, large-scale deportation operation called Vesna began, leading to 36,932 arrests, a figure that later increased to 40,002. The second major deportation operation took place on 25–28 March 1949. Over four days, the authorities put 28,981 persons into livestock cars and dispatched them deep into the USSR. Some people went into hiding and managed to escape the deportations, but then a manhunt began in April. As a result, another two echelons left for the remote regions of the USSR. During March–April 1949, a total of some 32,000 people were deported from Lithuania. By 1952, 10 more operations were staged, but of a smaller scale. The last deportations took place in 1953, when people were taken to the district of Tomsk and the regions of Altai and Krasnoyarsk.[20] Dissident movement[edit]

Romas Kalanta

Even after the guerrilla resistance had been quelled, the Soviet authorities failed to suppress the movement for Lithuania's independence. Underground dissident groups had been active since 1950's, publishing their periodicals and catholic literature.[21] They fostered national culture, preserved historical memory, instigated patriotism and hopes for independence. In the 1970s, the dissidents established the Lithuanian Freedom League under Antanas Terleckas. Founded in Vilnius
Vilnius
in the wake of the international conference in Helsinki, Finland, which recognised the borders established after the Second World War, the Helsinki Group demanded that Lithuania's occupation be recognised illegal and the Molotov–Ribbentrop pact be condemned.[22] In 1972, young Romas Kalanta burned himself in Kaunas in a public display of protest against the regime. This act was followed by public protests, which showed that a large portion of the people were against the regime.[23] The Catholic Church took an active part in opposing the oppression. The clergy published the chronicles of the Catholic Church of Lithuania
Lithuania
that were secretly distributed in Lithuania
Lithuania
and abroad. The faithful would gather in small groups to teach the children religion, celebrate religious holidays, and used national and religious symbols. The most active repressed figures of the movement were Vincentas Sladkevičius, Sigitas Tamkevičius, Nijolė Sadūnaitė.[24] The dissident movement boosted the nation's morale, made people remember their history and values with the passage of time.Thanks to its doings, the world would receive information about the situation in the LSSR, human rights violations, which made Moscow
Moscow
soften the regime.[25] Cultural life in the LSSR[edit] The Soviets loved to promote the so-called people's art. Every exhibition, book, movie, play, museum, and the entire education system had to conform to the ideological context and pass censorship. Since 1950, Songs Festivals would be staged on a regular basis, featuring Lithuanian folk songs and music that did not oppose the Soviet ideology. People's artists had to portray the imaginary perfect life of kolkhoz farmers and workers, their fight against the bourgeoisie over social justice, and their values, which were industriousness, honour, justice, integrity, loyalty to the regime and the ideals of the party. The most meritorious people's artists would be awarded the title of the Emeritus People's Artist. By the 1950s, some 500 monuments, sculptures, pieces of architecture relating to the independence period were demolished and replaced with new ones that were dedicated to Soviet ideological, cultural, and artistic figures. Eventually, lest they abandon their creative potential, Lithuanian artists went for Aesopian language, allegory, and symbolism. The political warming that started after the death of Stalin brought forth a new generation of writers. In their work, they dealt with human feelings and certain aspects of the history of Lithuania. Music, too, reflected a strong historical theme, issues of national identity. Theatre had a highly important role to play in the society. The language of theatre was that of Aesop. Lithuanian theatre was among the strongest in the USSR. The collapse[edit]

Massive meeting at Vingis Park
Vingis Park
on 23 August 1988

In the 1980s, the USSR sank into a deep economic crisis. In 1985, M. Gorbachev was elected head of state, undertaking a series of liberal reforms and ending the Cold War. This encouraged the activity of anti-communist movements within the USSR, the LSSR included.[26] On 23 August 1987, the Lithuanian Freedom League initiated an unsanctioned meeting in front of the monument to A. Mickiewicz in Vilnius. At the meeting, the Molotov–Ribbentrop pact was condemned for the first in public. The idea of the meeting was supported by western radio stations. The first informal organisations, clubs for environmental and monument protection. In May 1987, the Lithuanian Cultural Fund was established to engage in environmental activity and the protection of Lithuanian cultural assets. On 3 June 1988, the Lithuanian Reformation Movement was founded, its mission to restore the statehood of Lithuania. Supporters of its ideas formed groups for the support of the LRM across Lithuania. On 23 August 1988, a massive meeting was staged at Vingis Park
Vingis Park
in Vilnius, with a turnout of about 250,000 people. A year later, on 23 August 1989, marking 50 years of the Molotov–Ribbentrop pact and aiming to draw the world's eye to the occupation of the Baltic states, the Baltic Way
Baltic Way
event was staged.[27] Held by the Lithuanian Reformation Movement, the Baltic Way
Baltic Way
was a chain of people holding hands that stretched for nearly 600 km to connect the three Baltic capitals of Vilnius, Riga, and Tallinn. It was a display of the aspiration of the Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian people to part ways with the USSR. The LSSR de facto ceased to exist on 11 March 1990, with the Reconstituent Seimas
Seimas
declaring Lithuania's independence restored. Since Lithuania's membership in the USSR was considered a violation of the international law and void, there was no formal procedure of secession from the USSR. Independence[edit] Main article: Lithuania

Flag of the Lithuanian SSR/Republic of Lithuania
Lithuania
(1988-1991).

Lithuania
Lithuania
declared sovereignty on its territory on 18 May 1989 and declared independence from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
on 11 March 1990 as the Republic of Lithuania. Lithuania
Lithuania
was the first Baltic state to assert state continuity and the first Soviet Republic to remove "Soviet" from its name (though not the first Soviet Republic to assert its national sovereignty and the supremacy of its national laws over the laws of the Soviet Union; see Estonian Sovereignty
Sovereignty
Declaration). All legal ties of the Soviet Union's sovereignty over the republic were cut as Lithuania
Lithuania
declared the restitution of its independence. The Soviet Union claimed that this declaration was illegal, as Lithuania
Lithuania
had to follow the process of secession mandated in the Soviet Constitution if it wanted to leave. Lithuania
Lithuania
contended that the entire process by which Lithuania
Lithuania
joined the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
violated both Lithuanian and international law so it was merely reasserting an independence that previously existed. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
threatened to invade, but the Russian SFSR's declaration of sovereignty on June 12 meant that the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
could not enforce Lithuania's retention. While other republics held the union-wide referendum in March to restructure the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in a loose form, Lithuania, along with Estonia, Latvia, Armenia, Georgia, and Moldova backed out from the votes, it held an independence referendum earlier that month with the majority of 93.2% voters accepted it. Iceland
Iceland
immediately recognised Lithuania's independence. Most other countries followed suit after the failed coup in August, with the State Council of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
recognising Lithuania's independence on 6 September 1991. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
officially ceased to exist on 26 December 1991. After independence, Lithuania
Lithuania
joined the United Nations on 17 September 1991 and joined the European Union
European Union
and NATO
NATO
in 2004. First secretaries of the Communist Party of Lithuania[edit] First secretaries of the Communist Party of Lithuania:[28]

Antanas Sniečkus, 1944–1974 Petras Griškevičius, 1974–1987 Ringaudas Songaila, 1987–1988 Algirdas Brazauskas, 1988–1989

Economy[edit] Further information: Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
economies Collectivization
Collectivization
in the Lithuanian SSR took place between 1947 and 1952.[29] The 1990 per capita GDP
GDP
of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic was $8,591, which was above the average for the rest of the Soviet Union of $6,871.[30] This was still half or less than half of the per capita GDPs of adjacent countries Norway
Norway
($18,470), Sweden
Sweden
($17,680) and Finland
Finland
($16,868).[30] Overall, in the Eastern Bloc, the inefficiency of systems without competition or market-clearing prices became costly and unsustainable, especially with the increasing complexity of world economics.[31] Such systems, which required party-state planning at all levels, ended up collapsing under the weight of accumulated economic inefficiencies, with various attempts at reform merely contributing to the acceleration of crisis-generating tendencies.[32] In astronomy[edit] A minor planet 2577 Litva discovered in 1975 by a Soviet astronomer Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh is named after the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic.[33] See also[edit]

Soviet Union
Soviet Union
portal Lithuania
Lithuania
portal

History of Lithuania Provisional Government of Lithuania Republics of the Soviet Union

Notes[edit]

^ Ronen, Yaël (2011). Transition from Illegal Regimes Under International Law. Cambridge University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-521-19777-9.  ^ Šepetys N., Molotovo – Ribbentropo paktas ir Lietuva, Vilnius, 2006. ^ Snyder, Timothy (2004). The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569–1999. Yale University Press. pp. 62–63. ISBN 0-300-10586-X.  ^ http://www.šaltiniai.info/index/details/204 ^ Lithuania
Lithuania
in 1940–1990. A History of Lithuania
Lithuania
under Occupation, ed. Anušauskas A., Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania, Vilnius, 2007. ^ Christie, Kenneth, Historical Injustice and Democratic Transition in Eastern Asia and Northern Europe: Ghosts at the Table of Democracy, RoutledgeCurzon, 2002, ISBN 0-7007-1599-1 ^ Urbšys J., Lietuva lemtingaisiais 1939–1940 metais, Tautos fondas, 1988. ^ a b Audėnas J., Paskutinis posėdis, Vilnius, 1990. ^ Eidintas, A. Antanas Smetona
Antanas Smetona
and His Lithuania, Brill/Rodopi, 2015. ^ Senn A. E., Lithuania
Lithuania
1940– Revolution from Above, Rodopi, 2007. ^ a b Breslavskienė L, Lietuvos okupacija ir aneksija 1939-1940: dokumentų rinkinys, Vilnius: Mintis, 1993. ^ The History of the SSR of Lithuania, vol. 4, Vilnius, 1947. ^ Grybkauskas S., Sovietinė nomenklatūra ir pramonė Lietuvoje 1965-1985 metais / Lietuvos istorijos institutas. – Vilnius: LII leidykla, 2011. ^ Epochas jungiantis nacionalizmas: tautos (de)konstravimas tarpukario, sovietmečio ir posovietmečio Lietuvoje / Lietuvos istorijos institutas. – Vilnius: Lietuvos istorijos instituto leidykla, 2013 ^ Gailius B., Partizanai tada ir šiandien, Vilnius, 2006. ^ Lithuania
Lithuania
in 1940–1990, ed. A. Anušauskas, Vilnius: GRRCL, 2005, p. 293. ^ Lietuvos sovietizacija 1944–1947 m.: VKP(b) CK dokumentai, sud. M. Pocius, Vilnius: Lietuvos istorijos institutas, 2015, p. 126. ^ Tremtis prie Mano upės, sud. V. G. Navickaitė, Vilnius: Lietuvos nacionalinis muziejus, 2008, p. 7. ^ Lietuvos gyventojų trėmimai 1941, 1945–1952 m., Vilnius, 1994, p. 210. ^ Lietuvos kovų ir kančių istorija. Lietuvos gyventojų trėmimai 1940–1941; 1944–1953 m. Sovietinės okupacija valdžios dokumentuose, red. A. Tyla, Vilnius: Lietuvos istorijos institutas, 1995, p. 101 ^ V. Vasiliauskaitė, [null Lietuvos Ir Vidurio Rytų Europos šalių periodinė savivalda], 1972–1989, 2006. ^ Lietuvos Helsinkio grupė (dokumentai, atsiminimai, laiškai), sudarė V. Petkus, Ž. Račkauskaitė, . Uoka, 1999. ^ Bagušauskas J. R., [null Lietuvos jaunimo pasipriešinimas sovietiniam režimui ir jo slopinimas], 1999. ^ http://genocid.lt/centras/lt/1497/a/ ^ Tininis V., Sovietinė Lietuva ir jos veikėjai, Vilnius, 1994. ^ Ivanauskas V., Lietuviškoji nomenklatūra biurokratinėje sistemoje. Tarp stagnacijos ir dinamikos (1968-1988 m.), Vilnius, 2011. ^ Anušauskas A., Kelias į nepriklausomybę – Lietuvos sąjūdis, Kaunas, 2010. ^ http://www.knowbysight.info/GGG/07636.asp ^ O'Connor 2003, p. xx–xxi ^ a b Maddison 2006, p. 185 ^ Hardt & Kaufman 1995, p. 1 ^ Hardt & Kaufman 1995, p. 10 ^ Dictionary of Minor Planet Names - p. 210

References[edit]

Hardt, John Pearce; Kaufman, Richard F. (1995). East-Central European Economies in Transition. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 1-56324-612-0.  Maddison, Angus (2006). The world economy. OECD Publishing. ISBN 92-64-02261-9.  O'Connor, Kevin (2003). The history of the Baltic States. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-32355-0. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic and Lithuania
Lithuania
under Soviet occupation.

1978 Constitution of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic

v t e

Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)

Principal

Armenia Azerbaijan Byelorussia Estonia1 Georgia Kazakhstan Kirghizia Latvia1 Lithuania1 Moldavia Russian SFSR Tajikistan Turkmenia Ukraine Uzbekistan

Short-lived

Karelo-Finnish SSR (1940–1956) Transcaucasian SFSR (1922–1936)

Non-union republics

SSR Abkhazia (1921–1931) Bukharan SSR (1920–1925) Khorezm SSR (1920–1925) Nakhichevan ASSR (1920–1923) Pridnestrovian Moldavian SSR (1990–1991) South Ossetian SR (1990–1991)

1The annexation of the Baltic republics in 1940 was considered as an illegal occupation and was not recognized by the majority of the international community such as the United States, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the European Community. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
officially recognized their independence on September 6, 1991, prior to its final dissolution three months later.

v t e

Years in Lithuania
Lithuania
(1918-present)

Pre-1918 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

v t e

Soviet occupations

Europe

Austria Baltic states

Estonia Latvia Lithuania

Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina Bornholm Czechoslovakia Finland Germany

East Prussia

Hungary Poland

Western Ukraine

Romania Ukraine

Asia

Afghanistan Northern Iran Manchuria North Korea

Italics indicate countries occupied while Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was a member of the Allies of World War II.

v t e

Eastern Bloc

Soviet Union Communism

Formation

Secret Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
protocol Soviet invasion of Poland Soviet occupations

Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina Baltic states Hungary Romania

Yalta Conference

Annexed as, or into, SSRs

Eastern Finland Estonia Latvia Lithuania Memel East Prussia West Belarus Western Ukraine Moldavia

Satellite states

Hungarian People's Republic Polish People's Republic Czechoslovak Socialist Republic Socialist Republic of Romania German Democratic Republic People's Republic of Albania (to 1961) People's Republic of Bulgaria Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (to 1948)

Annexing SSRs

Russian SFSR Ukrainian SSR Byelorussian SSR

Organizations

Cominform COMECON Warsaw Pact World Federation of Trade Unions
World Federation of Trade Unions
(WFTU) World Federation of Democratic Youth
World Federation of Democratic Youth
(WFDY)

Revolts and opposition

Welles Declaration Goryani
Goryani
Movement Forest Brothers Ukrainian Insurgent Army Operation Jungle Baltic state continuity Baltic Legations (1940–1991) Cursed soldiers Rebellion of Cazin 1950 1953 uprising in Plzeň 1953 East German uprising 1956 Georgian demonstrations 1956 Poznań protests 1956 Hungarian Revolution Novocherkassk massacre 1965 Yerevan demonstrations Prague Spring
Prague Spring
/ Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invasion of Czechoslovakia Brezhnev Doctrine 1968 Red Square demonstration 1968 student demonstrations in Belgrade 1968 protests in Kosovo 1970 Polish protests Croatian Spring 1972 unrest in Lithuania
Lithuania
SSR June 1976 protests Solidarity / Soviet reaction / Martial law 1981 protests in Kosovo Reagan Doctrine Jeltoqsan Karabakh movement April 9 tragedy Romanian Revolution Black January

Cold War
Cold War
events

Marshall Plan Berlin Blockade Tito–Stalin split 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état 1961 Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
crisis

Conditions

Emigration and defection (list of defectors) Sovietization of the Baltic states Information dissemination Politics Economies Telephone tapping

Decline

Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Romanian Revolution Fall of communism in Albania Singing Revolution Collapse of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia January 1991 events in Lithuania January 1991 events in Latvia

Post- Cold War
Cold War
topics

Baltic Assembly Collective Security Treaty Organization Commonwealth of Independent States Craiova Group European Union European migrant crisis Eurasian Economic Union NATO Post-Soviet states Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Visegrad Group

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Lithuania articles

History

Early

Balts Lithuania
Lithuania
proper Grand Duchy

1219–95 Duchy Kingdom Christianization Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Revival and independence

Press ban National Revival

Great Seimas
Seimas
of Vilnius

Act of Independence Wars of Independence

Lithuanian–Soviet War Polish–Lithuanian War

1919 Polish coup d'état attempt First Soviet republic 1926 coup d'état

WWII and occupations

Occupation of the Baltic states

by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1940) by Nazi Germany by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1944)

Holocaust Resistance Second Soviet republic Baltic states under Soviet rule (1944–91) Government-in-exile

Restoration

Reform Movement (Sąjūdis) Singing Revolution Baltic Way Act of Re-Establishment January Events August Putsch

Geography

Cities

capital

Climate Extreme points Flora Forests Lakes Regional parks Rivers Towns

Politics

Administrative divisions

counties municipalities elderships

Constitution

Constitutional Court

Elections Foreign relations Government

Prime Minister

Law

Law enforcement

Seimas
Seimas
parliament

Speaker Political parties

President

Military

Land Force Naval Force Air Force Special
Special
Operations Force

Economy

Agriculture Banks

Central bank

Energy Euro Litas (former currency) Telecommunications Transport

airports rail roads seaport

Tourism

Society

Demographics Education

universities

Ethnic minorities Ethnographic regions Language Lithuanians Religion

Culture

Calendar Cinema Cuisine Cultural history Ethnographic Lithuania Literature Music Mythology Name Public holidays Sport Symbols

anthem coat of arms flag

Outline Index

Book Category Portal

Coordinates: 55°30′N 24°0′E / 55.500°N 24.000°E / 55

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