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Lipari
Lipari
(Italian pronunciation: [ˈliːpari], Sicilian: Lìpari, Latin: Lipara, Ancient Greek: Μελιγουνίς Meligounis or Λιπάρα Lipara) is the largest of the Aeolian Islands
Aeolian Islands
in the Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
off the northern coast of Sicily, southern Italy; it is also the name of the island's main town and comune, which is administratively part of the Metropolitan City of Messina. Its population is 12,734, but during the May to September tourist season, the total population may reach up to 20,000.

Contents

1 Geography 2 Geology 3 History

3.1 Neolithic Period 3.2 Late Bronze Age 3.3 Iron Age 3.4 Greek Period 3.5 From the Middle Ages to present

3.5.1 Franco-Ottoman attack

3.6 20th century

4 Culture and media 5 People 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Geography[edit] Lipari
Lipari
is the largest of a chain of islands in a volcanic archipelago situated in between Vesuvius
Vesuvius
and Etna. The island has a surface area of 37.6 square kilometres (14.5 sq mi) and is 30 kilometres (19 mi) from Sicily. Besides the main town, most of the year-round population resides in one of the four main villages: Pianoconte is almost due west across the island, Quattropani in the northwest, Acquacalda along the northern coast, whereas Canneto is on the eastern shore north of Lipari
Lipari
town. Geology[edit]

A pumice mine just east of Acquacalda.

View of Lipari.

Geologists agree on the fact that Lipari
Lipari
was created by a succession of four volcanic movements, the most important of which was the third one, presumably lasting from 20,000 BC to 13,000 BC. A further important phenomenon should have happened around 9000 BC.[1] The last recorded eruptions occurred in the fifth century CE when airborne pumice, together with volcanic ash, covered the Roman villages of the island. The volcanoes are considered active, and steaming fumaroles and hydrothermal activity may still be seen. As a result of its volcanic origin, the island is covered with pumice and obsidian. Pumice
Pumice
mining has become a large industry on Lipari, and the pale pumice from Lipari
Lipari
is shipped worldwide. History[edit] Neolithic Period[edit] In Neolithic times Lipari
Lipari
was, much like Sardinia, one of the few centers of trading in obsidian, a hard black volcanic glass prized by Neolithic peoples for the extremely sharp cutting edges that can be obtained. Lipari's history is rich in incidents as witnessed by the recent retrievals of several necropolis and other archaeological sites. Humans seem to have inhabited the island already in 5000 BC, though a local legend gives the eponymous name "Liparus" to the leader of a people coming from Campania. Late Bronze Age[edit] In the Mycenaean Period, Lipari
Lipari
has yielded pottery from LHI to LHIII.[2][3] Iron Age[edit] Lipari's continuous occupation may have been interrupted violently when in the late 9th century an Ausonian civilization site was burned and apparently not rebuilt. Many household objects have been retrieved from the charred site. Greek Period[edit] Greek colonists from Knidos
Knidos
arrived at Lipara ~580 BC after their first colonization attempt in Sicily
Sicily
failed and their leader, Pentathlos, was killed.[4] They settled on the site of the village now known as Castello. The colony successfully fought the Etruscans for control of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Carthaginian forces succeeded in holding the site briefly during their struggles with Dionysios I, tyrant of Syracuse in 394, but once they were gone the polis entered a three-way alliance which included Dionysios' new colony at Tyndaris. Lipara prospered, but in 304 Agathokles took the town by treachery and is said to have lost all of his pillage from it in a storm at sea. Many objects recovered from old wrecks are now in the Aeolian Museum of Lipari. Lipara became a Carthaginian naval base during the first Punic War, but fell to Roman forces in 252–251 BC, and was occupied by Agrippa in Octavian's campaign against Pompei. Under the Roman Empire, it was a place of retreat, exile and was enjoyed because of its baths (the hydrothermal waters are still used as a spa). From the Middle Ages to present[edit]

The 1556 fortifications, built atop ancient Greek walls.

Lipari
Lipari
was probably an episcopal see from the 3rd century onward, with the first bishop being St. Agatone, who, according to tradition, had found the sacred remains of St. Bartholomew
St. Bartholomew
that had washed ashore, and put the precious relics for veneration in his cathedral. The presence of the relics has been attested since at least 546. In the 9th century, Sicily
Sicily
was conquered by the Arabs, and soon Saracen pirates began to raid across the Tyrrhenian Sea, with dramatic effects for Lipari. In 839 the Saracens slaughtered much of the population, the relics of St. Bartholomew
St. Bartholomew
were moved to Benevento, and Lipari
Lipari
was eventually almost totally abandoned. The Normans
Normans
conquered the Arabs
Arabs
throughout Sicily
Sicily
between 1060 and 1090, and repopulated the island once their rule was secure. The Lipari
Lipari
episcopal seat was reinstated in 1131. Though still plagued by pirate raids, the island was continually populated from this time onward. Rule of the island was passed from the Normans
Normans
to the Hohenstaufen
Hohenstaufen
Kings, followed by the Angevins, and then the Aragonese, until Carlos I, the Aragonese King, became the Spanish King, and was then quickly crowned Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V. Franco-Ottoman attack[edit] In 1544, Hayreddin Barbarossa, together with the French fleet of Captain Polin
Captain Polin
under a Franco-Ottoman alliance, ransacked Lipari
Lipari
and enslaved the entire population.[5] Jérôme Maurand
Jérôme Maurand
lamented about the depredation to his Christian fellow men during the campaign at Lipari: "To see so many poor Christians, and especially so many little boys and girls [enslaved] caused a very great pity." He also mentioned "the tears, wailings and cries of these poor Lipariotes, the father regarding his son and the mother her daughter... weeping while leaving their own city in order to be brought into slavery by those dogs who seemed like rapacious wolves amidst timid lambs".[6] A number of the citizens were ransomed in Messina
Messina
and eventually returned to the islands. Charles V then had his Spanish subjects repopulate the island and build the massive city walls atop the walls of the ancient Greek acropolis in 1556. The walls created a mighty fortress still standing today. The acropolis, high above the main town, was a safe haven for the populace in the event of a raid. While these walls protected the main town, it was not safe to live on the rest of the island until Mediterranean piracy was largely eradicated, which did not occur until the 19th century. 20th century[edit] During the 1930s–1940s, Lipari
Lipari
Island was used for the confinement of political prisoners including: Emilio Lussu, Curzio Malaparte, Carlo Rosselli, Giuseppe Ghetti and Edda Mussolini. Culture and media[edit]

The archaeological museum covers human history of the Aeolian Islands from prehistoric to classical times, vulcanology, marine history, and the paleontology of the western Mediterranean. The ending sequence of Kaos by Paolo and Vittorio Taviani
Paolo and Vittorio Taviani
showed children sliding down the vast slopes of white pumice that flowed into the sea. Today the pumice slope stops about 1 metre (3 ft) from the sea. The annual feasts of St. Bartholomew.[7] On 25 July 2013, the mayor of Lipari
Lipari
issued an ordinance banning the wearing of "bikinis, thongs or other swimming costumes in the town centre" to be punished with a fine of 500 euros[8] (equivalent to about $700 in 2014).

People[edit]

Buddy Valastro
Buddy Valastro
- The Cake Boss Francesco Scoglio - Football Coach Natalie Imbruglia
Natalie Imbruglia
- Singer and Actress John Sidoti MP - NSW Politician Christian Riganò
Christian Riganò
- Football player Pia Miranda
Pia Miranda
- Actress

See also[edit]

List of volcanoes in Italy

References[edit]

^ Keller, J. (1969): Die historischen Eruptionen von Volcano und Lipari. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, vol.121, pp.179-185. ^ Gert Jan van Wijngaarden (2002) Use and Appreciation of Mycenaean Pottery in the Levant, Cyprus and Italy
Italy
(1600-1200 BC) ^ Bernabo-Brea & Cavalier 1980 ^ Diodorus Siculus 5.9, Pausanias 10.11.3-4 ^ Syed, Muzaffar Husain; Akhtar, Syed Saud; Usmani, B. D. (2011-09-14). Concise History of Islam. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. ISBN 9789382573470.  ^ Anthony Carmen Piccirillo p.1[permanent dead link] ^ "Festa di San Bartolomeo a Lipari". www.siciliainfesta.com. Retrieved 4 March 2018.  ^ " Lipari
Lipari
bans swim-suit attire from town centre". Retrieved 4 March 2018. 

Ezio Giunta, dir. (2005). "Lipari". Estateolie 2005*The Essential Guide (English version of Tourist Guidebook): 2–61. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Lipari.

Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites Website for Finding Nino Travelogue about living on Lipari, the 2008 winner of the ASTW Travel Book of the Year Award.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Diocese of Patti". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.  Patti

v t e

Comuni of the Metropolitan City of Messina

Acquedolci Alcara li Fusi Alì Alì
Alì
Terme Antillo Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto Basicò Brolo Capizzi Capo d'Orlando Capri Leone Caronia Casalvecchio Siculo Castel di Lucio Castell'Umberto Castelmola Castroreale Cesarò Condrò Falcone Ficarra Fiumedinisi Floresta Fondachelli-Fantina Forza d'Agrò Francavilla di Sicilia Frazzanò Furci Siculo Furnari Gaggi Galati Mamertino Gallodoro Giardini Naxos Gioiosa Marea Graniti Gualtieri Sicaminò Itala Leni Letojanni Librizzi Limina Lipari Longi Malfa Malvagna Mandanici Mazzarrà Sant'Andrea Merì Messina Milazzo Militello Rosmarino Mirto Mistretta Mojo Alcantara Monforte San Giorgio Mongiuffi Melia Montagnareale Montalbano Elicona Motta Camastra Motta d'Affermo Naso Nizza di Sicilia Novara di Sicilia Oliveri Pace del Mela Pagliara Patti Pettineo Piraino Raccuja Reitano Roccafiorita Roccalumera Roccavaldina Roccella Valdemone Rodì Milici Rometta San Filippo del Mela San Fratello San Marco d'Alunzio San Pier Niceto San Piero Patti San Salvatore di Fitalia Santa Domenica Vittoria Sant'Agata di Militello Sant'Alessio Siculo Santa Lucia del Mela Santa Marina Salina Sant'Angelo di Brolo Santa Teresa di Riva San Teodoro Santo Stefano di Camastra Saponara Savoca Scaletta Zanclea Sinagra Spadafora Taormina Terme Vigliatore Torregrotta Torrenova Tortorici Tripi Tusa Ucria Valdina Venetico Villafranca Tirrena

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History

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Culture and heritage

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