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Cardinals are senior ecclesiastical leaders of the Catholic Church, almost always ordained bishops and generally holding important roles within the church, such as governing prominent archdioceses or managing dicasteries within the Roman Curia. They are created in consistories by the Pope and one of the foremost duties of the cardinals is the election of a new pope (since 1378 invariably from among themselves, though not a formal requirement) when the Holy See is vacant, following the death or the resignation of the reigning pontiff.[1] The body of all cardinals is collectively known as the College of Cardinals.

Under current ecclesiastical law, as defined by the apostolic constitution Universi Dominici gregis, only cardinals who have not passed their 80th birthday on the day that the Holy See falls vacant are eligible to participate in a papal conclave to elect a new pope.[2] Therefore, any cardinals born on or after 7 April 1938 would be eligible to participate if the Holy See were to fall vacant today and are thus known as cardinal electors, whereas any cardinals born before that date would be ineligible to participate. The same apostolic constitution also imposes an upper limit of 120 cardinal electors;[2] however, this has been exceeded in the past, though never during a papal conclave.

As of 1 April 2018, there are 214 cardinals, 115 of whom are cardinal electors. The most recent consistory for the creation of cardinals was held on 28 June 2017, when Pope Francis created five cardinals, all cardinal electors.[3] Pierre Nguyễn Văn Nhơn was the most recent cardinal elector to turn 80, on 1 April 2018; Angelo Amato will be the next cardinal elector to do so, on 8 June 2018. Keith O'Brien was the most recent cardinal to die, on 19 March 2018, at the age of 80.[4]

There are two living former cardinals: Joseph Ratzinger and Jorge Mario Bergoglio, who were cardinals at the time of their respective elections as Pope Benedict XVI (now Pope emeritus) on 19 April 2005 and as Pope Francis on 13 March 2013.

Living cardinals

The College of Cardinals is divided into three orders, with official precedence in the following sequence, denoting seniority and a nominal prerogative of honour:

  1. Cardinal bishops (CB): the six cardinals holding the titles of the seven suburbicarian dioceses in the vicinity of Rome, appointed from the other cardinals by the Pope, as well as cardinals who are patriarchs of Eastern Catholic Churches.[5] The two most senior cardinal bishops are termed the Dean and the Vice-Dean, elected by and from the six aforementioned cardinal bishops and approved by the Pope.[1]
  2. Cardinal priests (CP): bishops typically heading dioceses (normally ordinaries) and former cardinal deacons who have opted for the order.[6] The most senior cardinal priest is termed the Protopriest.
  3. Cardinal deacons (CD): bishops who hold curial roles and other clergy. They have the option (Latin: optatio) of being transferred to cardinal priests after having been cardinal deacons for ten years.[7] The most senior cardinal deacon is termed the Protodeacon.

For cardinal bishops who hold titles of suburbicarian dioceses, the Dean takes precedence, followed by the Vice-Dean and then by the rest in order of appointment as cardinal bishops. For cardinal bishops who are Eastern Catholic patriarchs, for cardinal priests and for cardinal deacons, precedence is determined by the date of the consistory and then by the order in which they appeared in the official bulletin. By default, this table is sorted by the Order column, which sorts the cardinals by precedence.

All cardinals are of the Latin Church unless otherwise stated. Cardinals belonging to institutes of consecrated life or to societies of apostolic life are indicated by the relevant post-nominal.

* Cardinals ineligible to participate in a papal conclave
Order Consistory
Pope
Name Country Birth
Age
Office Ref(s).
CB 28 June 1991[i]
John Paul II
Angelo Sodano*  Italy 23 November 1927
Age 90
Secretary of State emeritus, Dean of the College of Cardinals [8]
CB 21 February 2001[ii]
John Paul II
Giovanni Battista Re*  Italy 30 January 1934
Age 84
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Bishops, Vice-Dean of the College of Cardinals [9]
CB 30 June 1979[iii]
John Paul II
Roger Etchegaray*  France 25 September 1922
Age 95
President emeritus of the Pontifical Councils for Justice and Peace and Cor Unum [10]
CB 25 May 1985[iv]
John Paul II
Francis Arinze*  Nigeria 1 November 1932
Age 85
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments [11]
CB 21 October 2003[v]
John Paul II
Tarcisio Bertone SDB*  Italy 2 December 1934
Age 83
Secretary of State emeritus and Camerlengo emeritus of the Holy Roman Church [12]
CB 21 February 2001[vi]
John Paul II
José Saraiva Martins CMF*  Portugal 6 January 1932
Age 86
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints [13]
CB 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Nasrallah Pierre Sfeir*  Lebanon 15 May 1920
Age 97
Patriarch emeritus of Antioch
(Maronite Church)
[14]
CB 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Antonios Naguib*  Egypt 18 March 1935
Age 83
Patriarch emeritus of Alexandria
(Coptic Catholic Church)
[15]
CB 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
Béchara Boutros Raï OMM  Lebanon 25 February 1940
Age 78
Patriarch of Antioch
(Maronite Church)
[16][17]
CP 2 February 1983
John Paul II
Michael Michai Kitbunchu*  Thailand 25 January 1929
Age 89
Archbishop emeritus of Bangkok, Protopriest of the College of Cardinals [18]
CP 2 February 1983
John Paul II
Alexandre do Nascimento*  Angola 1 March 1925
Age 93
Archbishop emeritus of Luanda [19]
CP 2 February 1983
John Paul II
Godfried Danneels*  Belgium 4 June 1933
Age 84
Archbishop emeritus of Mechelen-Brussels [20]
CP 2 February 1983
John Paul II
Thomas Stafford Williams*  New Zealand 20 March 1930
Age 88
Archbishop emeritus of Wellington [21]
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Miguel Obando Bravo SDB*  Nicaragua 2 February 1926
Age 92
Archbishop emeritus of Managua [22]
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Henryk Roman Gulbinowicz*  Poland 17 October 1923
Age 94
Archbishop emeritus of Wrocław [23]
CP 25 May 1985[vii]
John Paul II
Jozef Tomko*  Slovakia 11 March 1924
Age 94
President emeritus of the Pontifical Committee for International Eucharistic Congresses [24]
CP 25 May 1985[vii]
John Paul II
Paul Poupard*  France 30 August 1930
Age 87
President emeritus of the Pontifical Councils for Culture and for Interreligious Dialogue [25]
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Friedrich Wetter*  Germany 20 February 1928
Age 90
Archbishop emeritus of Munich and Freising [26]
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Adrianus Johannes Simonis*  Netherlands 26 November 1931
Age 86
Archbishop emeritus of Utrecht [27]
CP 28 June 1988[viii]
John Paul II
Eduardo Martínez Somalo*  Spain 31 March 1927
Age 91
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life and Camerlengo emeritus of the Holy Roman Church [28]
CP 28 June 1988[viii]
John Paul II
Achille Silvestrini*  Italy 25 October 1923
Age 94
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches [29]
CP 28 June 1988
John Paul II
José Freire Falcão*  Brazil 23 October 1925
Age 92
Archbishop emeritus of Brasília [30]
CP 28 June 1988
John Paul II
Alexandre José Maria dos Santos OFM*  Mozambique 18 March 1924
Age 94
Archbishop emeritus of Maputo [31]
CP 28 June 1988
John Paul II
Christian Wiyghan Tumi*  Cameroon 15 October 1930
Age 87
Archbishop emeritus of Douala [32]
CP 28 June 1991[ix]
John Paul II
Edward Idris Cassidy*  Australia 5 July 1924
Age 93
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity [33]
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Nicolás de Jesús López Rodríguez*  Dominican Republic 31 October 1936
Age 81
Archbishop emeritus of Santo Domingo [34]
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Roger Michael Mahony*  United States 27 February 1936
Age 82
Archbishop emeritus of Los Angeles [35]
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Camillo Ruini*  Italy 19 February 1931
Age 87
Archpriest emeritus of the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran and Vicar general emeritus for Rome [36]
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Henri Schwery*   Switzerland 14 June 1932
Age 85
Bishop emeritus of Sion [37]
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Jaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino*  Cuba 18 October 1936
Age 81
Archbishop emeritus of San Cristóbal de la Habana [38]
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja SJ*  Indonesia 20 December 1934
Age 83
Archbishop emeritus of Jakarta [39]
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Emmanuel Wamala*  Uganda 15 December 1926
Age 91
Archbishop emeritus of Kampala [40]
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Adam Joseph Maida*  United States 18 March 1930
Age 88
Archbishop emeritus of Detroit [41]
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Vinko Puljić  Bosnia and Herzegovina 8 September 1945
Age 72
Archbishop of Vrhbosna [42]
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Juan Sandoval Íñiguez*  Mexico 28 March 1933
Age 85
Archbishop emeritus of Guadalajara [43]
CP 21 February 1998[x]
John Paul II
Jorge Medina Estévez*  Chile 23 December 1926
Age 91
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments [44]
CP 21 February 1998[x]
John Paul II
Darío Castrillón Hoyos*  Colombia 4 July 1929
Age 88
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Clergy [45]
CP 21 February 1998[x]
John Paul II
James Francis Stafford*  United States 26 July 1932
Age 85
Major Penitentiary emeritus [46]
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Salvatore De Giorgi*  Italy 6 September 1930
Age 87
Archbishop emeritus of Palermo [47]
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Serafim Fernandes de Araújo*  Brazil 13 August 1924
Age 93
Archbishop emeritus of Belo Horizonte [48]
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Antonio María Rouco Varela*  Spain 20 August 1936
Age 81
Archbishop emeritus of Madrid [49]
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Polycarp Pengo  Tanzania 5 August 1944
Age 73
Archbishop of Dar-es-Salaam [50]
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Christoph Schönborn OP  Austria 22 January 1945
Age 73
Archbishop of Vienna[ex officio 1] [51]
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Norberto Rivera Carrera  Mexico 6 June 1942
Age 75
Archbishop emeritus of Mexico [52]
CP 21 February 1998[a]
John Paul II
Marian Jaworski*  Poland[b] 21 August 1926
Age 91
Archbishop emeritus of Lviv [53]
CP 21 February 1998[a]
John Paul II
Jānis Pujats*  Latvia 14 November 1930
Age 87
Archbishop emeritus of Riga [54]
CP 21 February 2001[xi]
John Paul II
Agostino Cacciavillan*  Italy 14 August 1926
Age 91
President emeritus of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See [55]
CP 21 February 2001[xi]
John Paul II
Sergio Sebastiani*  Italy 11 April 1931
Age 86
President emeritus of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See [56]
CP 21 February 2001[xi]
John Paul II
Zenon Grocholewski  Poland 11 October 1939
Age 78
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Catholic Education [57]
CP 21 February 2001[xii]
John Paul II
Crescenzio Sepe  Italy 2 June 1943
Age 74
Archbishop of Naples [58]
CP 21 February 2001[xi]
John Paul II
Walter Kasper*  Germany 5 March 1933
Age 85
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity [59]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Geraldo Majella Agnelo*  Brazil 19 October 1933
Age 84
Archbishop emeritus of São Salvador da Bahia [60]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Pedro Rubiano Sáenz*  Colombia 13 September 1932
Age 85
Archbishop emeritus of Bogotá [61]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Theodore Edgar McCarrick*  United States 7 July 1930
Age 87
Archbishop emeritus of Washington [62]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Audrys Juozas Bačkis*  Lithuania 1 February 1937
Age 81
Archbishop emeritus of Vilnius [63]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa ISch*  Chile 5 September 1933
Age 84
Archbishop emeritus of Santiago de Chile [64]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Wilfrid Fox Napier OFM  South Africa 8 March 1941
Age 77
Archbishop of Durban [65]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Óscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga SDB  Honduras 29 December 1942
Age 75
Archbishop of Tegucigalpa and Coordinator of the Council of Cardinals [66]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne  Peru 28 December 1943
Age 74
Archbishop of Lima [67]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Francisco Álvarez Martínez*  Spain 14 July 1925
Age 92
Archbishop emeritus of Toledo [68]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Cláudio Hummes OFM*  Brazil 8 August 1934
Age 83
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Clergy [69]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Severino Poletto*  Italy 18 March 1933
Age 85
Archbishop emeritus of Turin [70]
CP 21 October 2003[xiii]
John Paul II
Jean-Louis Tauran  France 3 April 1943
Age 75
President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue[ex officio 2] and Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church [71]
CP 21 October 2003[xiii]
John Paul II
Julián Herranz Casado*  Spain 31 March 1930
Age 88
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts [72]
CP 21 October 2003[xiii]
John Paul II
Javier Lozano Barragán*  Mexico 26 January 1933
Age 85
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Health Care Workers [73]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Angelo Scola  Italy 7 November 1941
Age 76
Archbishop emeritus of Milan [74]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Anthony Olubunmi Okogie*  Nigeria 16 June 1936
Age 81
Archbishop emeritus of Lagos [75]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Gabriel Zubeir Wako  Sudan 27 February 1941
Age 77
Archbishop emeritus of Khartoum [76]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Carlos Amigo Vallejo OFM*  Spain 23 August 1934
Age 83
Archbishop emeritus of Seville [77]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Justin Francis Rigali*  United States 19 April 1935
Age 82
Archbishop emeritus of Philadelphia [78]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Eusébio Oscar Scheid SCI*  Brazil 8 December 1932
Age 85
Archbishop emeritus of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro [79]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Ennio Antonelli*  Italy 18 November 1936
Age 81
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Family [80]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson  Ghana 11 October 1948
Age 69
Prefect of the Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development [81]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Telesphore Placidus Toppo  India 15 October 1939
Age 78
Archbishop of Ranchi [82]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
George Pell  Australia 8 June 1941
Age 76
Prefect of the Secretariat for the Economy [83]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Josip Bozanić  Croatia 20 March 1949
Age 69
Archbishop of Zagreb [84]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Jean-Baptiste Phạm Minh Mẫn*  Vietnam 5 March 1934
Age 84
Archbishop emeritus of Ho Chi Minh City [85]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Philippe Barbarin  France 17 October 1950
Age 67
Archbishop of Lyon [86]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Péter Erdő  Hungary 25 June 1952
Age 65
Archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest [87]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Marc Ouellet PSS  Canada 8 June 1944
Age 73
Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops[ex officio 3] [88]
CP 24 March 2006[xiv]
Benedict XVI
William Joseph Levada*  United States 15 June 1936
Age 81
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith [89]
CP 24 March 2006[xiv]
Benedict XVI
Franc Rodé CM*  Slovenia 23 September 1934
Age 83
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life [90]
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Agostino Vallini  Italy 17 April 1940
Age 77
Pontifical legate for the Basilicas of Saint Francis and of Saint Mary of the Angels in Assisi [91]
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Jorge Liberato Urosa Savino  Venezuela 28 August 1942
Age 75
Archbishop of Caracas [92]
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Gaudencio Borbon Rosales*  Philippines 10 August 1932
Age 85
Archbishop emeritus of Manila [93]
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Jean-Pierre Ricard  France 25 September 1944
Age 73
Archbishop of Bordeaux [94]
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Antonio Cañizares Llovera  Spain 15 October 1945
Age 72
Archbishop of Valencia [95]
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Nicholas Cheong Jin-suk*  South Korea 7 December 1931
Age 86
Archbishop emeritus of Seoul [96]
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Seán Patrick O'Malley OFMCap  United States 29 June 1944
Age 73
Archbishop of Boston and President of the Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors [97]
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Stanisław Dziwisz  Poland 27 April 1939
Age 78
Archbishop emeritus of Kraków [98]
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Joseph Zen Ze-kiun SDB*  China 13 January 1932
Age 86
Bishop emeritus of Hong Kong [99]
CP 24 March 2006[xiv]
Benedict XVI
Albert Vanhoye SJ*  France 24 July 1923
Age 94
Priest of the Society of Jesus[c] [100]
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Seán Baptist Brady  Ireland 16 August 1939
Age 78
Archbishop emeritus of Armagh [101]
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Lluís Martínez Sistach*  Spain 29 April 1937
Age 80
Archbishop emeritus of Barcelona [102]
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
André Vingt-Trois  France 7 November 1942
Age 75
Archbishop emeritus of Paris [103]
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Angelo Bagnasco  Italy 14 January 1943
Age 75
Archbishop of Genoa [104]
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Théodore-Adrien Sarr*  Senegal 28 November 1936
Age 81
Archbishop emeritus of Dakar [105]
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Oswald Gracias  India 24 December 1944
Age 73
Archbishop of Bombay [106]
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Francisco Robles Ortega  Mexico 2 March 1949
Age 69
Archbishop of Guadalajara [107]
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Daniel Nicholas DiNardo  United States 23 May 1949
Age 68
Archbishop of Galveston-Houston [108]
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Odilo Pedro Scherer  Brazil 21 September 1949
Age 68
Archbishop of São Paulo [109]
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
John Njue  Kenya 31 December 1944[d]
Age 73
Archbishop of Nairobi [110]
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Estanislao Esteban Karlic*  Argentina 7 February 1926
Age 92
Archbishop emeritus of Paraná [111]
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Raúl Eduardo Vela Chiriboga*  Ecuador 1 January 1934
Age 84
Archbishop emeritus of Quito [112]
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Laurent Monsengwo Pasinya  Democratic Republic of the Congo 7 October 1939
Age 78
Archbishop of Kinshasa [113]
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Paolo Romeo*  Italy 20 February 1938
Age 80
Archbishop emeritus of Palermo [114]
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Donald William Wuerl  United States 12 November 1940
Age 77
Archbishop of Washington [115]
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Raymundo Damasceno Assis*  Brazil 15 February 1937
Age 81
Archbishop emeritus of Aparecida [116]
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Kazimierz Nycz  Poland 1 February 1950
Age 68
Archbishop of Warsaw[ex officio 4] [117]
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Albert Malcolm Ranjith Patabendige Don  Sri Lanka 15 November 1947
Age 70
Archbishop of Colombo [118]
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Reinhard Marx  Germany 21 September 1953
Age 64
Archbishop of Munich and Freising and Coordinator of the Council for the Economy [119]
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
José Manuel Estepa Llaurens*  Spain 1 January 1926
Age 92
Military archbishop emeritus of Spain [120]
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
George Alencherry  India 19 April 1945
Age 72
Major archbishop of Ernakulam-Angamaly
(Syro-Malabar Catholic Church)
[121]
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Thomas Christopher Collins  Canada 16 January 1947
Age 71
Archbishop of Toronto [122]
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Dominik Duka OP  Czech Republic 26 April 1943
Age 74
Archbishop of Prague [123]
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Willem Jacobus Eijk  Netherlands 22 June 1953
Age 64
Archbishop of Utrecht [124]
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Giuseppe Betori  Italy 25 February 1947
Age 71
Archbishop of Florence [125]
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Timothy Michael Dolan  United States 6 February 1950
Age 68
Archbishop of New York [126]
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Rainer Maria Woelki  Germany 18 August 1956
Age 61
Archbishop of Cologne [127]
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
John Tong Hon  China 31 July 1939
Age 78
Bishop emeritus of Hong Kong [128]
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Lucian Mureșan*  Romania 23 May 1931
Age 86
Major archbishop of Făgăraș and Alba Iulia
(Romanian Greek Catholic Church)
[129]
CP 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
Baselios Cleemis Thottunkal  India 15 June 1959
Age 58
Major archbishop of Trivandrum
(Syro-Malankara Catholic Church)
[130][131]
CP 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
John Olorunfemi Onaiyekan  Nigeria 29 January 1944
Age 74
Archbishop of Abuja [132][133]
CP 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
Rubén Salazar Gómez  Colombia 22 September 1942
Age 75
Archbishop of Bogotá [134][135]
CP 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
Luis Antonio Gokim Tagle  Philippines 21 June 1957
Age 60
Archbishop of Manila [136][137]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Pietro Parolin  Italy 17 January 1955
Age 63
Secretary of State[ex officio 5] [138]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Vincent Gerard Nichols  Great Britain 8 November 1945
Age 72
Archbishop of Westminster [139]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Leopoldo José Brenes Solórzano  Nicaragua 7 March 1949
Age 69
Archbishop of Managua [140]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Gérald Cyprien Lacroix ISPX  Canada 27 July 1957
Age 60
Archbishop of Quebec [141]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Jean-Pierre Kutwa  Ivory Coast 22 December 1945
Age 72
Archbishop of Abidjan [142]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Orani João Tempesta OCist  Brazil 23 June 1950
Age 67
Archbishop of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro [143]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Gualtiero Bassetti  Italy 7 April 1942
Age 76
Archbishop of Perugia-Città della Pieve [144]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Mario Aurelio Poli  Argentina 29 November 1947
Age 70
Archbishop of Buenos Aires[ex officio 6] [145]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Andrew Yeom Soo-jung  South Korea 5 December 1943
Age 74
Archbishop of Seoul [146]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Ricardo Ezzati Andrello SDB  Chile 7 January 1942
Age 76
Archbishop of Santiago de Chile [147]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Philippe Nakellentuba Ouédraogo  Burkina Faso 25 January 1945
Age 73
Archbishop of Ouagadougou [148]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Orlando Beltran Quevedo OMI  Philippines 11 March 1939
Age 79
Archbishop of Cotabato [149]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Chibly Langlois  Haiti 29 November 1958
Age 59
Bishop of Les Cayes [150]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Fernando Sebastián Aguilar CMF*  Spain 14 December 1929
Age 88
Archbishop emeritus of Pamplona y Tudela [151]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Kelvin Edward Felix*  Saint Lucia[e] 15 February 1933
Age 85
Archbishop emeritus of Castries [152]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Manuel José Macário do Nascimento Clemente  Portugal 16 July 1948
Age 69
Patriarch of Lisbon [153]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Berhaneyesus Demerew Souraphiel CM  Ethiopia 14 July 1948
Age 69
Archbishop of Addis Abeba
(Ethiopian Catholic Church)
[154]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
John Atcherley Dew  New Zealand 5 May 1948
Age 69
Archbishop of Wellington[ex officio 7] [155]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Edoardo Menichelli  Italy 14 October 1939
Age 78
Archbishop emeritus of Ancona-Osimo [156]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Pierre Nguyễn Văn Nhơn*  Vietnam 1 April 1938
Age 80
Archbishop of Hanoi [157]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Alberto Suárez Inda  Mexico 30 January 1939
Age 79
Archbishop emeritus of Morelia [158]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Charles Maung Bo SDB  Myanmar 29 October 1948
Age 69
Archbishop of Yangon [159]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Francis Xavier Kriengsak Kovithavanij  Thailand 27 June 1949
Age 68
Archbishop of Bangkok [160]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Francesco Montenegro  Italy 22 May 1946
Age 71
Archbishop of Agrigento [161]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Daniel Fernando Sturla Berhouet SDB  Uruguay 4 July 1959
Age 58
Archbishop of Montevideo [162]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Ricardo Blázquez Pérez  Spain 13 April 1942
Age 75
Archbishop of Valladolid [163]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
José Luis Lacunza Maestrojuán OAR  Panama 24 February 1944
Age 74
Bishop of David [164]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Arlindo Gomes Furtado  Cape Verde 15 November 1949
Age 68
Bishop of Santiago de Cabo Verde [165]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Soane Patita Paini Mafi  Tonga 19 December 1961
Age 56
Bishop of Tonga [166]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
José de Jesús Pimiento Rodríguez*  Colombia 18 February 1919
Age 99
Archbishop emeritus of Manizales [167]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Luis Héctor Villalba*  Argentina 11 October 1934
Age 83
Archbishop emeritus of Tucumán [168]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Júlio Duarte Langa*  Mozambique 27 October 1927
Age 90
Bishop emeritus of Xai-Xai [169]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Dieudonné Nzapalainga CSSp  Central African Republic 14 March 1967
Age 51
Archbishop of Bangui [170][171]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Carlos Osoro Sierra  Spain 16 May 1945
Age 72
Archbishop of Madrid[ex officio 8] [172][173]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Sérgio da Rocha  Brazil 21 October 1959
Age 58
Archbishop of Brasília [174][175]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Blase Joseph Cupich  United States 19 March 1949
Age 69
Archbishop of Chicago [176][177]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Patrick D'Rozario CSC  Bangladesh 1 October 1943
Age 74
Archbishop of Dhaka [178][179]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Baltazar Enrique Porras Cardozo  Venezuela 10 October 1944
Age 73
Archbishop of Mérida [180][181]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Jozef De Kesel  Belgium 17 June 1947
Age 70
Archbishop of Mechelen-Brussels[ex officio 9] [182][183]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Maurice Piat CSSp  Mauritius 17 July 1941
Age 76
Bishop of Port-Louis [171][184]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Carlos Aguiar Retes  Mexico 9 January 1950
Age 68
Archbishop of Mexico [185][186]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
John Ribat MSC  Papua New Guinea 9 February 1957
Age 61
Archbishop of Port Moresby [187][188]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Joseph William Tobin CSsR  United States 3 May 1952
Age 65
Archbishop of Newark[ex officio 10] [189][190]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Anthony Soter Fernandez*  Malaysia 22 April 1932
Age 85
Archbishop emeritus of Kuala Lumpur [191][192]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Renato Corti*  Italy 1 March 1936
Age 82
Bishop emeritus of Novara [193][194]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Sebastian Koto Khoarai OMI*  Lesotho 11 September 1929
Age 88
Bishop emeritus of Mohale's Hoek [195][196]
CP 28 June 2017
Francis
Jean Zerbo  Mali 27 December 1943
Age 74
Archbishop of Bamako [197][198]
CP 28 June 2017
Francis
Juan José Omella Omella  Spain 21 April 1946
Age 71
Archbishop of Barcelona [199][200]
CP 28 June 2017
Francis
Anders Arborelius OCD  Sweden 24 September 1949
Age 68
Bishop of Stockholm [201][202]
CP 28 June 2017
Francis
Louis-Marie Ling Mangkhanekhoun IVD  Laos 8 April 1944
Age 73
Apostolic vicar of Vientiane [203][204]
CP 28 June 2017
Francis
Gregorio Rosa Chávez  El Salvador 3 September 1942
Age 75
Auxiliary bishop of San Salvador [205][206]
CD 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Renato Raffaele Martino*  Italy 23 November 1932
Age 85
President emeritus of the Pontifical Councils for Justice and Peace and for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants, Protodeacon of the College of Cardinals [207]
CD 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Leonardo Sandri  Argentina 18 November 1943
Age 74
Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches [208]
CD 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Giovanni Lajolo*  Italy 3 January 1935
Age 83
President emeritus of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State [209]
CD 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Paul Josef Cordes*  Germany 5 September 1934
Age 83
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum [210]
CD 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Angelo Comastri  Italy 17 September 1943
Age 74
Archpriest of the Basilica of Saint Peter, Vicar general for Vatican City and President of the Fabric of Saint Peter [211]
CD 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Stanisław Ryłko  Poland 4 July 1945
Age 72
Archpriest of the Basilica of Saint Mary Major [212]
CD 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Raffaele Farina SDB*  Italy 24 September 1933
Age 84
Archivist emeritus and Librarian emeritus of the Holy Roman Church [213]
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Angelo Amato SDB  Italy 8 June 1938
Age 79
Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints [214]
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Robert Sarah  Guinea 15 June 1945
Age 72
Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments [215]
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Francesco Monterisi*  Italy 28 May 1934
Age 83
Archpriest emeritus of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls [216]
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Raymond Leo Burke  United States 30 June 1948
Age 69
Patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta [217]
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Kurt Koch   Switzerland 15 March 1950
Age 68
President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity[ex officio 11] [218]
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Paolo Sardi*  Italy 1 September 1934
Age 83
Patron emeritus of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta [219]
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Mauro Piacenza  Italy 15 September 1944
Age 73
Major Penitentiary [220]
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Gianfranco Ravasi  Italy 18 October 1942
Age 75
President of the Pontifical Council for Culture[ex officio 12] [221]
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Elio Sgreccia*  Italy 6 June 1928
Age 89
President emeritus of the Pontifical Academy for Life [222]
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Walter Brandmüller*  Germany 5 January 1929
Age 89
President emeritus of the Pontifical Committee for Historical Sciences [223]
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Fernando Filoni  Italy 15 April 1946
Age 71
Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples[ex officio 13] [224]
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Manuel Monteiro de Castro*  Portugal 29 March 1938
Age 80
Major Penitentiary emeritus [225]
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Santos Abril y Castelló*  Spain 21 September 1935
Age 82
Archpriest emeritus of the Basilica of Saint Mary Major [226]
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Antonio Maria Vegliò*  Italy 3 February 1938
Age 80
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants [227]
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Giuseppe Bertello  Italy 1 October 1942
Age 75
President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State [228]
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Francesco Coccopalmerio*  Italy 6 March 1938
Age 80
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts [229]
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
João Braz de Aviz  Brazil 24 April 1947
Age 70
Prefect of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life [230]
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Edwin Frederick O'Brien  United States 8 April 1939
Age 78
Grand Master of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre [231]
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Domenico Calcagno  Italy 3 February 1943
Age 75
President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See [232]
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Giuseppe Versaldi  Italy 30 July 1943
Age 74
Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education [233]
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Prosper Grech OSA*  Malta 24 December 1925
Age 92
Titular archbishop emeritus of San Leone[f] [234]
CD 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
James Michael Harvey  United States 20 October 1949
Age 68
Archpriest of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls [235][236]
CD 22 February 2014
Francis
Lorenzo Baldisseri  Italy 29 September 1940
Age 77
Secretary-General of the Synod of Bishops [237]
CD 22 February 2014
Francis
Gerhard Ludwig Müller  Germany 31 December 1947
Age 70
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith [238]
CD 22 February 2014
Francis
Beniamino Stella  Italy 18 August 1941
Age 76
Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy[ex officio 14] [239]
CD 14 February 2015
Francis
Dominique Mamberti  France 7 March 1952
Age 66
Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura[ex officio 15] [240]
CD 14 February 2015
Francis
Luigi De Magistris*  Italy 23 February 1926
Age 92
Pro-Major Penitentiary emeritus [241]
CD 14 February 2015
Francis
Karl-Josef Rauber*  Germany 11 April 1934
Age 83
Apostolic nuncio emeritus to Belgium and to Luxembourg [242]
CD 19 November 2016
Francis
Mario Zenari  Italy 5 January 1946
Age 72
Apostolic nuncio to Syria [243][244]
CD 19 November 2016
Francis
Kevin Joseph Farrell  United States 2 September 1947
Age 70
Prefect of the Dicastery for the Laity, Family and Life [245][246]
CD 19 November 2016
Francis
Ernest Simoni*  Albania 18 October 1928
Age 89
Priest of the Archdiocese of Shkodër-Pult[c] [247][248]

Demographics of the College of Cardinals

This table shows the number of living cardinals created by each pope and belonging to each order. By default, it is sorted by the Pope column, which sorts by order of pontificate, as displayed under each pope.

At present, 53.7% of all cardinals are eligible to participate in a papal conclave.

Pope Cardinal bishops Cardinal priests Cardinal deacons Total Percentage of total
Total Electors Total Electors Total Electors Total Electors Total Electors
John Paul II
16 October 1978 – 2 April 2005
7 0 71 19 1 0 79 19 36.9% 16.5%
Benedict XVI
19 April 2005 – 28 February 2013
2 1 45 31 28 16 75 48 35.0% 41.7%
Francis
13 March 2013 – present
0 0 51 42 9 6 60 48 28.0% 41.7%
Total 9 1 167 92 38 22 214 115 100.0% 100.0%
Percentage of total 4.2% 0.9% 78.0% 80.0% 17.8% 19.1% 100.0% 100.0%

Cardinals by particular church sui iuris

While most cardinals belong to the Latin Church, which encompasses the vast majority of Catholics, a small number of cardinals belong to one of the twenty-three autonomous (sui iuris) Eastern Catholic Churches.

There are seven Eastern Catholic cardinals, belonging to six particular churches sui iuris:

For Eastern particular churches sui iuris, bracketed percentages indicate the proportion in relation to all Eastern churches as a whole.

Particular church sui iuris Total cardinals Cardinal electors
Number Percentage Number Percentage
Latin Church
(Western)
207 96.7% 111 96.5%
Eastern Churches Coptic Catholic Church 1 0.5%
(14.3%)
0 0.0%
(0.0%)
Ethiopian Catholic Church 1 0.5%
(14.3%)
1 0.9%
(25.0%)
Maronite Church 2 0.9%
(28.6%)
1 0.9%
(25.0%)
Romanian Greek Catholic Church 1 0.5%
(14.3%)
0 0.0%
(0.0%)
Syro-Malabar Catholic Church 1 0.5%
(14.3%)
1 0.9%
(25.0%)
Syro-Malankara Catholic Church 1 0.5%
(14.3%)
1 0.9%
(25.0%)
Total 7 3.3%
(100.0%)
4 3.5%
(100.0%)
Total 214 100.0% 115 100.0%

Cardinals by continent

As of 2015, 17.7% of the global population is Catholic.[249]

Continent Total cardinals Cardinal electors Percentage
Catholic (2015)[249]
Percentage of global
Catholic population (2015)[249]
Number Percentage Number Percentage
Africa 25 11.7% 15 13.0% 19.4% 17.3%
North America 34 15.9% 22 19.1% 63.7% 48.9%
South America 26 12.1% 12 10.4%
Asia 23 10.7% 14 12.2% 3.2% 10.8%
Europe 100 46.7% 48 41.7% 39.9% 22.2%
Oceania 6 2.8% 4 3.5% 26.4% 0.8%
Total 214 100.0% 115 100.0% 100.0%

Cardinals by country

There are currently 82 countries that have cardinals, 61 of which have cardinal electors.

Italy has the greatest percentage of all cardinals (19.2%), followed by the United States (7.5%) and by Spain (6.1%). Among cardinal electors, it is Italy (17.4%), the United States (8.7%) and France (4.3%).

Country Total cardinals Cardinal electors
 Albania 1 0
 Angola 1 0
 Argentina 4 2
 Australia 2 1
 Austria 1 1
 Bangladesh 1 1
 Belgium 2 1
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1 1
 Brazil 10 4
 Burkina Faso 1 1
 Cameroon 1 0
 Canada 3 3
 Cape Verde 1 1
 Central African Republic 1 1
 Chile 3 1
 China 2 1
 Colombia 4 1
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1 1
 Croatia 1 1
 Cuba 1 0
 Czech Republic 1 1
 Dominican Republic 1 0
 Ecuador 1 0
 Egypt 1 0
 El Salvador 1 1
 Ethiopia 1 1
 France 8 5
 Germany 8 3
 Ghana 1 1
 Great Britain 1 1
 Guinea 1 1
 Haiti 1 1
 Honduras 1 1
 Hungary 1 1
 India 4 4
 Indonesia 1 0
 Ireland 1 1
 Italy 41 20
 Ivory Coast 1 1
 Kenya 1 1
 South Korea 2 1
 Laos 1 1
 Latvia 1 0
 Lebanon 2 1
 Lesotho 1 0
 Lithuania 1 0
 Malaysia 1 0
 Mali 1 1
 Malta 1 0
 Mauritius 1 1
 Mexico 6 4
 Mozambique 2 0
 Myanmar 1 1
 Netherlands 2 1
 New Zealand 2 1
 Nicaragua 2 1
 Nigeria 3 1
 Panama 1 1
 Papua New Guinea 1 1
 Peru 1 1
 Philippines 3 2
 Poland 6 4
 Portugal 3 1
 Romania 1 0
 Saint Lucia 1 0
 Senegal 1 0
 Slovakia 1 0
 Slovenia 1 0
 South Africa 1 1
 Spain 13 4
 Sri Lanka 1 1
 Sudan 1 1
 Sweden 1 1
  Switzerland 2 1
 Tanzania 1 1
 Thailand 2 1
 Tonga 1 1
 Uganda 1 0
 United States 16 10
 Uruguay 1 1
 Venezuela 2 2
 Vietnam 2 0
Total 214 115

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Created cardinal priest; transferred to cardinal bishop on 10 January 1994
  2. ^ Created cardinal priest; transferred to cardinal bishop on 1 October 2002
  3. ^ Created cardinal priest; transferred to cardinal bishop on 24 June 1998
  4. ^ Created cardinal deacon; transferred to cardinal priest on 29 January 1996 and to cardinal bishop on 25 April 2005
  5. ^ Created cardinal priest; transferred to cardinal bishop on 10 May 2008
  6. ^ Created cardinal deacon; transferred to cardinal bishop on 24 February 2009
  7. ^ a b Created cardinal deacon; transferred to cardinal priest on 29 January 1996
  8. ^ a b Created cardinal deacon; transferred to cardinal priest on 9 January 1999
  9. ^ Created cardinal deacon; transferred to cardinal priest on 26 February 2002
  10. ^ a b c Created cardinal deacon; transferred to cardinal priest on 1 March 2008
  11. ^ a b c d Created cardinal deacon; transferred to cardinal priest on 21 February 2011
  12. ^ Created cardinal deacon; transferred to cardinal priest on 20 May 2006
  13. ^ a b c Created cardinal deacon; transferred to cardinal priest on 12 June 2014
  14. ^ a b c Created cardinal deacon; transferred to cardinal priest on 20 June 2016
  1. ^ Ex officio Ordinary for Eastern Catholics in Austria
  2. ^ Ex officio President of the Commission for Religious Relations with Muslims
  3. ^ Ex officio President of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America
  4. ^ Ex officio Ordinary for Eastern Catholics in Poland
  5. ^ Ex officio President of the Interdicasterial Commissions on Particular Churches and for the Church in Eastern Europe
  6. ^ Ex officio Ordinary for Eastern Catholics in Argentina
  7. ^ Ex officio Military ordinary of New Zealand
  8. ^ Ex officio Ordinary for Eastern Catholics in Spain
  9. ^ Ex officio Military ordinary of Belgium
  10. ^ Ex officio Ecclesiastical superior of the Turks and Caicos Islands
  11. ^ Ex officio President of the Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews
  12. ^ Ex officio President of the Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archaeology
  13. ^ Ex officio President of the Interdicasterial Commission for Consecrated Religious
  14. ^ Ex officio President of the Interdicasterial Commission for Candidates to Sacred Order
  15. ^ Ex officio President of the Commission for Advocates
  1. ^ a b Created in pectore; revealed on 21 February 2001
  2. ^ Archbishop in  Ukraine
  3. ^ a b Granted dispensation not to be consecrated a bishop
  4. ^ Born in 1944; exact date of birth unknown
  5. ^ Born in  Dominica
  6. ^ Transitional state between being consecrated a bishop and created a cardinal

References

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