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The Info List - List Of Lunar Missions


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As part of human exploration of the Moon, numerous space missions have been undertaken to study Earth's natural satellite. Of the Moon landings; Luna 2
Luna 2
was the first spacecraft to reach its surface successfully, intentionally impacting the Moon
Moon
on 13 September 1959. In 1966, Luna 9
Luna 9
became the first spacecraft to achieve a controlled soft landing, while Luna 10
Luna 10
became the first mission to enter orbit. Between 1968 and 1972, manned missions to the Moon
Moon
were conducted by the United States
United States
as part of the Apollo program. Apollo 8
Apollo 8
was the first manned mission to enter orbit in December 1968, and was followed by Apollo 10
Apollo 10
in May 1969. Six missions landed men on the Moon, beginning with Apollo 11
Apollo 11
in July 1969, during which Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the Moon. Apollo 13
Apollo 13
was intended to land, however it was restricted to a flyby due to a malfunction aboard the spacecraft. All nine manned missions returned safely to the Earth. While the United States
United States
focused on the manned Apollo program, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
conducted unmanned missions that deployed rovers and returned samples to the Earth. Three rover missions were launched, of which two were successful, and eleven sample return flights were attempted with three successes. Missions to the Moon
Moon
have been conducted by the Soviet Union, United States, European Space Agency, Japan, India
India
and the People's Republic of China. The Moon
Moon
has also been visited by five spacecraft not dedicated to studying it; four spacecraft have flown past it to gain gravity assistance, and a radio telescope, Explorer 49, was placed into selenocentric orbit in order to use the Moon
Moon
to block interference from terrestrial radio sources.

Contents

1 Missions to date 2 Future missions

2.1 Funded

2.1.1 Funded lunar probe missions currently under development

2.2 Proposed but full funding still unclear

2.2.1 Proposed but full funding still unclear, lunar probe missions 2.2.2 Proposed but full funding still unclear, crewed lunar missions

2.3 Cancelled or indefinitely postponed

3 See also 4 References

Missions to date[edit]

Spacecraft Launch Date[1] Carrier rocket[2] Operator Mission Outcome

Pioneer 0 (Able I)[3] 000000001958-08-17-000017 August 1958 Thor DM-18 Able I[3] USAF Orbiter Launch failure

First attempted launch beyond Earth orbit; failed to orbit due to turbopump gearbox malfunction resulting in first stage explosion.[3] Reached apogee of 16 kilometres (9.9 mi)[4]

E-1 No.1 000000001958-09-23-000023 September 1958 Luna OKB-1 Impactor Launch failure

Failed to orbit; rocket disintegrated due to excessive vibration[3][5]

Pioneer 1 (Able II)[3] 000000001958-10-11-000011 October 1958 Thor DM-18 Able I[3] NASA Orbiter Launch failure

Failed to orbit; premature second stage cutoff due to accelerometer failure. Later known as Pioneer 1.[3] Reached apogee of 113,800 kilometres (70,700 mi).[6]

E-1 No.2 000000001958-10-11-000011 October 1958 Luna OKB-1 Impactor Launch failure

Failed to orbit; carrier rocket exploded due to excessive vibration.[3][5]

Pioneer 2 (Able III) 000000001958-11-08-00008 November 1958 Thor DM-18 Able I NASA Orbiter Launch failure

Failed to orbit; premature second stage cutoff due to erroneous command by ground controllers; third stage failed to ignite due to broken electrical connection[3] Reached apogee of 1,550 kilometres (960 mi).[7]

E-1 No.3 000000001958-12-04-00004 December 1958 Luna OKB-1 Impactor Launch failure

Failed to orbit; seal failure in hydrogen peroxide pump cooling system resulted in core stage underperformance[3][5]

Pioneer 3 000000001958-12-06-00006 December 1958 Juno II NASA Flyby Launch failure

Failed to orbit; premature first stage cutoff.[3] Reached apogee of 102,360 kilometres (63,600 mi).[8]

Mechta (E-1 No.4) 000000001959-01-02-00002 January 1959 Luna OKB-1 Impactor Launch failure

Carrier rocket guidance problem resulted in failure to impact Moon, flew past in heliocentric orbit, later known as Luna 1[9] Closest approach 5,995 kilometres (3,725 mi) on 4 January.[10]

Pioneer 4 000000001959-03-03-00003 March 1959 Juno II NASA Flyby Partial failure

Second stage overperformance resulted in flyby at greater altitude than expected, out of instrument range, with 58,983 kilometres of distance.[9] Closest approach at 22:25 UTC on 4 March. First U.S. spacecraft to leave Earth orbit.[11]

E-1A No.1 000000001959-06-18-000018 June 1959 Luna OKB-1 Impactor Launch failure

Failed to orbit; guidance system malfunction[9]

Luna 2 (E-1A No.2) 000000001959-09-12-000012 September 1959 Luna OKB-1 Impactor Success

Successful impact at 21:02 on 14 September 1959. First spacecraft to reach lunar surface[12]

Luna 3 (E-2A No.1) 000000001959-10-04-00004 October 1959 Luna OKB-1 Flyby Success

Returned first images of the far side of the Moon[13]

P-3 Able IVB 000000001959-11-26-000026 November 1959 Atlas-D Able NASA Orbiter Launch failure

Failed to orbit;[14] payload fairing disintegrated due to design fault[9]

E-3 No.1 000000001960-04-15-000015 April 1960 Luna OKB-1 Flyby Launch failure

Failed to orbit; premature third stage cutoff[15]

E-3 No.2 000000001960-04-16-000016 April 1960 Luna OKB-1 Flyby Launch failure

Failed to orbit; rocket disintegrated ten seconds after launch[15]

P-30 (Able VA) 000000001960-09-25-000025 September 1960 Atlas-D Able NASA Orbiter Launch failure

Failed to orbit; second stage oxidiser system malfunction resulting in premature cutoff[15][16] payload fairing disintegrated due to design fault[9]

P-31 (Able VB) 000000001960-12-15-000015 December 1960 Atlas-D Able NASA Orbiter Launch failure

Failed to orbit;[17] second stage ignited while first stage was still attached and burning, vehicle exploded[15]

Ranger 3 (P-34) 000000001962-01-26-000026 January 1962 Atlas LV-3 Agena-B NASA Impactor Spacecraft failure

Partial launch failure due to guidance problem; attempt to correct using spacecraft's engine resulted in it missing the Moon
Moon
by 36,793 kilometres (22,862 mi)[18][19]

Ranger 4 (P-35) 000000001962-04-23-000023 April 1962 Atlas LV-3 Agena-B NASA Impactor Spacecraft failure

Failed to deploy solar panels, ran out of power ten hours after launch; incidental impact on the far side of the Moon
Moon
on 26 April[18][20]

Ranger 5 (P-36) 000000001962-10-18-000018 October 1962 Atlas LV-3 Agena-B NASA Impactor Spacecraft failure

Solar panels erroneously disengaged from power system, failed ​8 3⁄4 hours after launch when batteries were depleted.[18] Missed the Moon
Moon
as course correction was not completed[21]

E-6 No.2 000000001963-01-04-00004 January 1963 Molniya-L OKB-1 Lander Launch failure

Failed to depart Low Earth orbit;[22] guidance system power failure prevented upper stage ignition[23]

E-6 No.3 000000001963-02-03-00003 February 1963 Molniya-L OKB-1 Lander Launch failure

Failed to orbit; guidance failure[23]

Luna 4 (E-6 No.4) 000000001963-04-02-00002 April 1963 Molniya-L OKB-1 Lander Spacecraft failure

Failed to perform mid-course correction,[23] remained in high Earth orbit until given escape velocity by orbital perturbation[24]

Ranger 6 (P-54) 000000001964-01-30-000030 January 1964 Atlas LV-3 Agena-B NASA Impactor Spacecraft failure

Impacted on 2 February 1964, failed to return images due to power system failure[25][26]

E-6 No.6 000000001964-03-21-000021 March 1964 Molniya-M OKB-1 Lander Launch failure

Failed to orbit; third stage underperformed due to oxidiser valve failure[25]

E-6 No.5 000000001964-04-20-000020 April 1964 Molniya-M OKB-1 Lander Launch failure

Failed to orbit; power failure caused by broken connection resulted in premature third stage cutoff[25]

Ranger 7 000000001964-07-28-000028 July 1964 Atlas LV-3 Agena-B NASA Impactor Success

Impacted on 30 July 1964 at 13:25:48 UTC[27]

Ranger 8 000000001965-02-17-000017 February 1965 Atlas LV-3 Agena-B NASA Impactor Success

Impacted on 20 February 1965 at 09:57:37 UTC[28][29]

Kosmos 60 (E-6 No.9) 000000001965-03-12-000012 March 1965 Molniya-L Lavochkin Lander Launch failure

Upper stage failed to restart due to guidance system short-circuit.[28] Failed to depart low Earth orbit[30]

Ranger 9 000000001965-03-21-000021 March 1965 Atlas LV-3 Agena-B NASA Impactor Success

Impacted on 24 March 1965 at 14:08:20 UTC[28][31]

E-6 No.8 000000001965-04-10-000010 April 1965 Molniya-L Lavochkin Lander Launch failure

Third stage failed to ignite due to loss of oxidiser pressure, failed to orbit[28]

Luna 5 (E-6 No.10) 000000001965-05-09-00009 May 1965 Molniya-M Lavochkin Lander Spacecraft failure

Loss of control after gyroscope malfunction,[28] failed to decelerate for landing and impacted the Moon
Moon
at 19:10 UTC on 12 May 1965.[32]

Luna 6 (E-6 No.7) 000000001965-06-08-00008 June 1965 Molniya-M Lavochkin Lander Spacecraft failure

Engine failed to shut down after performing mid-course correction manoeuvre,[28] flew past the Moon
Moon
in heliocentric orbit.[33]

Zond 3 (3MV-4 No.3) 000000001965-07-18-000018 July 1965 Molniya Lavochkin Flyby Success

Flew past the Moon
Moon
on 20 July 1965 at a distance of 9,200 kilometres (5,700 mi).[34] Conducted technology demonstration for future planetary missions.[28]

Luna 7 (E-6 No.11) 000000001965-10-04-00004 October 1965 Molniya Lavochkin Lander Spacecraft failure

Attitude control failure shortly before landing prevented controlled descent; impacted the lunar surface 22:08:24 UTC on 7 October 1965.[28][35]

Luna 8 (E-6 No.12) 000000001965-12-03-00003 December 1965 Molniya Lavochkin Lander Spacecraft failure

Landing airbag punctured, resulting in loss of attitude control shortly before planned touchdown,[28] impacted Moon
Moon
at 21:51:30 UTC on 6 December 1965[36]

Luna 9 (E-6 No.13) 000000001966-01-31-000031 January 1966 Molniya-M Lavochkin Lander Success

First spacecraft to land successfully on the Moon; touchdown at 18:45:30 UTC on 3 February 1966.[37] Returned data until 22:55 UTC on 6 February.[38]

Kosmos 111 (E-6S No.204) 000000001966-03-01-00001 March 1966 Molniya-M Lavochkin Orbiter Launch failure

Upper stage lost attitude control and failed to ignite;[38] spacecraft never left low Earth orbit[39]

Luna 10 (E-6S No.206) 000000001966-03-31-000031 March 1966 Molniya-M Lavochkin Orbiter Success

Entered orbit at 18:44 UTC on 3 April 1966, becoming the first spacecraft to orbit the Moon.[40] Continued to return data until 30 May.[38]

Surveyor 1 000000001966-05-30-000030 May 1966 Atlas LV-3C Centaur-D NASA Lander Success

Landed in Oceanus Procellarum
Oceanus Procellarum
at 06:17:36 UTC on 2 June 1966.[38] Returned data until loss of power on 13 July.[41]

Explorer 33 (AIMP-D) 000000001966-07-01-00001 July 1966 Delta E1 NASA Orbiter Launch failure

Magnetospheric probe; rocket imparted greater velocity than had been planned, leaving spacecraft unable to enter orbit.[38] Repurposed for Earth orbit mission which was completed successfully.[42]

Lunar Orbiter 1 000000001966-08-10-000010 August 1966 Atlas SLV-3 Agena-D NASA Orbiter Partial failure

Orbital insertion at around 15:36 UTC on 14 August. Deorbited early due to lack of fuel and to avoid communications interference with the next mission, impacted the Moon
Moon
at 13:30 UTC on 29 October 1966.[43]

Luna 11 (E-6LF No.101) 000000001966-08-21-000021 August 1966 Molniya-M Lavochkin Orbiter Partial failure[a]

Entered orbit on 28 August 1966. Failed to return images; other instruments operated correctly.[38] Conducted gamma ray and X-ray observations to study the composition of the Moon, investigated the lunar gravitational field, the presence of meteorites in the lunar environment and the radiation environment at the Moon. Ceased operations on 1 October 1966 after power was depleted.[44]

Surveyor 2 000000001966-09-20-000020 September 1966 Atlas LV-3C Centaur-D NASA Lander Spacecraft failure

One thruster failed to ignite during mid-course correction manoeuvre resulting in loss of control.[38] Impacted the Moon
Moon
at 03:18 UTC on 23 September 1966.[45]

Luna 12 (E-6LF No.102) 000000001966-10-22-000022 October 1966 Molniya-M Lavochkin Orbiter Success

Entered orbit on 25 October 1966 and returned data until 19 January 1967.[46] Completed photography mission intended for Luna 11.[38]

Lunar Orbiter 2 000000001966-11-06-00006 November 1966 Atlas SLV-3 Agena-D NASA Orbiter Success

Entered orbit at about 19:51 UTC on 10 November 1966 to begin photographic mapping mission. Impacted on the far side of the lunar surface following deorbit burn on 11 October 1967 at end of mission.[47]

Luna 13 (E-6M No.205) 000000001966-12-21-000021 December 1966 Molniya-M Lavochkin Lander Success

Successfully landed in Oceanus Procellarum
Oceanus Procellarum
at 18:01 UTC on 24 December 1966.[38] Returned images from the surface and studied the lunar soil.[48] Operated until depletion of power at 06:31 UTC on 28 December.[38]

Lunar Orbiter 3 000000001967-02-05-00005 February 1967 Atlas SLV-3 Agena-D NASA Orbiter Success

Entered orbit at 21:54 UTC on 8 February 1967. Deorbited at end of mission and impacted the Moon
Moon
on 9 October 1967.[49]

Surveyor 3 000000001967-04-17-000017 April 1967 Atlas LV-3C Centaur-D NASA Lander Success

Landed at 00:04 UTC on 20 April 1967 and operated until 3 May.[50][51] Visited by Apollo 12
Apollo 12
astronauts in 1969, with some parts removed for return to Earth.[52]

Lunar Orbiter 4 000000001967-05-04-00004 May 1967 Atlas SLV-3 Agena-D NASA Orbiter Success

Entered orbit at 21:54 UTC on 8 May 1967, operated until 17 July. Decayed from orbit, with lunar impact occurring on 6 October 1967.[50][53]

Surveyor 4 000000001967-07-14-000014 July 1967 Atlas LV-3C Centaur-D NASA Lander Spacecraft failure

Contact with spacecraft lost at 02:03 UTC on 17 July, two and a half minutes before scheduled landing.[50] NASA
NASA
determined that the spacecraft may have exploded, otherwise it impacted the Moon.[54]

Explorer 35 (AIMP-E) 000000001967-07-19-000019 July 1967 Delta E1 NASA Orbiter Success

Magnetospheric probe, studying the Moon
Moon
and interplanetary space. Deactivated on 27 June 1973.[55] Presumed to have impacted the Moon during the 1970s.[56]

Lunar Orbiter 5 000000001967-08-01-00001 August 1967 Atlas SLV-3 Agena-D NASA Orbiter Success

Final mission in the Lunar Orbiter series, entered selenocentric orbit on 5 August at 16:48 UTC and conducted a photographic survey until 18 August. Deorbited and impacted the Moon
Moon
on 31 January 1968.[57]

Surveyor 5 000000001967-09-08-00008 September 1967 Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D NASA Lander Success

Landed in Mare Tranquillitatis
Mare Tranquillitatis
at 00:46:44 UTC on 11 September. Last signals received at 04:30 UTC on 17 December 1967.[58]

7K-L1 No.4L 000000001967-09-27-000027 September 1967 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Flyby Launch failure

Technology demonstration for planned manned missions. Failed to reach orbit after a blocked propellant line caused one of the first stage engines not to ignite.[50]

Surveyor 6 000000001967-11-07-00007 November 1967 Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D NASA Lander Success

Landed in Sinus Medii
Sinus Medii
at 01:01:04 UTC on 10 November.[50] Made brief flight from lunar surface at 10:32 UTC on 17 November, followed by second landing after travelling 2.4 metres (7 ft 10 in). Last contact at 19:14 UTC on 14 December.[59]

7K-L1 No.5L 000000001967-11-22-000022 November 1967 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Flyby Launch failure

Technology demonstration for planned manned missions; unable to achieve orbit after second stage engine failed to ignite.[50]

Surveyor 7 000000001968-01-07-00007 January 1968 Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D NASA Lander Success

Final Surveyor mission.[60] Landed 29 kilometres (18 mi) from Tycho crater at 01:05:36 UTC on 10 January. Operated until 21 February 1968.[61]

E-6LS No.112 000000001968-02-07-00007 February 1968 Molniya-M Lavochkin Orbiter Launch failure

Failed to orbit after third stage ran out of fuel.[61]

Luna 14 (E-6LS No.113) 000000001968-04-07-00007 April 1968 Molniya-M Lavochkin Orbiter Success

Tested communications for proposed manned missions and studied the mass concentration of the Moon. Entered orbit on 10 April at 19:25 UTC.[62]

7K-L1 No.7L 000000001968-04-22-000022 April 1968 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Flyby Launch failure

Technology demonstration for planned manned missions. Failed to orbit after second stage engine incorrectly commanded to shut down; although spacecraft was recovered using its prototype launch escape system.[61]

Zond 5 (7K-L1 No.9L) 000000001968-09-14-000014 September 1968 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Flyby, circled Success

Two tortoises and other life forms on board a technology demonstration for planned manned missions. Made a closest approach of 1,850 kilometres (1,150 mi) on 18 September, and circled the moon before returning to Earth. Landed in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on 21 September at 16:08 UTC, becoming first Lunar spacecraft to be recovered successfully and carried the first Earth life to travel to and around the moon.[63]

Zond 6 (7K-L1 No.12L) 000000001968-11-10-000010 November 1968 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Flyby Spacecraft failure

Technology demonstration for planned manned missions. Flyby occurred on 14 November, with a closest approach of 2,420 kilometres (1,500 mi).[64] Reentered Earth's atmosphere on 17 November however recovery was unsuccessful after parachutes were prematurely jettisoned.[61]

Apollo 8 000000001968-12-21-000021 December 1968 Saturn V NASA Manned Orbiter Success

First manned mission to the Moon; entered orbit around the Moon
Moon
with four-minute burn beginning at 09:59:52 UTC on 24 December. Completed ten orbits of the Moon
Moon
before returning to Earth with an engine burn at 06:10:16 UTC on 25 December. Landed in the Pacific Ocean at 15:51 UTC on 27 December.[65]

7K-L1 No.13L 000000001969-01-20-000020 January 1969 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Flyby Launch failure

Technology demonstration for planned manned missions. Failed to orbit after one of the four second stage engines shut down prematurely. Third stage engine also shut down prematurely. The spacecraft was recovered using its launch escape system.[66]

E-8 No.201 000000001969-02-19-000019 February 1969 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Lander/Rover Launch failure

First launch of the Lunokhod
Lunokhod
rover. Launch vehicle disintegrated 51 seconds after launch and exploded.[66]

7K-L1S No.3 000000001969-02-21-000021 February 1969 N1 OKB-1 Orbiter Launch failure

First launch of N1 rocket; intended to orbit the Moon
Moon
and return to Earth. First stage prematurely shut down 70 seconds after launch; launch vehicle crashed 50 kilometres (31 mi) from launch site. Spacecraft landed some 35 kilometres (22 mi) from the launch pad after successfully using its launch escape system.[66]

Apollo 10 000000001969-05-18-000018 May 1969 Saturn V NASA Manned Orbiter Success

Dress rehearsal for Apollo 11

E-8-5 No.402 000000001969-06-14-000014 June 1969 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Sample return Launch failure

Intended to land on the Moon
Moon
and return lunar soil sample. Did not reach Earth orbit after fourth stage failed to ignite.[66]

7K-L1S No.5 000000001969-07-03-00003 July 1969 N1 OKB-1 Orbiter Launch failure

Intended to orbit the Moon
Moon
and return to Earth. All first stage engines shut down 10 seconds after launch; launch vehicle crashed and exploded on the launch pad. Spacecraft landed safely 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from the launch site after using launch escape sequence.[66]

Luna 15 (E-8-5 No.401) 000000001969-07-13-000013 July 1969 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Sample return Spacecraft failure

Reached lunar orbit at 10:00 UTC on 17 July. Descent retro-rocket burn started at 15:47 UTC on 21 July. Contact lost 3 minutes after de-orbit burn; probably crashed on the Moon.[66]

Apollo 11 000000001969-07-16-000016 July 1969 Saturn V NASA Manned Orbiter/Lander Success

First manned landing on the Moon. LM landed at 20:17 UTC on 20 July 1969

Zond 7 (7K-L1 No.11L) 000000001969-08-07-00007 August 1969 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Flyby Success

Technology demonstration for planned manned missions. Lunar flyby on 10 August, with a closest approach of 1,200 kilometres (750 mi); returned to Earth and landed in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
at 18:13 UTC on 14 August.[66]

Kosmos 300 (E-8-5 No.403) 000000001969-09-23-000023 September 1969 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Sample return Launch failure

Third attempt at lunar sample return. After reaching low Earth orbit, the fourth stage engine failed to fire for trans-lunar injection due to oxidiser leak. Spacecraft re-entered Earth's atmosphere about 4 days after launch.[66]

Kosmos 305 (E-8-5 No.404) 000000001969-10-22-000022 October 1969 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Sample return Launch failure

Fourth attempt at lunar sample return. After reaching low Earth orbit, the fourth stage engine failed to fire for trans-lunar injection due to control system malfunction. Spacecraft re-entered Earth's atmosphere within one orbit after launch.[66]

Apollo 12 000000001969-11-14-000014 November 1969 Saturn V NASA Manned Orbiter/Lander Success

E-8-5 No.405 000000001970-02-06-00006 February 1970 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Sample return Launch failure

Failed to orbit

Apollo 13 000000001970-04-11-000011 April 1970 Saturn V NASA Manned Orbiter/Lander Spacecraft failure

Mission aborted following oxygen tank explosion, flew past the Moon without entering orbit and returned to Earth

Luna 16 (E-8-5 No.406) 000000001970-09-12-000012 September 1970 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Sample return Success

Zond 8 (7K-L1 No.14L) 000000001970-10-20-000020 October 1970 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Flyby Success

Technology demonstration for planned manned missions; returned to Earth successfully

Luna 17 (E-8 No.203) 000000001970-11-10-000010 November 1970 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Lander/Rover Success

Deployed Lunokhod
Lunokhod
1

Apollo 14 000000001971-01-31-000031 January 1971 Saturn V NASA Manned Orbiter/Lander Success

Apollo 15 000000001971-07-26-000026 July 1971 Saturn V NASA Manned Orbiter/Lander/Rover Success

PFS-1 000000001971-07-26-000026 July 1971 Saturn V NASA Orbiter Success

Deployed from Apollo 15

Luna 18 (E-8-5 No.407) 000000001971-09-02-00002 September 1971 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Sample return Spacecraft failure

Failed during descent to lunar surface

Luna 19 (E-8LS No.202) 000000001971-09-28-000028 September 1971 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Orbiter Success

Luna 20 (E-8-5 No.408) 000000001972-02-14-000014 February 1972 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Sample return Success

Apollo 16 000000001972-04-16-000016 April 1972 Saturn V NASA Manned Orbiter/Lander/Rover Success

PFS-2 000000001972-04-16-000016 April 1972 Saturn V NASA Orbiter Success

Deployed from Apollo 16

7K-LOK No.1 000000001972-07-03-00003 July 1972 N1 OKB-1 Orbiter Launch failure

Failed to orbit; intended to orbit the Moon
Moon
and return to Earth

Apollo 17 000000001972-12-07-00007 December 1972 Saturn V NASA Manned Orbiter/Lander/Rover Success

Last manned Moon
Moon
landing

Luna 21 (E-8 No.204) 000000001973-01-08-00008 January 1973 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Lander/Rover Success

Deployed Lunokhod
Lunokhod
2

Explorer 49 (RAE-B) 000000001973-06-10-000010 June 1973 Delta 1913 NASA Orbiter Success

Radio astronomy spacecraft, operated in selenocentric orbit to avoid interference from terrestrial radio sources

Mariner 10 (RAE-B) 000000001973-11-03-00003 November 1973 Delta 1913 NASA Flyby Success

Interplanetary spacecraft, mapped lunar north pole to test cameras.

Luna 22 (E-8LS No.206) 000000001974-05-29-000029 May 1974 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Orbiter Success

Luna 23 (E-8-5M No.410) 000000001974-10-28-000028 October 1974 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Sample return Spacecraft failure

Tipped over upon landing

E-8-5M No.412 000000001975-10-16-000016 October 1975 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Sample return Launch failure

Failed to orbit

Luna 24 (E-8-5M No.413) 000000001976-08-09-00009 August 1976 Proton-K/D Lavochkin Sample return Success

Final mission of the Luna programme. Entered orbit on 11 August 1976 and landed in Mare Crisium
Mare Crisium
at 16:36 UTC on 18 August. Sample capsule launched at 05:25 UTC on 19 August and recovered ​96 1⁄2 hours later.[67] Returned 170.1 grams (6.00 oz) of lunar regolith.[68]

ISEE-3 (ICE/Explorer 59) 000000001978-08-12-000012 August 1978 Delta 2914 NASA Gravity assist N/A

Five flybys in 1982 and 1983 en route to comet 21P/Giacobini–Zinner

Hiten (MUSES-A) 000000001990-01-24-000024 January 1990 Mu-3S-II ISAS Flyby/Orbiter Success

Designed for flyby, placed into selenocentric orbit during extended mission after failure of Hagoromo

Hagoromo 000000001990-01-24-000024 January 1990 Mu-3S-II ISAS Orbiter Spacecraft failure

Deployed from Hiten. Communications failure; entered selenocentric orbit but returned no data

Geotail 000000001992-07-24-000024 July 1992 Delta II
Delta II
6925 ISAS/NASA Gravity assist N/A

Series of flybys to regulate high Earth orbit

Clementine (DSPSE) 000000001994-01-25-000025 January 1994 Titan II (23)G Star-37FM USAF/NASA Orbiter Success

Completed Lunar objectives successfully; failed following departure from selenocentric orbit

HGS-1 000000001997-12-24-000024 December 1997 Proton-K/DM3 Hughes Gravity assist N/A

Communications satellite; made two flybys in May and June 1998 en route to geosynchronous orbit after delivery into wrong orbit

Lunar Prospector (Discovery 3) 000000001998-01-07-00007 January 1998 Athena II NASA Orbiter Success

Nozomi (PLANET-B) 000000001998-07-03-00003 July 1998 Mu-5M-V ISAS Gravity assist N/A

Two flybys en route to Mars

SMART-1 000000002003-09-27-000027 September 2003 Ariane 5G ESA Orbiter Success

Impacted moon in LQ26 quadrangle at end of mission on 3 September 2006

ARTEMIS P1 000000002007-02-17-000017 February 2007 Delta II
Delta II
7925 NASA Orbiter Operational

THEMIS
THEMIS
spacecraft moved to selenocentric orbit for extended mission; entered orbit July 2011

ARTEMIS P2 000000002007-02-17-000017 February 2007 Delta II
Delta II
7925 NASA Orbiter Operational

THEMIS
THEMIS
spacecraft moved to selenocentric orbit for extended mission; entered orbit July 2011

Kaguya (SELENE) 000000002007-09-14-000014 September 2007 H-IIA
H-IIA
2022 JAXA Orbiter Success

Impacted the Moon
Moon
in LQ30 quadrangle at end of mission on 10 June 2009[69]

Okina (RSAT) 000000002007-09-14-000014 September 2007 H-IIA
H-IIA
2022 JAXA Orbiter Success

Deployed from Kaguya, decayed and impacted moon in LQ08 quadrangle on 12 February 2009 after end of mission

Ouna (VRAD) 000000002007-09-14-000014 September 2007 H-IIA
H-IIA
2022 JAXA Orbiter Success

Deployed from Kaguya, completed operations on 29 June 2009[70] but remains in selenocentric orbit

Chang'e 1 000000002007-10-24-000024 October 2007 Chang Zheng 3A CNSA Orbiter Success

Impacted moon in LQ21 quadrangle on 1 March 2009, at end of mission

Chandrayaan-1 000000002008-10-21-000021 October 2008 PSLV-XL ISRO Orbiter Success

Succeced through mission, terminated the mission in 2009, remains in selenocentric orbit; discovered water on Moon[71]

Moon
Moon
Impact Probe 000000002008-10-21-000021 October 2008 PSLV-XL ISRO Impactor Success

Deployed from Chandrayaan-1, impacted Moon
Moon
in LQ30 quadrangle on 14 November 2008

LRO 000000002009-06-18-000018 June 2009 Atlas V
Atlas V
401 NASA Orbiter Operational

LCROSS 000000002009-06-18-000018 June 2009 Atlas V
Atlas V
401 NASA Impactor Success

Observed impact of Centaur upper stage that launched it and LRO, then impacted itself. Impacts in LQ30 quadrangle

Chang'e 2 000000002010-10-01-00001 October 2010 Chang Zheng 3C CNSA Orbiter Success

Following completion of six month Lunar mission, departed selenocentric orbit for Earth–Sun L2 Lagrangian point;[72] subsequently flew by asteroid 4179 Toutatis[73]

Ebb (GRAIL-A) 000000002011-09-10-000010 September 2011[74][75] Delta II
Delta II
7920H NASA Orbiter[76] Success

Part of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory,[77] impacted the Moon
Moon
in LQ01 quadrangle on 17 December 2012 at end of mission.[78]

Flow (GRAIL-B) 000000002011-09-10-000010 September 2011[74][75] Delta II
Delta II
7920H NASA Orbiter[76] Success

Part of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory,[77] impacted the Moon
Moon
in LQ01 quadrangle on 17 December 2012 at end of mission.[78]

LADEE 000000002013-09-07-00007 September 2013 Minotaur V NASA Orbiter Success

Mission ended on 18 April 2014, when the spacecraft's controllers intentionally crashed LADEE into the far side of the Moon

Chang'e 3 000000002013-12-01-00001 December 2013 Chang Zheng 3B CNSA Lander/Rover Success

Entered orbit on 6 December 2013 with landing at 13:12 UTC on 14 December. Deployed Yutu rover, which landed on the Moon.

Chang'e 5-T1 000000002014-10-23-000023 October 2014 Chang Zheng 3C CNSA Flyby Operational

Demonstration of re-entry capsule for Chang'e 5
Chang'e 5
sample-return mission at lunar return velocity.

4M 000000002014-10-23-000023 October 2014 Chang Zheng 3C LuxSpace Flyby Success

Attached to third stage of CZ-3C used to launch Chang'e 5-T1

Future missions[edit] There are several future lunar missions scheduled or proposed by various nations or organisations. Funded[edit] Funded lunar probe missions currently under development[edit]

Country Name Launch due Nature of mission

 USA TESS 2018[79] flyby[80]

 China Chang'e 4 2018[81] (far side) landing and roving

 India Chandrayaan-2 2018[82][83][84] landing, roving, sample analyzing

(Private) MX-1E 2019[85] hopping

 China Chang'e 5 2019[86] sample return

(Private) Astrobotic Technology 2019[87] landing and roving

(Private) PTScientists 2019[88] landing and roving

 USA EM-1 late 2019[89][90] unmanned test of Orion spacecraft in Lunar orbit

 USA BioSentinel late 2019 flyby[91]

 USA Cislunar Explorers late 2019

 USA CU-E3 late 2019 flyby

 USA CuSP late 2019 flyby[92]

 Japan EQUULEUS late 2019 flyby

 USA LunaH-Map late 2019 mapping hydrogen deposits

 USA Lunar Flashlight late 2019 searching for water ice deposits

 USA Lunar IceCube late 2019 searching for water ice deposits

 USA NEA Scout late 2019 flyby[93]

 Japan OMOTENASHI late 2019 hard landing, measuring radiation[94][95]

 USA SkyFire late 2019 flyby, remote sensing

 Japan SLIM[96] 2021[97] pinpoint landing, roving[98][99][100]

 Japan DESTINY+ 2022 flyby[101]

 China Chang'e 6 2020s[102] sample return

 Japan SELENE-2 2020s[103] orbiting, landing and roving[104]

USA EM-2 2023 manned flight, lunar orbit

Proposed but full funding still unclear[edit] Proposed but full funding still unclear, lunar probe missions[edit] The following robotic space probe missions have been proposed:

Country Name Launch due Nature of mission

(Private) SpaceIL 2018[105][106] hopping

(Private) Synergy Moon 2018

(Private) TeamIndus 2018 landing and roving

(Private) Hakuto 2018 roving

 Russia Luna-Glob
Luna-Glob
(Luna 25, Luna 26, Luna 27) 2025+

 North Korea Moon
Moon
mission[107] 2026 or before[108]

 South Korea Moon
Moon
Orbiter 2020[109]

 South Korea Moon
Moon
Lander[110] 2025[109]

 UK Lunar Mission One[111] 2024[112]

 USA South Pole Aitken Basin Sample Return May compete in New Frontiers program NF5 selection [113]

 USA Resource Prospector 2020s[114] Rover for in-situ resource utilization demonstration[115][116]

Proposed but full funding still unclear, crewed lunar missions[edit]

Country Name Proposed launch date Nature of proposed mission

 Russia Luna-Glob 2028[117] Manned lunar orbiter; proposed by Roscosmos[117]

 Russia Luna-Glob 2030[117] Manned lunar landing; proposed by Roscosmos[117]

 Japan JAXA 2030[118] Manned moon landing; proposed by JAXA.[118]

 China CLEP 2036[119] Manned moon landing; proposed by CNSA.[120][121]

 Russia Lunnyj Poligon 2037 Completion of robotic lunar base; proposed by Roscosmos

(Note: Launch dates are aspirational and may change drastically as the planning and preparation progresses.) Cancelled or indefinitely postponed[edit]

Country Name Launch due

 Japan Lunar-A 2004 Integrated into Russia's Luna-Glob
Luna-Glob
1 mission[122]

 Germany LEO 2012 Mission postponed indefinitely due to budgetary constraints[123]

 UK MoonLITE[124][125] 2014 [citation needed]

 USA Constellation program 2020 Mission cancelled by Congress[126]

 Europe Lunar Lander[127][128] 2018 Cancelled in 2012

 USA MoonRise[129] 2018 Not funded by NASA
NASA
in 2011 funding competition, may be re-competed in NF4 or NF5 selections

(Private) DSE-Alpha[citation needed] 2018[130] Mission to transport the first space tourists to fly around the Moon using Soyuz; proposed by Space Adventures
Space Adventures
(2005).[131][132][133]

(Private) SpaceX Moon
Moon
Mission Late 2018[134] Two private citizens on a lunar fly-by. The plan to use a Falcon Heavy
Falcon Heavy
for this was abandoned in February 2018, immediately before the first Falcon Heavy
Falcon Heavy
test launch, in favour of a possible mission on the successor Big Falcon Rocket.[135]

See also[edit]

List of lunar probes

References[edit]

^ Imaging was primary objective.

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orbiter Chang'e-2 travels 1.5 km into outer space". The Economic Times. 30 August 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011.  ^ "Chang'e 2: The Full Story". The Planetary Society. 25 August 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2012.  ^ a b Gold, Scott (11 September 2011). "After delay, GRAIL moon mission launches". Los Angeles Times.  ^ a b Harwood, William. " NASA
NASA
launches GRAIL lunar probes". CBS News. Retrieved 11 September 2011.  ^ a b Tariq Malik (10 April 2008). "New NASA
NASA
Spacecraft to Probe Moon Dust". Space.com. Retrieved 11 November 2008.  ^ a b Tariq Malik (10 April 2008). "New NASA
NASA
Spacecraft to Probe Moon Dust". Space.com. Retrieved 11 November 2008.  ^ a b Blau, Patrick. "GRAIL Mission Design and Timeline". Spaceflight 101. Archived from the original on 19 July 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2012.  ^ "TESS Launch". tess.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 17 January 2017.  ^ "Trajectory Design Enhancements to Mitigate Risk for the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite
Satellite
(TESS)" (PDF). 13 September 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2017.  ^ Emily Lakdawalla (14 January 2016). "Updates on China's lunar missions". The Planetary Society. Retrieved 24 April 2016.  ^ Prasad, S. (23 January 2016). " Chandrayaan-2
Chandrayaan-2
launch likely by 2018". The Hindu. Retrieved 29 January 2016.  ^ "Chandrayaan II may be delayed, says ISRO Chief". Space Travel. 12 Sep 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2012.  ^ "Rogozin presses Russian lunar base, Chandrayaan-2
Chandrayaan-2
delayed by Proton and Phobos-Grunt investigations". Lunar Networks. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2012.  ^ Hennigan, W.J. (8 April 2011). "MoonEx aims to scour moon for rare materials". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 10 April 2011. MoonEx's machines are designed to look for materials that are scarce on Earth but found in everything from a Toyota Prius car battery to guidance systems on cruise missiles. ... The company is among several teams hoping to someday win the Google Lunar X Prize
Google Lunar X Prize
competition, a $30-million race to the Moon
Moon
in which a privately-funded team must successfully place a robot on the Moon's surface and have it explore at least 1/3 of a mile. It also must transmit high definition video and images back to Earth before 2016. ... should be ready to land on the lunar surface by 2013  ^ Nowakowski, Tomasz (9 August 2017). " China
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Eyes Manned Lunar Landing by 2036". Retrieved 17 August 2017.  ^ "Graduating from the Google Lunar X Prize". 19 December 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2017.  ^ " PTScientists
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'Mission to the Moon' to take care not to harm Apollo 17 landing site collectSPACE". collectSPACE.com. Retrieved 2017-12-09.  ^ Clark, Stephen (28 April 2017). " NASA
NASA
confirms first flight of Space Launch System will slip to 2019". Spaceflight
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Now. Retrieved 29 April 2017.  ^ NASAspaceFlight.com NASA
NASA
em-1 uncrewed costs main reason 12 May 2017 ^ "BioSentinel" (PDF). 2 February 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2017.  ^ "The CuSP interplanetary CubeSat
CubeSat
mission" (PDF). 21 April 2017. Retrieved 23 October 2017.  ^ "Near Earth Asteroid Scout" (PDF). 25 February 2015. Retrieved 23 October 2017.  ^ "International Partners Provide Science Satellites for America's Space Launch System Maiden Flight". NASA. 27 May 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2017.  ^ Hayashi, Kimiyo (8 August 2016). "世界最大のロケットSLSが運ぶ、世界最小の月着陸機 —JAXA「OMOTENASHI」とは" (in Japanese). Retrieved 27 January 2017.  ^ "小型探査機による高精度月面着陸の技術実証(SLIM)について" (PDF) (in Japanese). 3 June 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2015.  ^ "天文衛星「ひとみ」代替機と月面着陸機、H2Aで相乗り-JAXA". Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun (in Japanese). August 21, 2017. Retrieved 2017-10-23. ... 2020年度に国際プロジェクトとして打ち上げ予定のX線天文衛星代替機を搭載した国産ロケット「H2A」に月面着陸機「SLIM(スリム)」を相乗りさせる計画を示した。 ...'  ^ "Small lunar-lander "SLIM" for the pinpoint landing technology demonstration" (PDF). 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2015.  ^ "The tiny rover payload in SLIM mission" (PDF). 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2015.  ^ Japan
Japan
to attempt unmanned lunar landing in 2018 ^ Toyota, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Kazutaka; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro (15 August 2017). "DESTINY+: Deep Space Exploration Technology Demonstrator and Explorer to Asteroid 3200 Phaethon" (PDF). Low-Cost Planetary Missions Conference. Retrieved 2017-09-21.  ^ " China
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Plans 2017 Lunar Sample-Return Mission". Aviationweek. 16 December 2013.  ^ http://spacenews.com/nasa-tests-lunar-rover-prototype-with-eye-toward-flying-real-thing/ ^ http://www.asianscientist.com/2012/07/topnews/japan-announces-selene-2-lunar-mission-2017/ ^ BBC, accessed 7 October 2015. ^ "The First Privately Funded Lunar Mission Is Set to Launch in 2017".  ^ Lele, Ajey (2013). Asian Space Race: Rhetoric Or Reality. Springer. pp. 70–72. ISBN 978-81-322-0732-0. North Korea
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has also announced its intentions to undertake manned and Moon
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missions in the future. Nonetheless, the current status of their space programme indicates that they would have to overcome many hurdles to reach that level of technology sophistication.  ^ Talmadge, Eric (4 August 2016). "AP Exclusive: North Korea
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eyes moon orbiter in 2020, landing 2025". Reuters. Retrieved 9 November 2008.  ^ Pak, Han-pyol (1 July 2013). "핵전지 실은 한국형 로버 … 지구서 우주인터넷 통해 조종". 중앙일보. Retrieved 19 July 2013.  ^ "UK 'to lead moon landing' funded by public contributions". BBC News. 19 November 2014.  ^ "Lunar Mission One: A New Lunar Mission for Everyone". British Interplanetary Society. 19 November 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2015.  ^ [1] ^ https://www.nasa.gov/resource-prospector ^ https://ti.arc.nasa.gov/news/RP-AES-Innovation-Award/ ^ http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/front/archives/2016/07/19/2003651332 ^ a b c d " Russia
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Next Year". SpaceX. Retrieved 28 February 2017.  ^ Jeff Foust (5 February 2018). "SpaceX no longer planning crewed missions on Falcon Heavy". Space News. 

v t e

Spacecraft missions to the Moon

Programs

American

Apollo Lunar Orbiter Lunar Precursor Pioneer Ranger Surveyor

Chinese (CLEP) Indian (Chandrayaan) Japanese Russian

Luna-Glob

Soviet

Crewed Luna Zond Lunokhod

Current

Orbiters

ARTEMIS Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

Past

Orbiters

Apollo 8 10 Apollo 15
Apollo 15
Subsatellite (PFS-1) Apollo 16
Apollo 16
Subsatellite (PFS-2) Chandrayaan-1 Chang'e 1 Chang'e 2 Clementine Explorer 35 Explorer 49 GRAIL Hiten LADEE Luna 10 11 12 14 19 22 Lunar Orbiter 1 2 3 4 5 Lunar Prospector SELENE
SELENE
(Kaguya, Okina & Ouna) SMART-1 Chang'e 5-T1
Chang'e 5-T1
(Service Module)

Flybys

4M Apollo 13 AsiaSat-3 Cassini–Huygens Chang'e 5-T1
Chang'e 5-T1
(Xiaofei) Galileo Geotail ICE Luna 1 Luna 3 Mariner 10 Nozomi Pioneer 4 Pioneer 10 Ranger 5 STEREO Zond 3 5 6 7 8

Impactors

LCROSS Luna 2 MIP Ranger 4 6 7 8 9

Landers

Apollo Lunar Module
Apollo Lunar Module
x6 ALSEP (x5) and EASEP (x1) Chang'e 3 Luna 9 13 17 21 Surveyor 1 3 5 6 7

Rovers

Apollo 15 16 17 Lunokhod
Lunokhod
1 2 Yutu

Sample return

Apollo 11 12 14 15 16 17 Luna 16 20 24

Human landing

Apollo 11 12 14 15 16 17

Planned

EM-1 (2019)

Orion EM-1

ArgoMoon BioSentinel Cislunar Explorers CuSP CU-E3 EQUULEUS LunaH-Map Lunar Flashlight Lunar IceCube NEA Scout OMOTENASHI SkyFire Team Miles

Luna-Glob

Luna 25
Luna 25
(2019) Luna 26
Luna 26
(2021) Luna 27
Luna 27
(2022) Luna 28
Luna 28
(2025) Luna 29

Others

Chandrayaan-2
Chandrayaan-2
(2018) Chang'e 4
Chang'e 4
(2018) TESS (2018) Astrobotic / Hakuto
Hakuto
/ AngelicvM (2019) Chang'e 5
Chang'e 5
(2019) MX-1E (2019) PTScientists
PTScientists
(2019) Chang'e 6
Chang'e 6
(2020) SLIM (2021) DESTINY+
DESTINY+
(2022) EM-2 (2023) EM-3 (2023+)

Proposed

Baden-Württemberg 1 Blue Origin Blue Moon DSE-Alpha International Lunar Network Lunar Lander Lunar Mission One Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway Lunar Orbital Station MoonLITE OpenLuna Resource Prospector SELENE-R SpaceIL Synergy Moon TeamIndus

Cancelled

Altair European Lunar Explorer LEO LK Lunar-A Lunar Observer Lunokhod
Lunokhod
3 MoonRise Prospector SpaceX lunar tourism mission Ukrselena

See also

Colonization of the Moon Exploration of the Moon Google Lunar X Prize List of Apollo astronauts List of lunar probes List of artificial objects on the Moon List of missions to the Moon Lunar rover Moon
Moon
landing

Conspiracy theories

Manned missions in italics.

v t e

Lunar rovers

Past

Lunokhod

Lunokhod
Lunokhod
0 (1A) (1969, failed at start) Lunokhod
Lunokhod
1 (1970) Lunokhod
Lunokhod
2 (1973) Lunokhod
Lunokhod
3 (1977, cancelled)

Apollo

Lunar Roving Vehicle

Apollo 15
Apollo 15
(1971) Apollo 16
Apollo 16
(1972) Apollo 17
Apollo 17
(1972)

CLEP

Yutu (2013–15)

Planned

Chandrayaan-2
Chandrayaan-2
rover (2018) Chang'e 4
Chang'e 4
rover (2018) Andy (Astrobotic Technology) / Sorato / Uni (AngelicvM) (2019) ALINA (PTScientists) (2019) SLIM rover (2021) SELENE-R rover (2022)

Proposed

ATHLETE ECA (TeamIndus) Luna-Grunt rover Resource Prospector Scarab Space Exploration Vehicle

Related

Tank on the Moon
Moon
(2007 documentary) List of missions to the Moon Mars
Mars
rover Rover (space exploration)

v t e

Manned lunar spacecraft

Orbiters

Retired

Apollo Command/Service Module

Cancelled

LK-1
LK-1
/ LK-700
LK-700
(VA) Zond (Soyuz 7K-L1) LOK (Soyuz 7K-L3)

Future

Orion Federation

Landers

Retired

Apollo Lunar Module

Cancelled

Lunniy Korabl Altair

See also

Moon
Moon
landing

conspiracy theories

List of lunar probes List of artificial objects on the Moon List of missions to the Moon

v t e

Space missions
Space missions
by destination

Planets

Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune

Others

The Moon

lunar probes

Dwarf and minor planets Comets

v t e

21st-century space probes

Active space probes

Moon

ARTEMIS Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

Mars

Exo Mars
Mars
TGO Mangalyaan Mars
Mars
Express 2001 Mars
Mars
Odyssey MAVEN MER Opportunity MRO MSL Curiosity

Minor planets

Chang'e 2 Dawn Hayabusa2
Hayabusa2
/ MASCOT New Horizons OSIRIS-REx PROCYON

Solar science

ACE DSCOVR SDO SOHO STEREO WIND

Others

Akatsuki Gaia IKAROS Juno THEMIS Voyager 1 Voyager 2

Completed after 2000 by termination date

2001

NEAR Shoemaker Deep Space 1

2003

Pioneer 10 Galileo Nozomi

2004

Genesis

2005

Huygens

2006

Mars
Mars
Global Surveyor

2008

Phoenix

2009

Chang'e 1 Ulysses Chandrayaan-1 SELENE LCROSS

2010

Hayabusa MER Spirit

2011

Stardust

2012

GRAIL

2013

Deep Impact

2014

LADEE Venus Express Chang'e 5-T1

2015

MESSENGER Chang'e 3
Chang'e 3
/ Yutu

2016

Rosetta / Philae Exo Mars
Mars
Schiaparelli

2017

LISA Pathfinder Cassini

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The Moon

Physical properties

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List

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Related topics

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is made of green cheese" Natural satellite Double planet Lilith (hypothetical second moon)

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v t e

Future spaceflights

Crewed

2018

Soyuz MS-09
Soyuz MS-09
(6 June) Soyuz MS-10
Soyuz MS-10
(14 September) Soyuz MS-11
Soyuz MS-11
(15 November) Starliner DM2 (November) SpX-DM2
SpX-DM2
(December) New Shepard

2019

Soyuz MS-12
Soyuz MS-12
(7 March) Soyuz MS-13
Soyuz MS-13
(May) Soyuz MS-14
Soyuz MS-14
(September) Soyuz MS-15
Soyuz MS-15
(November) Shenzhou 12

2020+

Orion EM-2 / Power and Propulsion Element (2023) Orion EM-3 / Cislunar Habitation Module (2023+) SpaceX crewed BFR (2024 for 1st Mars
Mars
departure)

Robotic

2018

ADM-Aeolus
ADM-Aeolus
(September) BepiColombo
BepiColombo
(October) Boe-OFT (27 August) Chandrayaan-2 Chang'e 4 CHEOPS Cygnus CRS OA-9E
Cygnus CRS OA-9E
(1 May) Cygnus CRS OA-10E (8 November) Energia-100 Es'hail 2 GiSAT-1 GOSAT-2 / KhalifaSat
KhalifaSat
/ Diwata-2B / PROITERES-2 / Stars-AO / AUTcube2 GSAT-7A GSAT-11 GSAT-20 GSAT-29 Horizons-3e ICESat-2 ICON (13 June) InSight
InSight
/ MarCO (5 May) IRNSS-1L Kounotori 7
Kounotori 7
(16 August) LightSail 2 Nauka / European Robotic
Robotic
Arm (Mid-2018) Parker Solar Probe
Parker Solar Probe
(31 July) PRISMA Progress MS-09 (13 June) Progress MS-10 (11 October) Sentinel-3B SES-12 Small Demonstration Satellite-1 / MicroDragon / RISESAT / ALE / OrigamiSat-1 / AOBA-VELOX-IV / NEXUS SpaceX CRS-15
SpaceX CRS-15
(9 June) SpaceX CRS-16
SpaceX CRS-16
(16 November) SpX-DM1
SpX-DM1
(August) TESS (16 April) TeamIndus
TeamIndus
/ Hakuto WGS-10

2019

Chang'e 5 Cygnus CRS OA-11 (April) EarthCARE
EarthCARE
(August) Ingenio JCSAT-17 JCSAT-18 JDRS Kounotori 8
Kounotori 8
(July) Luna 25 MX-1E Orion EM-1

Lunar Flashlight NEA Scout BioSentinel SkyFire Lunar IceCube CuSP LunaH-Map EQUULEUS OMOTENASHI ArgoMoon Cislunar Explorers CU-E3 Team Miles

Peregrine PTScientists Prichal / Uzlovoy (14 November) Progress MS-11 (6 February) Progress MS-12 Solar Orbiter
Solar Orbiter
(February) SpaceX CRS-17
SpaceX CRS-17
(February) SpaceX CRS-18
SpaceX CRS-18
(May) SpaceX CRS-19
SpaceX CRS-19
(October) Spektr-RG TARANIS

2020

ALOS-3 ALOS-4 AFSPC-8 AFSPC-12 B330 Chang'e 6 DART (December) Dream Chaser Euclid Exo Mars
Mars
rover / surface platform (July) Hope Mars
Mars
Mission (July) Inmarsat-6 F1 James Webb Space Telescope Kounotori 9 KPLO Landsat 9 (December) Mars
Mars
2020 Mars
Mars
Global Remote Sensing Orbiter and Small Rover Mars
Mars
Terahertz Microsatellite (July) NISAR QZS-1R SES-17 Space Complex Alpha Tianhe-1

2021

Aditya-L1 HTV-X1 IXPE Lucy Luna 26 Spektr-UV XARM / SLIM (March)

2022+

Mars
Mars
Orbiter Mission 2 (2021–2022) MetOp-SG (2021–2022) DESTINY+
DESTINY+
(2022) FLEX (2022) Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer
Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer
(2022) SpaceX cargo BFR (2022 for 1st Mars
Mars
departure) Luna 27
Luna 27
(2022) Mars
Mars
2022 orbiter (2022) Psyche (2022) Chinese large modular space station
Chinese large modular space station
(2022) Indian Venusian orbiter mission
Indian Venusian orbiter mission
(2023) QZS-5
QZS-5
(2023) QZS-6
QZS-6
(2023) QZS-7
QZS-7
(2023) GOES-U
GOES-U
(2024) MMX (2024) Europa Clipper
Europa Clipper
(2025) Luna 28
Luna 28
(2025) PLATO (2026) Europa Lander (2026+) Venera-D
Venera-D
(2026+) WFIRST (mid-2020s) ARIEL (2028) ATHENA (2028) LISA (2034)

Uns

KiwiSAT Nano-JASMINE SELENE-2

Recently launched

Hispasat 30W-6
Hispasat 30W-6
/ PODSAT (6 March) O3b
O3b
F4 (9 March) LKW-4 (17 March) Soyuz MS-08
Soyuz MS-08
(21 March) GSAT-6A
GSAT-6A
(29 March) SpaceX CRS-14
SpaceX CRS-14
(2 April) Superbird-B3 / HYLAS-4 (5 April)

List of proposed missions to the Moon List of proposed space o

.