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The Info List - Linus Pauling





As faculty member

Caltech
Caltech
(1927–1963) UC San Diego (1967–1969) Stanford (1969–1975)

As fellow

Cornell University
Cornell University
(1937-1938) University of Oxford
University of Oxford
(1948) Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions (1963–1967)

Thesis The Determination with X-Rays of the Structures of Crystals (1925[3])

Doctoral advisor Roscoe Dickinson Richard Tolman[1]

Other academic advisors Arnold Sommerfeld Niels Bohr[2]

Doctoral students Martin Karplus Jerry Donohue Matthew Meselson Edgar Bright Wilson William Lipscomb[1]

Signature

Notes

The only person to win two unshared Nobel Prizes.

External video

Linus Pauling, Oregon Experience, Oregon Historical Society

Linus Carl Pauling (/ˈpɔːlɪŋ/; February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994)[4] was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling. He published more than 1,200 papers and books, of which about 850 dealt with scientific topics.[5] New Scientist
New Scientist
called him one of the 20 greatest scientists of all time,[6] and as of 2000, he was rated the 16th most important scientist in history.[7] Pauling was one of the founders of the fields of quantum chemistry and molecular biology.[8] His contributions to the theory of the chemical bond include the concept of orbital hybridisation and the first accurate scale of electronegativities of the elements. Pauling also worked on the structures of biological molecules, and showed the importance of the alpha helix and beta sheet in protein secondary structure. Pauling's approach combined methods and results from X-ray crystallography, molecular model building and quantum chemistry. His discoveries inspired the work of James Watson
James Watson
and Francis Crick
Francis Crick
on the structure of DNA, which in turn made it possible for geneticists to crack the DNA code of all organisms.[9] In his later years he promoted nuclear disarmament, as well as orthomolecular medicine, megavitamin therapy,[10] and dietary supplements. None of the latter have gained much acceptance in the mainstream scientific community.[6][11] For his scientific work, Pauling was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954. For his peace activism, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962. He is one of four individuals to have won more than one Nobel Prize (the others being Marie Curie, John Bardeen
John Bardeen
and Frederick Sanger).[12] Of these, he is the only person to have been awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes,[13] and one of two people to be awarded Nobel Prizes in different fields, the other being Marie Curie.[12]

Contents

1 Early life and education

1.1 Higher education

2 Personal life 3 Career

3.1 Nature of the chemical bond 3.2 Ionic crystal structures 3.3 Biological molecules 3.4 Molecular genetics 3.5 Structure of the atomic nucleus 3.6 Activism

3.6.1 Wartime work 3.6.2 Nuclear activism 3.6.3 Political criticism 3.6.4 Vietnam war activism 3.6.5 Eugenics

3.7 Medical research and vitamin C advocacy

4 Legacy

4.1 Commemorations

5 Honors and awards 6 Publications

6.1 Books 6.2 Journal articles

7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 10 Further reading 11 External links

Early life and education[edit]

Photo of Herman Henry William Pauling, Linus Pauling's father, taken c. 1900

Pauling was born in Portland, Oregon,[14][15] the first-born child of Herman Henry William Pauling (1876–1910) and Lucy Isabelle "Belle" Darling (1881–1926).[16] He was named "Linus Carl", in honor of Lucy's father, Linus, and Herman's father, Carl.[17] In 1902, after his sister Pauline was born, Pauling's parents decided to move out of Portland, to find more affordable and spacious living quarters than their one-room apartment.[18] Lucy stayed with her husband's parents in Lake Oswego until Herman brought the family to Salem, where he worked briefly as a traveling salesman for the Skidmore Drug Company. Within a year of Lucile's birth in 1904, Herman Pauling moved his family to Oswego, where he opened his own drugstore.[18] He moved his family to Condon, Oregon
Condon, Oregon
in 1905.[19] By 1906, Herman Pauling was suffering from recurrent abdominal pain. He died of a perforated ulcer on June 11, 1910, leaving Lucy to care for Linus, Lucile and Pauline.[20] Pauling attributes his interest in becoming a chemist to being amazed by experiments conducted by a friend, Lloyd A. Jeffress, who had a small chemistry lab kit.[21] He later wrote: "I was simply entranced by chemical phenomena, by the reactions in which substances, often with strikingly different properties, appear; and I hoped to learn more and more about this aspect of the world."[22] In high school, Pauling conducted chemistry experiments by scavenging equipment and material from an abandoned steel plant. With an older friend, Lloyd Simon, Pauling set up Palmon Laboratories in Simon's basement. They approached local dairies offering to perform butterfat samplings at cheap prices but dairymen were wary of trusting two boys with the task, and the business ended in failure.[23] At age 15, the high school senior had enough credits to enter Oregon State University (OSU), known then as Oregon Agricultural College.[24] Lacking two American history courses required for his high school diploma, Pauling asked the school principal if he could take the courses concurrently during the spring semester. Denied, he left Washington High School in June without a diploma.[25] The school awarded him an honorary diploma 45 years later, after he was awarded two Nobel Prizes.[12][26][27] Pauling held a number of jobs to earn money for his future college expenses, including working part-time at a grocery store for $8 per week. His mother arranged an interview with the owner of a number of manufacturing plants in Portland, Mr. Schwietzerhoff, who hired him as an apprentice machinist at a salary of $40 per month. This was soon raised to $50 per month.[28] Pauling also set up a photography laboratory with two friends.[29] In September 1917, Pauling was finally admitted by Oregon State University. He immediately resigned from the machinist's job and informed his mother, who saw no point in a university education, of his plans.[30] Higher education[edit]

Pauling's graduation photo from Oregon State University, 1922

In his first semester, Pauling registered for two courses in chemistry, two in mathematics, mechanical drawing, introduction to mining and use of explosives, modern English prose, gymnastics and military drill.[31] He was active in campus life and founded the school's chapter of the Delta Upsilon
Delta Upsilon
fraternity.[32] After his second year, he planned to take a job in Portland to help support his mother. The college offered him a position teaching quantitative analysis, a course he had just finished taking himself. He worked forty hours a week in the laboratory and classroom and earned $100 a month, enabling him to continue his studies.[33] In his last two years at school, Pauling became aware of the work of Gilbert N. Lewis
Gilbert N. Lewis
and Irving Langmuir
Irving Langmuir
on the electronic structure of atoms and their bonding to form molecules.[33] He decided to focus his research on how the physical and chemical properties of substances are related to the structure of the atoms of which they are composed, becoming one of the founders of the new science of quantum chemistry. Engineering professor Samuel Graf selected Pauling to be his teaching assistant in a mechanics and materials course.[34][35][36] During the winter of his senior year, Pauling taught a chemistry course for home economics majors. It was in one of these classes that Pauling met his future wife, Ava Helen Miller.[35]:41[37][38][39] In 1922, Pauling graduated from Oregon State University[4] (known then as Oregon Agricultural College) with a degree in chemical engineering. He went on to graduate school at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, California, under the guidance of Roscoe Dickinson and Richard Tolman.[1] His graduate research involved the use of X-ray diffraction
X-ray diffraction
to determine the structure of crystals. He published seven papers on the crystal structure of minerals while he was at Caltech. He received his PhD in physical chemistry and mathematical physics,[3] summa cum laude, in 1925.[40] Personal life[edit]

The Pauling children at a gathering in celebration of the 1954 Nobel Prizes in Stockholm, Sweden. Seated from left: Linus Pauling, Jr., Peter Pauling and Linda Pauling. Standing from left: an unidentified individual and Crellin Pauling

Pauling married Ava Helen Miller on June 17, 1923. The marriage lasted until Ava Pauling's death in 1981. They had four children.[41] Linus Carl Jr. (born 1925) became a psychiatrist; Peter Jeffress (1931–2003) a crystallographer; Edward Crellin (1937–1997) a biologist; and Linda Helen (born 1932) married noted Caltech
Caltech
geologist and glaciologist Barclay Kamb.[42] Pauling was raised as a member of the Lutheran
Lutheran
Church,[43] but later joined the Unitarian Universalist
Unitarian Universalist
Church.[44] Two years before his death, in a published dialogue with Buddhist philosopher Daisaku Ikeda, Pauling publicly declared his atheism.[45] Pauling died of prostate cancer on August 19, 1994, at 19:20 at home in Big Sur, California. He was 93 years old.[46] A grave marker for Pauling was placed in Oswego Pioneer Cemetery in Lake Oswego, Oregon by his sister Pauline,[47][48] but Pauling’s ashes, along with those of his wife, were not buried there until 2005.[47] Career[edit] In 1926 Pauling was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship to travel to Europe, to study under German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld
Arnold Sommerfeld
in Munich, Danish physicist Niels Bohr
Niels Bohr
in Copenhagen and Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in Zürich. All three were experts in the new field of quantum mechanics and other branches of physics.[2] Pauling became interested in how quantum mechanics might be applied in his chosen field of interest, the electronic structure of atoms and molecules. In Zürich, Pauling was also exposed to one of the first quantum mechanical analyses of bonding in the hydrogen molecule, done by Walter Heitler
Walter Heitler
and Fritz London.[49] Pauling devoted the two years of his European trip to this work and decided to make it the focus of his future research. He became one of the first scientists in the field of quantum chemistry and a pioneer in the application of quantum theory to the structure of molecules.[50] In 1927, Pauling took a new position as an assistant professor at Caltech
Caltech
in theoretical chemistry.[51] He launched his faculty career with a very productive five years, continuing with his X-ray
X-ray
crystal studies and also performing quantum mechanical calculations on atoms and molecules. He published approximately fifty papers in those five years, and created the five rules now known as Pauling's rules.[52][53] By 1929, he was promoted to associate professor, and by 1930, to full professor.[51] In 1931, the American Chemical Society awarded Pauling the Langmuir Prize for the most significant work in pure science by a person 30 years of age or younger.[54] The following year, Pauling published what he regarded as his most important paper, in which he first laid out the concept of hybridization of atomic orbitals and analyzed the tetravalency of the carbon atom.[55] At Caltech, Pauling struck up a close friendship with theoretical physicist Robert Oppenheimer, who spent part of his research and teaching schedule away from U.C. Berkeley at Caltech
Caltech
every year.[56][57] Pauling was also affiliated to UC Berkeley as Visiting Lecturer in Physics and Chemistry from 1929–1934.[58] Oppenheimer even gave Pauling a stunning personal collection of minerals.[59] The two men planned to mount a joint attack on the nature of the chemical bond: apparently Oppenheimer would supply the mathematics and Pauling would interpret the results. Their relationship soured when Oppenheimer tried to pursue Pauling's wife, Ava Helen. When Pauling was at work, Oppenheimer came to their home and blurted out an invitation to Ava Helen to join him on a tryst in Mexico. She flatly refused, and reported the incident to Pauling. He immediately cut off his relationship with Oppenheimer.[56]:152[57] In the summer of 1930, Pauling made another European trip, during which he learned about gas-phase electron diffraction from Herman Francis Mark. After returning, he built an electron diffraction instrument at Caltech
Caltech
with a student of his, Lawrence Olin Brockway, and used it to study the molecular structure of a large number of chemical substances.[60] Pauling introduced the concept of electronegativity in 1932.[61] Using the various properties of molecules, such as the energy required to break bonds and the dipole moments of molecules, he established a scale and an associated numerical value for most of the elements – the Pauling Electronegativity
Electronegativity
Scale – which is useful in predicting the nature of bonds between atoms in molecules.[62] In 1936, Pauling was promoted to Chairman of the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at Caltech, and to the position of Director of the Gates and Crellin laboratories of Chemistry. He would hold both positions until 1958.[51] Pauling also spent a year in 1948 at the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
as George Eastman Visiting Professor and Fellow of Balliol.[63] Nature of the chemical bond[edit] In the late 1920s, Pauling began publishing papers on the nature of the chemical bond. Between 1937 and 1938 he took a position as George Fischer Baker Non-Resident Lecturer in Chemistry at Cornell University. While at Cornell, he delivered a series of nineteen lectures[64] and completed the bulk of his famous textbook The Nature of the Chemical Bond.[65][66]:Preface While at Cornell, Pauling resided at the Telluride House.[53]:xii It is based primarily on his work in this area that he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
in 1954 "for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances".[12] Pauling's book has been considered "chemistry's most influential book of this century and its effective bible".[67] In the 30 years after its first edition was published in 1939, the book was cited more than 16,000 times. Even today, many modern scientific papers and articles in important journals cite this work, more than seventy years after the first publication.[68] Part of Pauling's work on the nature of the chemical bond led to his introduction of the concept of orbital hybridization.[69] While it is normal to think of the electrons in an atom as being described by orbitals of types such as s and p, it turns out that in describing the bonding in molecules, it is better to construct functions that partake of some of the properties of each. Thus the one 2s and three 2p orbitals in a carbon atom can be (mathematically) 'mixed' or combined to make four equivalent orbitals (called sp3 hybrid orbitals), which would be the appropriate orbitals to describe carbon compounds such as methane, or the 2s orbital may be combined with two of the 2p orbitals to make three equivalent orbitals (called sp2 hybrid orbitals), with the remaining 2p orbital unhybridized, which would be the appropriate orbitals to describe certain unsaturated carbon compounds such as ethylene.[66]:111–120 Other hybridization schemes are also found in other types of molecules. Another area which he explored was the relationship between ionic bonding, where electrons are transferred between atoms, and covalent bonding, where electrons are shared between atoms on an equal basis. Pauling showed that these were merely extremes, and that for most actual cases of bonding, the quantum-mechanical wave function for a polar molecule AB is a combination of wave functions for covalent and ionic molecules.[53]:66 Here Pauling's electronegativity concept is particularly useful; the electronegativity difference between a pair of atoms will be the surest predictor of the degree of ionicity of the bond.[70] The third of the topics that Pauling attacked under the overall heading of "the nature of the chemical bond" was the accounting of the structure of aromatic hydrocarbons, particularly the prototype, benzene.[71] The best description of benzene had been made by the German chemist Friedrich Kekulé. He had treated it as a rapid interconversion between two structures, each with alternating single and double bonds, but with the double bonds of one structure in the locations where the single bonds were in the other. Pauling showed that a proper description based on quantum mechanics was an intermediate structure which was a blend of each. The structure was a superposition of structures rather than a rapid interconversion between them. The name "resonance" was later applied to this phenomenon.[72] In a sense, this phenomenon resembles those of hybridization and also polar bonding, both described above, because all three phenomena involve combining more than one electronic structure to achieve an intermediate result. Ionic crystal structures[edit] In 1929 he published five rules which help to predict and explain crystal structures of ionic compounds.[73][53] These rules concern (1) the ratio of cation radius to anion radius, (2) the electrostatic bond strength, (3) the sharing of polyhedron corners, edges and faces, (4) crystals containing different cations, and (5) the rule of parsimony. Biological molecules[edit]

An alpha helix in ultra-high-resolution electron density contours, with O atoms in red, N atoms in blue, and hydrogen bonds as green dotted lines (PDB file 2NRL, 17-32).

In the mid-1930s, Pauling, strongly influenced by the biologically oriented funding priorities of the Rockefeller Foundation's Warren Weaver, decided to strike out into new areas of interest.[74] Although Pauling's early interest had focused almost exclusively on inorganic molecular structures, he had occasionally thought about molecules of biological importance, in part because of Caltech's growing strength in biology. Pauling interacted with such great biologists as Thomas Hunt Morgan, Theodosius Dobzhanski, Calvin Bridges and Alfred Sturtevant.[75] His early work in this area included studies of the structure of hemoglobin with his student Charles D. Coryell. He demonstrated that the hemoglobin molecule changes structure when it gains or loses an oxygen atom.[75] As a result of this observation, he decided to conduct a more thorough study of protein structure in general. He returned to his earlier use of X-ray diffraction
X-ray diffraction
analysis. But protein structures were far less amenable to this technique than the crystalline minerals of his former work. The best X-ray
X-ray
pictures of proteins in the 1930s had been made by the British crystallographer William Astbury, but when Pauling tried, in 1937, to account for Astbury's observations quantum mechanically, he could not.[76] It took eleven years for Pauling to explain the problem: his mathematical analysis was correct, but Astbury's pictures were taken in such a way that the protein molecules were tilted from their expected positions. Pauling had formulated a model for the structure of hemoglobin in which atoms were arranged in a helical pattern, and applied this idea to proteins in general. In 1951, based on the structures of amino acids and peptides and the planar nature of the peptide bond, Pauling, Robert Corey and Herman Branson correctly proposed the alpha helix and beta sheet as the primary structural motifs in protein secondary structure.[77][78] This work exemplified Pauling's ability to think unconventionally; central to the structure was the unorthodox assumption that one turn of the helix may well contain a non-integer number of amino acid residues; for the alpha helix it is 3.7 amino acid residues per turn. Pauling then proposed that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was a triple helix;[79][80] his model contained several basic mistakes, including a proposal of neutral phosphate groups, an idea that conflicted with the acidity of DNA. Sir Lawrence Bragg had been disappointed that Pauling had won the race to find the alpha helix structure of proteins. Bragg's team had made a fundamental error in making their models of protein by not recognizing the planar nature of the peptide bond. When it was learned at the Cavendish Laboratory
Cavendish Laboratory
that Pauling was working on molecular models of the structure of DNA, James Watson
James Watson
and Francis Crick were allowed to make a molecular model of DNA. They later benefited from unpublished data from Maurice Wilkins
Maurice Wilkins
and Rosalind Franklin at King's College which showed evidence for a helix and planar base stacking along the helix axis. Early in 1953 Watson and Crick proposed a correct structure for the DNA double helix. Pauling later cited several reasons to explain how he had been misled about the structure of DNA, among them misleading density data and the lack of high quality X-ray diffraction
X-ray diffraction
photographs. During the time Pauling was researching the problem, Rosalind Franklin
Rosalind Franklin
in England was creating the world's best images. They were key to Watson's and Crick's success. Pauling did not see them before devising his mistaken DNA structure, although his assistant Robert Corey did see at least some of them, while taking Pauling's place at a summer 1952 protein conference in England. Pauling had been prevented from attending because his passport was withheld by the State Department on suspicion that he had Communist sympathies. This led to the legend that Pauling missed the structure of DNA because of the politics of the day (this was at the start of the McCarthy period in the United States). Politics did not play a critical role. Not only did Corey see the images at the time, but Pauling himself regained his passport within a few weeks and toured English laboratories well before writing his DNA paper. He had ample opportunity to visit Franklin's lab and see her work, but chose not to.[56]:414–415 Pauling also studied enzyme reactions and was among the first to point out that enzymes bring about reactions by stabilizing the transition state of the reaction, a view which is central to understanding their mechanism of action.[81] He was also among the first scientists to postulate that the binding of antibodies to antigens would be due to a complementarity between their structures.[82] Along the same lines, with the physicist turned biologist Max Delbrück, he wrote an early paper arguing that DNA replication
DNA replication
was likely to be due to complementarity, rather than similarity, as suggested by a few researchers. This was made clear in the model of the structure of DNA that Watson and Crick discovered.[83] Molecular genetics[edit] In November 1949, Pauling, Harvey Itano, S. J. Singer and Ibert Wells published "Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease"[84] in the journal Science. It was the first proof of a human disease caused by an abnormal protein, and sickle cell anemia became the first disease understood at the molecular level. Using electrophoresis, they demonstrated that individuals with sickle cell disease have a modified form of hemoglobin in their red blood cells, and that individuals with sickle cell trait have both the normal and abnormal forms of hemoglobin. This was the first demonstration causally linking an abnormal protein to a disease, and also the first demonstration that Mendelian inheritance
Mendelian inheritance
determines the specific physical properties of proteins, not simply their presence or absence – the dawn of molecular genetics.[85] His success with sickle cell anemia led Pauling to speculate that a number of other diseases, including mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, might result from flawed genetics. As chairman of the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and director of the Gates and Crellin Chemical Laboratories, he encouraged the hiring of researchers with a chemical-biomedical approach to mental illness, a direction not always popular with established Caltech
Caltech
chemists.[86]:2 In 1951, Pauling gave a lecture entitled "Molecular Medicine".[87] In the late 1950s, Pauling studied the role of enzymes in brain function, believing that mental illness may be partly caused by enzyme dysfunction. Structure of the atomic nucleus[edit] On September 16, 1952, Pauling opened a new research notebook with the words "I have decided to attack the problem of the structure of nuclei." On October 15, 1965, Pauling published his Close-Packed Spheron Model of the atomic nucleus in two well respected journals, Science and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.[88][89][90] For nearly three decades, until his death in 1994, Pauling published numerous papers on his spheron cluster model.[91][92][93][94][95][96] The basic idea behind Pauling's spheron model is that a nucleus can be viewed as a set of "clusters of nucleons". The basic nucleon clusters include the deuteron [np], helion [pnp], and triton [npn]. Even–even nuclei are described as being composed of clusters of alpha particles, as has often been done for light nuclei.[97] Pauling attempted to derive the shell structure of nuclei from pure geometrical considerations related to Platonic solids
Platonic solids
rather than starting from an independent particle model as in the usual shell model. In an interview given in 1990 Pauling commented on his model:[98]

Now recently, I have been trying to determine detailed structures of atomic nuclei by analyzing the ground state and excited state vibrational bends, as observed experimentally. From reading the physics literature, Physical Review Letters and other journals, I know that many physicists are interested in atomic nuclei, but none of them, so far as I have been able to discover, has been attacking the problem in the same way that I attack it. So I just move along at my own speed, making calculations...

Activism[edit] Wartime work[edit] Pauling had been practically apolitical until World War II. At the beginning of the Manhattan Project, Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Oppenheimer
invited him to be in charge of the Chemistry division of the project. However, he declined, not wanting to uproot his family.[99] Pauling did, however, work on research for the military. He was a principal investigator on 14 OSRD contracts.[100] The National Defense Research Committee called a meeting on October 3, 1940, wanting an instrument that could reliably measure oxygen content in a mixture of gases, so that they could measure oxygen conditions in submarines and airplanes. In response Pauling designed the Pauling oxygen meter, which was developed and manufactured by Arnold O. Beckman, Inc.. After the war, Beckman adapted the oxygen analyzers for use in incubators for premature babies.[101]:180–186[102] In 1942, Pauling successfully submitted a proposal on "The Chemical Treatment of Protein
Protein
Solutions in the Attempt to Find a Substitute for Human Serum for Transfusions". His project group, which included J.B. Koepfli and Dan Campbell, developed a possible replacement for human blood plasma in transfusions: polyoxy gelatin (Oxypolygelatin).[103][104] Other wartime projects with more direct military applications included work on explosives, rocket propellants and the patent for an armor-piercing shell. In October 1948 Pauling was awarded a Presidential Medal for Merit
Presidential Medal for Merit
by President Harry S. Truman. The citation credits him for his "imaginative mind", "brilliant success", and "exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services.[105][106][107] In 1949, he served as president of the American Chemical Society.[108] Nuclear activism[edit] The aftermath of the Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
and his wife Ava's pacifism changed Pauling's life profoundly, and he became a peace activist. In 1946, he joined the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists, chaired by Albert Einstein.[109] Its mission was to warn the public of the dangers associated with the development of nuclear weapons. His political activism prompted the U.S. State Department to deny him a passport in 1952, when he was invited to speak at a scientific conference in London.[110][111] In a speech before the US Senate
US Senate
on June 6 of the same year, Senator Wayne Morse
Wayne Morse
publicly denounced the action of the State Department, and urged the Passport Division to reverse its decision. Pauling and his wife Ava were then issued a “limited passport” to attend the aforementioned conference in England.[112][113] His full passport was restored in 1954, shortly before the ceremony in Stockholm
Stockholm
where he received his first Nobel Prize. Joining Einstein, Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
and eight other leading scientists and intellectuals, he signed the Russell-Einstein Manifesto issued July 9, 1955.[114] He also supported the Mainau Declaration
Mainau Declaration
of July 15, 1955, signed by 52 Nobel Prize laureates.[115] In May 1957, working with Washington University in St. Louis
Washington University in St. Louis
professor Barry Commoner, Pauling began to circulate a petition among scientists to stop nuclear testing.[116] On January 15, 1958, Pauling and his wife presented a petition to United Nations
United Nations
Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld calling for an end to the testing of nuclear weapons. It was signed by 11,021 scientists representing fifty countries.[117][118] In February 1958, Pauling participated in a publicly televised debate with the atomic physicist Edward Teller
Edward Teller
about the actual probability of fallout causing mutations.[119] Later in 1958, Pauling published No more war!, in which he not only called for an end to the testing of nuclear weapons but also an end to war itself. He proposed that a World Peace Research Organization be set up as part of the United Nations to "attack the problem of preserving the peace".[12] Pauling also supported the work of the St. Louis Citizen's Committee for Nuclear Information (CNI).[116] This group, headed by Barry Commoner, Eric Reiss, M. W. Friedlander and John Fowler, organized a longtudinal study to measure radioactive strontium-90 in the baby teeth of children across North America. The "Baby Tooth Survey," published by Dr. Louise Reiss, demonstrated conclusively in 1961 that above-ground nuclear testing posed significant public health risks in the form of radioactive fallout spread primarily via milk from cows that had ingested contaminated grass.[120][121][122] The Committee for Nuclear Information is frequently credited for its significant contribution to supporting the test ban,[123] as is the ground-breaking research conducted by Dr. Reiss and the "Baby Tooth Survey".[124] Public pressure and the frightening results of the CNI research subsequently led to a moratorium on above-ground nuclear weapons testing, followed by the Partial Test Ban Treaty, signed in 1963 by John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
and Nikita Khrushchev. On the day that the treaty went into force, October 10, 1963, the Nobel Prize Committee awarded Pauling the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
for 1962. (No prize had previously been awarded for that year.)[125] They described him as "Linus Carl Pauling, who ever since 1946 has campaigned ceaselessly, not only against nuclear weapons tests, not only against the spread of these armaments, not only against their very use, but against all warfare as a means of solving international conflicts."[126] Pauling himself acknowledged his wife Ava's deep involvement in peace work, and regretted that she was not awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
with him.[127] Political criticism[edit] Many of Pauling's critics, including scientists who appreciated the contributions that he had made in chemistry, disagreed with his political positions and saw him as a naïve spokesman for Soviet communism. In 1960 he was ordered to appear before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee,[128] which termed him "the number one scientific name in virtually every major activity of the Communist peace offensive in this country."[129] A headline in Life magazine characterized his 1962 Nobel Prize as "A Weird Insult from Norway".[130] Pauling was a frequent target of The National Review
The National Review
magazine. In an article entitled "The Collaborators" in the magazine's July 17, 1962 issue, Pauling was referred to not only as a collaborator, but as a "fellow traveler" of proponents of Soviet-style communism. In 1965, Pauling sued the magazine, its publisher William Rusher, and its editor William F. Buckley, Jr
William F. Buckley, Jr
for $1 million. He lost both his libel suits and the 1968 appeal.[131][132][133][134] His peace activism, his frequent travels, and his enthusiastic expansion into chemical-biomedical research all aroused opposition at Caltech. In 1958, the Caltech
Caltech
Board of Trustees demanded that Pauling step down as chairman of the Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Division.[86]:2 Although he had retained tenure as a full professor, Pauling chose to resign from Caltech
Caltech
after he received the Nobel peace prize money. He spent the next three years at the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions (1963–1967).[22] In 1967 he moved to the University of California at San Diego, but remained there only briefly, leaving in 1969 in part because of political tensions with the Reagan-era board of regents.[86]:3 From 1969 to 1974 he accepted a position as Professor of Chemistry at Stanford University.[51] Vietnam war activism[edit] During the 1960s, President Lyndon Johnson’s policy of increasing America’s involvement in the Vietnam War caused an anti-war movement that the Paulings joined with enthusiasm. Pauling denounced the war as unnecessary and unconstitutional. He made speeches, signed protest letters and communicated personally with the North Vietnamese leader, Ho Chi Minh, and gave the lengthy written response to President Johnson. His efforts were ignored by the American government.[135] Pauling was awarded the International Lenin Peace Prize
Lenin Peace Prize
by the USSR in 1970.[129][136] He continued his peace activism in the following years. He and his wife Ava helped to found the International League of Humanists in 1974.[137] He was president of the scientific advisory board of the World Union for Protection of Life
World Union for Protection of Life
and also one of the signatories of the Dubrovnik-Philadelphia Statement of 1974/1976.[138] Linus Carl Pauling was an honorary president and member of the International Academy of Science, Munich until the end of his life.[139] Eugenics[edit] Pauling supported a limited form of eugenics by suggesting that human carriers of defective genes be given a compulsory visible mark - such as a forehead tattoo - to discourage potential mates with the same defect, in order to reduce the number of babies with diseases such as sickle cell anemia.[140][141] Medical research and vitamin C advocacy[edit]

Pauling's book, How to Live Longer and Feel Better, advocated the very high intake of Vitamin C.[142]

In 1941, at age 40, Pauling was diagnosed with Bright's disease, a renal disease. Following the recommendations of Thomas Addis, who actively recruited Ava Helen Pauling
Ava Helen Pauling
as "nutritionist, cook, and eventually as deputy 'doctor'", Pauling was able to control the disease with Addis's then-unusual low-protein salt-free diet and vitamin supplements.[143] Thus Pauling's initial – and intensely personal – exposure to the idea of treating disease with vitamin supplements was positive. In 1965 Pauling read Niacin
Niacin
Therapy in Psychiatry
Psychiatry
by Abram Hoffer and theorized vitamins might have important biochemical effects unrelated to their prevention of associated deficiency diseases.[144] In 1968 Pauling published a brief paper in Science entitled "Orthomolecular psychiatry",[145] giving a name to the popular but controversial megavitamin therapy movement of the 1970s, and advocating that "orthomolecular therapy, the provision for the individual person of the optimum concentrations of important normal constituents of the brain, may be the preferred treatment for many mentally ill patients." Pauling coined the term "orthomolecular" to refer to the practice of varying the concentration of substances normally present in the body to prevent and treat disease. His ideas formed the basis of orthomolecular medicine, which is not generally practiced by conventional medical professionals and has been strongly criticized.[146][147] In 1973, with Arthur B. Robinson
Arthur B. Robinson
and another colleague, Pauling founded the Institute of Orthomolecular Medicine in Menlo Park, California, which was soon renamed the Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine. Pauling directed research on vitamin C, but also continued his theoretical work in chemistry and physics until his death. In his last years, he became especially interested in the possible role of vitamin C in preventing atherosclerosis and published three case reports on the use of lysine and vitamin C to relieve angina pectoris. During the 1990s Pauling put forward a comprehensive plan for the treatment of heart disease using lysine and vitamin C. In 1996 a website was created expounding Pauling's treatment which it referred to as Pauling Therapy. Proponents of Pauling Therapy believe that heart disease can be treated and even cured using only lysine and Vitamin C
Vitamin C
and without drugs or heart operations.[148] Pauling's work on vitamin C in his later years generated much controversy. He was first introduced to the concept of high-dose vitamin C by biochemist Irwin Stone in 1966. After becoming convinced of its worth, Pauling took 3 grams of vitamin C every day to prevent colds.[4] Excited by his own perceived results, he researched the clinical literature and published Vitamin C
Vitamin C
and the Common Cold in 1970. He began a long clinical collaboration with the British cancer surgeon Ewan Cameron in 1971 on the use of intravenous and oral vitamin C as cancer therapy for terminal patients.[149] Cameron and Pauling wrote many technical papers and a popular book, Cancer and Vitamin C, that discussed their observations. Pauling made vitamin C popular with the public[150] and eventually published two studies of a group of 100 allegedly terminal patients that claimed vitamin C increased survival by as much as four times compared to untreated patients.[151][152] A re-evaluation of the claims in 1982 found that the patient groups were not actually comparable, with the vitamin C group being less sick on entry to the study, and judged to be "terminal" much earlier than the comparison group.[153] Later clinical trials conducted by the Mayo Clinic also concluded that high-dose (10,000 mg) vitamin C was no better than placebo at treating cancer and that there was no benefit to high-dose vitamin C.[154][155][156] The failure of the clinical trials to demonstrate any benefit resulted in the conclusion that vitamin C was not effective in treating cancer; the medical establishment concluded that his claims that vitamin C could prevent colds or treat cancer were quackery.[4][157] Pauling denounced the conclusions of these studies and handling of the final study as "fraud and deliberate misrepresentation",[158][159] and criticized the studies for using oral, rather than intravenous vitamin C[160] (which was the dosing method used for the first ten days of Pauling's original study[157]). Pauling also criticised the Mayo clinic studies because the controls were taking vitamin C during the trial, and because the duration of the treatment with vitamin C was short; Pauling advocated continued high-dose vitamin C for the rest of the cancer patient's life whereas the Mayo clinic patients in the second trial were treated with vitamin C for a median of 2.5 months.[161] The results were publicly debated at length with considerable acrimony between Pauling and Cameron, and Moertel (the lead author of the Mayo Clinic studies), with accusations of misconduct and scientific incompetence on both sides. Ultimately the negative findings of the Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic
studies ended general interest in vitamin C as a treatment for cancer.[159] Despite this, Pauling continued to promote vitamin C for treating cancer and the common cold, working with The Institutes for the Achievement of Human Potential to use vitamin C in the treatment of brain-injured children.[162] He later collaborated with the Canadian physician Abram Hoffer on a micronutrient regime, including high-dose vitamin C, as adjunctive cancer therapy.[163] A 2009 review also noted differences between the studies, such as the Mayo clinic not using intravenous Vitamin C, and suggested further studies into the role of vitamin C when given intravenously.[164] Results from most clinical trials suggest that modest vitamin C supplementation alone or with other nutrients offers no benefit in the prevention of cancer.[165][166] Legacy[edit] Pauling's discoveries led to decisive contributions in a diverse array of areas including around 350 publications in the fields of quantum mechanics, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, protein structure, molecular biology, and medicine.[167][168] His work on chemical bonding marks him as one of the founders of modern quantum chemistry.[8] The Nature of the Chemical Bond was the standard work for many years,[169] and concepts like hybridization and electronegativity remain part of standard chemistry textbooks. While his Valence bond
Valence bond
approach fell short of accounting quantitatively for some of the characteristics of molecules, such as the color of organometallic complexes, and would later be eclipsed by the molecular orbital theory of Robert Mulliken, Valence Bond Theory still competes, in its modern form, with Molecular Orbital Theory and density functional theory (DFT) as a way of describing the chemical phenomena.[170] Pauling's work on crystal structure contributed significantly to the prediction and elucidation of the structures of complex minerals and compounds.[35]:80–81 His discovery of the alpha helix and beta sheet is a fundamental foundation for the study of protein structure.[78] Francis Crick
Francis Crick
acknowledged Pauling as the "father of molecular biology".[8][171] His discovery of sickle cell anemia as a "molecular disease" opened the way toward examining genetically acquired mutations at a molecular level.[85] Pauling’s 1951 publication with Robert B. Corey and H. R. Branson, “The Structure of Proteins: Two Hydrogen-Bonded Helical Configurations of the Polypeptide Chain,” was a key early finding in the then newly emerging field of molecular biology. This publication was honored by a Citation for Chemical Breakthrough Award from the Division of History of Chemistry of the American Chemical Society presented to the Department of Chemistry, Caltech, in 2017.[172][173] Commemorations[edit] The Pauling Centre for Human Sciences at the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
was named after Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
in honour of his contribution across both the sciences and humanities. Oregon State University
Oregon State University
completed construction of the $77 million, 100,000 square foot Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Science Center in the late 2000s, now housing a bulk of Oregon State's chemistry classrooms, labs, and instruments.[174] On March 6, 2008, the United States Postal Service
United States Postal Service
released a 41 cent stamp honoring Pauling designed by artist Victor Stabin.[175][176] His description reads: "A remarkably versatile scientist, structural chemist Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
(1901–1994) won the 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for determining the nature of the chemical bond linking atoms into molecules. His work in establishing the field of molecular biology; his studies of hemoglobin led to the classification of sickle cell anemia as a molecular disease."[85] The other scientists on this sheet of stamps included Gerty Cori, biochemist, Edwin Hubble, astronomer, and John Bardeen, physicist.[176] California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger
Arnold Schwarzenegger
and First Lady Maria Shriver announced on May 28, 2008 that Pauling would be inducted into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts. The induction ceremony took place December 15, 2008. Pauling's son was asked to accept the honor in his place.[177] By proclamation of Gov. John Kitzhaber
John Kitzhaber
in the state of Oregon, February 28 has been named " Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Day".[178] The Linus Pauling Institute still exists, but moved in 1996 from Palo Alto, California, to Corvallis, Oregon, where it is part of the Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Science Center at Oregon State University.[179][180][181] The Valley Library Special
Special
Collections at Oregon State University
Oregon State University
contain the Ava Helen and Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Papers, including digitized versions of Pauling's forty-six research notebooks.[178] In 1986, Caltech
Caltech
commemorated Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
with a Symposia and Lectureship.[182] The Pauling Lecture series at Caltech
Caltech
began in 1989 with a lecture by Pauling himself. The Caltech
Caltech
Chemistry Department renamed room 22 of Gates Hall the Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Lecture Hall, since Linus spent so much time there.[183] Other places named after Pauling include Pauling Street in Foothill Ranch, California;[184] Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Drive in Hercules, California; Linus and Ava Helen Pauling
Ava Helen Pauling
Hall at Soka University of America
Soka University of America
in Aliso Viejo, California;[185] Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Middle School in Corvallis, Oregon;[186] and Pauling Field, a small airfield located in Condon, Oregon, where Pauling spent his youth.[187] There is a psychedelic rock band in Houston, Texas, named The Linus Pauling Quartet.[188] The asteroid 4674 Pauling in the inner asteroid belt, discovered by Eleanor F. Helin, was named after Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
in 1991, on his 90th birthday.[189] Linus Torvalds, developer of the Linux
Linux
kernel, is named after Pauling.[190] Nobel laureate Peter Agre
Peter Agre
has said that Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
inspired him.[191] Honors and awards[edit] Pauling received numerous awards and honors during his career, including the following:[192][51][193]

1931 ACS Award in Pure Chemistry [194] 1931 Irving Langmuir
Irving Langmuir
Award, American Chemical Society.[51][193] 1940 Alpha Chi Sigma, professional chemistry fraternity.[195] 1941 Nichols Medal, New York Section, American Chemical Society.[51] 1946 Willard Gibbs Award, Chicago section of the American Chemical Society.[193] 1947 Davy Medal, Royal Society.[51][193] 1947 T. W. Richards Medal, Northeastern Section of the American Chemical Society.[193] 1948 Presidential Medal for Merit
Presidential Medal for Merit
by President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
of the United States.[51][193] 1948 Elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society
Royal Society
of London (ForMemRS)[4] 1951 Gilbert N. Lewis
Gilbert N. Lewis
medal, California section of the American Chemical Society.[193] 1952 Pasteur Medal, Biochemical Society of France.[51] 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.[51][193] 1955 Addis Medal, National Nephrosis Foundation.[51][193] 1955 John Phillips Memorial Award, American College of Physicians.[51][193] 1956 Avogadro Medal, Italian Academy of Science.[51][193] 1957 Paul Sabatier Medal. 1957 Pierre Fermat Medal in Mathematics
Mathematics
(awarded for only the sixth time in three centuries).[51][193][196] 1957 International Grotius Medal.[51] 1959 Messenger Lectureship 1961 Humanist of the Year, American Humanist Association. 1961 Gandhi Peace Award
Gandhi Peace Award
by Promoting Enduring Peace.[197] 1962 Nobel Peace Prize.[51][193] 1965 Medal, Academy of the Rumanian People's Republic.[51] 1966 Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Award.[51] 1966 Silver Medal, Institute of France.[51] 1966 Supreme Peace Sponsor, World Fellowship of Religion.[51] 1967 Washington A. Roebling
Washington A. Roebling
Medal, Mineralogical Society of America.[193] 1972 Lenin Peace Prize.[51] 1974 National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
by President Gerald R. Ford
Gerald R. Ford
of the United States.[193] 1978 Lomonosov Gold Medal, Presidium of the Academy of the USSR.[51][193] 1979 NAS Award in Chemical Sciences, National Academy of Sciences.[51][198] 1981 John K. Lattimer Award, American Urological Association.[193] 1984 Priestley Medal, American Chemical Society.[51][193] 1984 Award for Chemistry, Arthur M. Sackler
Arthur M. Sackler
Foundation.[51] 1986 Lavoisier Medal by Fondation de la Maison de la Chimie.[193] 1987 Award in Chemical Education, American Chemical Society.[51] 1989 Vannevar Bush Award, National Science Board.[51][193] 1990 Richard C. Tolman
Richard C. Tolman
Medal, American Chemical Society
American Chemical Society
Southern California Section.[51] 1992 Daisaku Ikeda
Daisaku Ikeda
Medal, Soka Gakkai International[193] 2008 "American Scientists" U.S. postage stamp series, $0.41, for his sickle cell disease work.[199]

Publications[edit] Books[edit]

Library resources about Linus Pauling

Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

By Linus Pauling

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

— Wilson, E. B. (1985) [Originally published in 1935]. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics with Applications to Chemistry. Reprinted by Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-64871-0.  — (1939). The Nature of the Chemical Bond and the Structure of Molecules and Crystals. Cornell University
Cornell University
Press.  — (1947). General Chemistry: An Introduction to Descriptive Chemistry and Modern Chemical Theory. W. H. Freeman. 

Greatly revised and expanded in 1947, 1953, and 1970. Reprinted by Dover Publications in 1988.

— Hayward, Roger (1964). The Architecture of Molecules. San Francisco: Freeman. ISBN 978-0716701583. 

Manuscript notes and typescripts (clear images)

— (1958). No more war!. Dodd, Mead & Co. ISBN 978-1124119663.  — (1977). Vitamin C, the Common Cold and the Flu. W.H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0360-2.  — (1987). How to Live Longer and Feel Better. Avon. ISBN 0-380-70289-4.  Cameron, E.; — (1993). Cancer and Vitamin C: A Discussion of the Nature, Causes, Prevention, and Treatment of Cancer With Special Reference to the Value of Vitamin C. Camino. ISBN 0-940159-21-X.  — (1998). Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
On Peace: A Scientist Speaks Out on Humanism and World Survival. Rising Star Press. ISBN 0-933670-03-6.  Hoffer, Abram; — (2004). Healing Cancer: Complementary Vitamin & Drug Treatments. Toronto: CCNM Press. ISBN 978-1897025116.  Ikeda, Daisaku; — (2008). A Lifelong Quest for Peace: A Dialogue. Richard L. Gage (ed., trans.). London: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-889-1. 

Journal articles[edit]

Pauling, L. (1927). "The Theoretical Prediction of the Physical Properties of Many-Electron Atoms and Ions. Mole Refraction, Diamagnetic Susceptibility, and Extension in Space". Proceedings of the Royal Society
Royal Society
A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 114 (767): 181–211. Bibcode:1927RSPSA.114..181P. doi:10.1098/rspa.1927.0035.  Pauling, L. (1929). "The Principles Determining the Structure of Complex Ionic Crystals". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 51 (4): 1010–1026. doi:10.1021/ja01379a006.  Pauling, L. (1931). "The Nature of the Chemical Bond. Application of Results Obtained from the Quantum Mechanics and from a Theory of Paramagnetic Susceptibility to the Structure of Molecules". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 53 (4): 1367–1400. doi:10.1021/ja01355a027.  Pauling, L. (1931). "The Nature of the Chemical Bond. Ii. The One-Electron Bond and the Three-Electron Bond". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 53 (9): 3225–3237. doi:10.1021/ja01360a004.  Pauling, L. (1932). "The Nature of the Chemical Bond. Iii. The Transition from One Extreme Bond Type to Another". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 54 (3): 988–1003. doi:10.1021/ja01342a022.  Pauling, L. (1932). "The Nature of the Chemical Bond. Iv. The Energy of Single Bonds and the Relative Electronegativity
Electronegativity
of Atoms". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 54 (9): 3570–3582. doi:10.1021/ja01348a011.  Pauling, L.; Wheland, G. W. (1933). "The Nature of the Chemical Bond. V. The Quantum-Mechanical Calculation of the Resonance Energy of Benzene
Benzene
and Naphthalene and the Hydrocarbon Free Radicals". The Journal of Chemical Physics. 1 (6): 362. Bibcode:1933JChPh...1..362P. doi:10.1063/1.1749304.  Pauling, L. (1935). "The Structure and Entropy of Ice and of Other Crystals with Some Randomness of Atomic Arrangement". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 57 (12): 2680–2684. doi:10.1021/ja01315a102.  Pauling, L. (1940). "A Theory of the Structure and Process of Formation of Antibodies*". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 62 (10): 2643–2657. doi:10.1021/ja01867a018.  Pauling, L. (1947). "Atomic Radii and Interatomic Distances in Metals". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 69 (3): 542–553. doi:10.1021/ja01195a024.  Pauling, L.; Itano, H. A.; Singer, S. J.; Wells, I. C. (1949). "Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease". Science. 110 (2865): 543–548. Bibcode:1949Sci...110..543P. doi:10.1126/science.110.2865.543. PMID 15395398.  Pauling, L.; Corey, R. B.; Branson, H. R. (1951). "The structure of proteins: Two hydrogen-bonded helical configurations of the polypeptide chain". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 37 (4): 205–11. Bibcode:1951PNAS...37..205P. doi:10.1073/pnas.37.4.205. PMC 1063337 . PMID 14816373. 

See also[edit]

List of peace activists Niacin

References[edit]

^ a b c Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
at the Mathematics
Mathematics
Genealogy Project ^ a b "A Guggenheim Fellow in Europe during the Golden Years of Physics (1926–1927)". Special
Special
Collections & Archives Research Center. Oregon State University
Oregon State University
Libraries. Retrieved 27 May 2015.  ^ a b Pauling, Linus (1925). The determination with x-rays of the structures of crystals (PhD thesis). California Institute of Technology.  ^ a b c d e Dunitz, J. D. (1996). "Linus Carl Pauling. 28 February 1901–19 August 1994". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 42: 316–326. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1996.0020. PMID 11619334.  ^ Pauling, Linus (1997). Pauling, Jr., Linus, ed. Selected papers of Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
(Volume I ed.). River Edge, NJ: World Scientific. p. xvii. ISBN 978-9810229399.  ^ a b Horgan, J (1993). "Profile: Linus C. Pauling – Stubbornly Ahead of His Time". Scientific American. 266 (3): 36–40. Bibcode:1993SciAm.266c..36H. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0393-36.  ^ Simmons, John (1996). The scientific 100 : a ranking of the most influential scientists, past and present. Secaucus, NY: Carol Publ. Group. ISBN 978-0806517490. Retrieved 26 May 2015.  ^ a b c Rich, A. (1994). " Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
(1901–1994)". Nature. 371 (6495): 285. Bibcode:1994Natur.371..285R. doi:10.1038/371285a0. PMID 8090196.  ^ Gribbin, J (2002). The Scientists: A History of Science Told Through the Lives of Its Greatest Inventors. New York: Random House. pp. 558–569. ISBN 0812967887.  ^ Stone, Irwin (1982). The healing factor: "vitamin C" against disease. New York: Perigee Books. ISBN 0-399-50764-7.  ^ Offit, Paul (19 July 2013). "The Vitamin Myth: Why We Think We Need Supplements". The Atlantic. Retrieved 19 July 2013.  ^ a b c d e " Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
– Biographical". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved August 5, 2007.  ^ "Nobel Prize Facts". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB. 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2017.  ^ "Linus Pauling's Childhood (1901–1910)". Special
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collections. Oregon State University
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Libraries. Retrieved April 25, 2013.  ^ "Linus Pauling". NNDB: Tracking the entire world. Soylent Communications. Retrieved April 25, 2013.  ^ Hager, p. 22. ^ Mead and Hager, p. 8. ^ a b Goertzel and Goertzel, p. 4. ^ Goertzel and Goertzel, p. 5. ^ Mead and Hager, p. 9. ^ Goertzel and Goertzel, p. 17. ^ a b Abrams, Irwin (1988). The Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
and the laureates : an illustrated biographical history, 1901–1987 (2. print. ed.). Boston: G.K. Hall. ISBN 978-0816186099.  ^ Goertzel and Goertzel, p. 21. ^ Goertzel and Goertzel, p. 22. ^ Hager, p. 48. ^ Bourgoin, Suzanne M.; Paula K. Byers (1998). Encyclopedia of World Biography. Thomson Gale. Vol. 12, p. 150. ISBN 0-7876-2221-4.  ^ Friedman, Ralph (September 6, 1962). "Nobel prize winner finally receives high school diploma". Index-Journal. Greenwood, SC. p. 13 – via Newspapers.com.  ^ Goertzel and Goertzel, p. 23. ^ Goertzel and Goertzel, p. 24. ^ Goertzel and Goertzel, p. 25. ^ Goertzel and Goertzel, p. 26. ^ Swanson, Stephen (October 3, 2000). "OSU fraternity to donate Pauling treasures to campus library". Oregon State University. Retrieved April 29, 2013.  ^ a b Goertzel and Goertzel, p. 29. ^ "Pauling's Years as an Undergraduate at Oregon Agricultural College, Part 2 (1919–1922)". Special
Special
Collections and Archives Research Center. Oregon State University. Retrieved 27 May 2015. He is also an assistant to Samuel H. Graf in a mechanics and materials course.  ^ a b c Pauling, Linus (1995). Marinacci, Barbara, ed. Linus Pauling: in his own words : selected writings, speeches, and interviews. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9780684813875. Retrieved 27 May 2015. Graf gave me a job correcting papers in the courses he taught, about statics and dynamics, bridge structure, strength of materials, and so on. I also helped him in the laboratory.  ^ Goertzel and Goertzel, p. 29, say he helped Graf to teach "an advanced mathematics course" which "required a grasp of mathematics and physics". ^ Goertzel and Goertzel, p. 31. ^ " Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Biographical Timeline". Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Institute. Retrieved November 10, 2011.  ^ Richard, Terry (May 3, 2013). "Ava Helen Pauling, wife of Linus Pauling, subject of biography by Corvallis author Mina Carson". The Oregonian. Retrieved June 2, 2015.  ^ "Commencement 1925 California Institute of Technology
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena" (PDF). Caltech
Caltech
Campus Publications. 1925-06-12. Retrieved 2013-03-29.  ^ "The Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Papers: Biographical Information". United States National Library of Medicine. n.d. Retrieved November 10, 2011.  ^ " Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Biography". Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Institute. Retrieved November 10, 2011.  ^ "Oral history interview with Linus Carl Pauling, 1964 March 27". American Institute of Physics. Retrieved 27 May 2015.  ^ "Linus Pauling". Dictionary of Unitarian & Universalist Biography. Retrieved 27 May 2015.  ^ Pauling, Linus; Ikeda, Daisaku (1992). A Lifelong Quest for Peace: A Dialogue. Jones & Bartlett. p. 22. ISBN 0-86720-277-7. ...I [Pauling] am not, however, militant in my atheism. The great English theoretical physicist Paul Dirac is a militant atheist. I suppose he is interested in arguing about the existence of God. I am not. It was once quipped that there is no God and Dirac is his prophet.  ^ Goertzel and Goertzel, p. 247. ^ a b "The Centennial: Who's Buried in Linus Pauling's Grave?" (PDF). Retrieved 26 December 2012.  ^ Linus Carl Pauling at Find a Grave ^ Cohen, R.S.; Hilpinen, R.; Qiu, Ren-Zong (2011). Realism and anti-realism in the philosophy of science. Dordrecht: Springer. p. 161. ISBN 978-9048144938. Retrieved 27 May 2015.  ^ "About Linus Pauling". Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Retrieved 27 May 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Sturchio, Jeffrey L. (6 April 1987). Linus C. Pauling, Transcript of an Interview Conducted by Jeffrey L. Sturchio in Denver, Colorado on 6 April 1987 (PDF). Philadelphia, PA: Chemical Heritage Foundation.  ^ Pauling, Linus (1929). "The principles determining the structure of complex ionic crystals". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 51 (4): 1010–1026. doi:10.1021/ja01379a006.  ^ a b c d Pauling, Linus (1960). The nature of the chemical bond and the structure of molecules and crystals; an introduction to modern structural chemistry (3rd ed.). Ithaca (NY): Cornell University
Cornell University
Press. pp. 543–562. ISBN 0-8014-0333-2.  ^ Hager, Tom (December 2004). "The Langmuir Prize". Oregon State University Libraries Special
Special
Collections. Retrieved February 29, 2008.  ^ Pauling, Linus (1932). "The nature of the chemical bond. III. The transition from one extreme bond type to another". Journal of the American Chemical Society. pp. 988–1003. doi:10.1021/ja01342a022. Retrieved February 29, 2008.  ^ a b c Hager, Thomas (1995). Force of Nature: The Life of Linus Pauling. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-80909-5.  ^ a b Monk, Ray (2014). Robert Oppenheimer : a life inside the center (First Anchor Books ed.). Anchor. ISBN 978-0385722049.  ^ "Early Career at the California Institute of Technology (1927-1930)". Oregon State University
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Libraries Special
Special
Collections & Archives Research Center. Retrieved 18 May 2017.  ^ "A Lost Ally". Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
- The Nature of the Chemical Bond. Retrieved 27 May 2015.  ^ Hargittai, István; Hargittai, Magdolna (2000). In our own image : personal symmetry in discovery. New York, NY [u.a.]: Kluwer Academic/Plenum. ISBN 9780306460913. Retrieved 27 May 2015.  ^ Pauling, L. (1932). "The Nature of the Chemical Bond. IV. The Energy of Single Bonds and the Relative Electronegativity
Electronegativity
of Atoms". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 54 (9): 3570–3582. doi:10.1021/ja01348a011.  ^ "The Pauling Electronegativity
Electronegativity
Scale: Part 2, Inspired by Biology". The Pauling Blog. Oregon State University
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Libraries Special Collections & Archives Research Center. Retrieved March 17, 2009.  ^ "Pauling's Obituary". independent.co.uk. The Independent. Retrieved January 25, 2018.  ^ "Outline of the George Fischer Baker Lectureship, Cornell University". Linus Pauling, The nature of the chemical bond, A documentary history.  ^ "Pauling's Lecturer Tenure at Cornell". The Pauling Blog. Oregon State University Libraries Special
Special
Collections & Archives Research Center. Retrieved June 3, 2015.  ^ a b Pauling, Linus (1986). The nature of the chemical bond and the structure of molecules and crystals : an introduction to modern structural chemistry (3rd ed.). Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801403330. Retrieved 2 June 2015.  ^ Watson, James D. (2001). A passion for DNA : genes, genomes, and society (2003 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198604289.  ^ "The nature of the chemical bond (citations and estimated counts)". Google Scholar. Retrieved 27 May 2015.  ^ Pauling, Linus (1928). "London's paper. General ideas on bonds". Oregon State University
Oregon State University
Libraries Special
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Collections. Retrieved June 2, 2015.  ^ Pauling, Linus (1930s). "Notes and Calculations re: Electronegativity
Electronegativity
and the Electronegativity
Electronegativity
Scale". Oregon State University Libraries Special
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Collections. Retrieved February 29, 2008.  ^ Pauling, Linus (January 6, 1934). "Benzene". Oregon State University Libraries Special
Special
Collections. Retrieved February 29, 2008.  ^ Pauling, Linus (July 29, 1946). "Resonance". Oregon State University Libraries Special
Special
Collections. Retrieved February 29, 2008.  ^ Pauling, Linus (1929). "The principles determining the structure of complex ionic crystals". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 51 (4): 1010–1026. doi:10.1021/ja01379a006.  ^ Kay, Lily E. (1996). The molecular vision of life : Caltech, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the rise of the new biology. New York [u.a.]: Oxford University Press. pp. 148–151. ISBN 0195111435. Retrieved 27 May 2015.  ^ a b Califano, Salvatore (2012). Pathways to modern chemical physics. Heidelberg [Germany]: Springer. p. 198. ISBN 978-3-642-28179-2. Retrieved 27 May 2015.  ^ Livio, Mario (2014). Brilliant blunders : from Darwin to Einstein : colossal mistakes by great scientists that changed our understanding of life and the universe. [S.l.]: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9781439192375.  ^ Pauling, L; Corey, RB (1951). "Configurations of Polypeptide Chains With Favored Orientations Around Single Bonds: Two New Pleated Sheets". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America. 37 (11): 729–40. Bibcode:1951PNAS...37..729P. doi:10.1073/pnas.37.11.729. PMC 1063460 . PMID 16578412.  ^ a b Goertzel and Goertzel, p. 95-100. ^ Pauling, L; Corey, RB (February 1953). "A Proposed Structure For The Nucleic Acids". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 39 (2): 84–97. Bibcode:1953PNAS...39...84P. doi:10.1073/pnas.39.2.84. PMC 1063734 . PMID 16578429.  ^ "Linus Pauling's DNA Model". Archived from the original on February 4, 2012. Retrieved June 2, 2015.  ^ Metzler, David E. (2003). Biochemistry
Biochemistry
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and Voice for Peace". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  ^ Cameron, E; Pauling, L (October 1976). "Supplemental ascorbate in the supportive treatment of cancer: Prolongation of survival times in terminal human cancer". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 73 (10): 3685–9. Bibcode:1976PNAS...73.3685C. doi:10.1073/pnas.73.10.3685. PMC 431183 . PMID 1068480.  ^ Cameron, E; Pauling, L (September 1978). "Supplemental ascorbate in the supportive treatment of cancer: Reevaluation of prolongation of survival times in terminal human cancer". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 75 (9): 4538–42. Bibcode:1978PNAS...75.4538C. doi:10.1073/pnas.75.9.4538. PMC 336151 . PMID 279931.  ^ DeWys, WD (1982). "How to evaluate a new treatment for cancer". Your Patient and Cancer. 2 (5): 31–36.  ^ Creagan, ET; Moertel, CG; O'Fallon, JR (September 1979). "Failure of high-dose vitamin C (ascorbic acid) therapy to benefit patients with advanced cancer. A controlled trial". The New England Journal of Medicine. 301 (13): 687–90. doi:10.1056/NEJM197909273011303. PMID 384241.  ^ Moertel, CG; Fleming, TR; Creagan, ET; Rubin, J; O'Connell, MJ; Ames, MM (January 1985). "High-dose vitamin C versus placebo in the treatment of patients with advanced cancer who have had no prior chemotherapy. A randomized double-blind comparison". The New England Journal of Medicine. 312 (3): 137–41. doi:10.1056/NEJM198501173120301. PMID 3880867.  ^ Tschetter, L; et al. (1983). "A community-based study of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in patients with advanced cancer". Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2: 92.  ^ a b Chen, Q; Espey, M. G.; Sun, A. Y.; Lee, J.-H.; Krishna, M. C.; Shacter, E.; Choyke, P. L.; Pooput, C.; Kirk, K. L.; Buettner, G. R.; Levine, M.; et al. (2007). "Ascorbate in pharmacologic concentrations selectively generates ascorbate radical and hydrogen peroxide in extracellular fluid in vivo". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (21): 8749–54. Bibcode:2007PNAS..104.8749C. doi:10.1073/pnas.0702854104. PMC 1885574 . PMID 17502596.  ^ Goertzel, Ted (1996). "Analyzing Pauling's Personality: A Three Generational, Three Decade Project". Special
Special
Collections, Oregon State University Libraries. Retrieved August 5, 2007.  ^ a b Pinch, Trevor; Collins, Harry M. (2005). "Alternative Medicine: The Cases of Vitamin C
Vitamin C
and Cancer". Dr. Golem: how to think about medicine. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 89–111. ISBN 0-226-11366-3.  ^ Levine, M; et al. (2006). "Intravenously administered vitamin C as cancer therapy: three cases". CMAJ. 174 (7): 937–942. doi:10.1503/cmaj.050346. PMC 1405876 . PMID 16567755. Retrieved August 5, 2007.  ^ Pauling, Linus (1986). How to Live Longer and Feel Better. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. pp. 173–175. ISBN 0-7167-1781-6.  ^ Pauling, L (November 1978). Ralph Pelligra, ed., ed. "Orthomolecular enhancement of human development" (PDF). Human Neurological Development: 47–51. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) ^ Saul, Andrew W.; Dr. Abram Hoffer. "Abram Hoffer, M.D., PhD 50 Years of Megavitamin Research, Practice and Publication". Doctoryourself.com. Retrieved August 5, 2007.  ^ Ohno, S; Ohno, Y; Suzuki, N; Soma, G; Inoue, M (2009). "High-dose vitamin C (ascorbic acid) therapy in the treatment of patients with advanced cancer". Anticancer research. 29 (3): 809–15. PMID 19414313.  ^ Jacobs, Carmel; Hutton, Brian; Ng, Terry; Shorr, Risa; Clemons, Mark (2015). "Is There a Role for Oral or Intravenous Ascorbate (Vitamin C) in Treating Patients With Cancer? A Systematic Review". The Oncologist. 20 (2): 210–223. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2014-0381. PMC 4319640 . PMID 25601965. Conclusion. There is no high-quality evidence to suggest that ascorbate supplementation in cancer patients either enhances the antitumor effects of chemotherapy or reduces its toxicity.  ^ " Vitamin C
Vitamin C
Fact Sheet for Health Professionals". National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 2 June 2015. "At this time, the evidence is inconsistent on whether dietary vitamin C intake affects cancer risk. Results from most clinical trials suggest that modest vitamin C supplementation alone or with other nutrients offers no benefit in the prevention of cancer... Some researchers support reassessment of the use of high-dose IV vitamin C as a drug to treat cancer... It is uncertain whether supplemental vitamin C and other antioxidants might interact with chemotherapy and/or radiation.  ^ "Linus Pauling". California Museum. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  ^ " Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
- Biographical". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2016.  ^ Hamilton, Neil A. (2002). American social leaders and activists. New York: Facts On File. ISBN 978-0816045358. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  ^ Hoffmann, Roald; Shaik, Sason; Hiberty, Philippe C. (2003). "A Conversation on VB vs MO Theory: A Never-Ending Rivalry?". Acc Chem Res. 36 (10): 750–6. doi:10.1021/ar030162a.  ^ "Pauling Honored by Scientists at Caltech
Caltech
Event". Los Angeles Times. United Press International. 1 March 1986. Retrieved 22 July 2012.  ^ "Citations for Chemical Breakthrough Awards 2017 Awardees". Division of the History of Chemistry. Retrieved 12 March 2018.  ^ Pauling, L.; Corey, R. B.; Branson, H. R. (1951). "The structure of proteins: Two hydrogen-bonded helical configurations of the polypeptide chain". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 37 (4): 205–11. Bibcode:1951PNAS...37..205P. doi:10.1073/pnas.37.4.205. PMC 1063337 . PMID 14816373.  ^ " Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Science Center Department of Chemistry Oregon State University". chemistry.oregonstate.edu. Retrieved 2016-11-10.  ^ "Four Legends of American Science Now on U.S. Postage Stamps" (PDF). United States Postal Service
United States Postal Service
Postal News, Release No. 08-23. March 6, 2008.  ^ a b "OSU Celebrates Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
and Release of New U.S. Postal Service Stamp". Oregon State University
Oregon State University
- University Events. Retrieved 2015-02-25.  ^ "Governor & First Lady Participate in 2008 CA Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony". CA.gov. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  ^ a b " Linus Pauling
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Research Notebooks Online". Natural Science. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved June 1, 2015.  ^ " Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Institute". Lpi.oregonstate.edu. Retrieved 2013-06-25.  ^ Cole, Gail (October 14, 2011). " Linus Pauling
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Science Center opens at OSU". Corvallis Gazette-Times. Retrieved 2 June 2015.  ^ " Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Science Center - A Moment to Celebrate". Oregon State University Foundation. Retrieved 2 June 2015.  ^ Zewail, Ahmed (1992). The Chemical Bond Structure and Dynamics. Burlington: Elsevier Science. ISBN 9780080926698. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  ^ Baum, Rudy (11 December 1989). " Caltech
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launches Linus Pauling lecture series". Chemical & Engineering News. 67 (50): 18–19. doi:10.1021/cen-v067n050.p018a. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  ^ Johnson, Greg (March 20, 1996). "Pauling Road Address Fits New Vitamin Factory to a 'C'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2 June 2015.  ^ Gottlieb, Jeff (August 19, 2001). "A New-View University". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  ^ Woodward, Raju (February 29, 2012). "A son's tribute by Linus Pauling Jr". Corvallis Gazette-Times. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  ^ "Scientist cites Condon years as influential". Register-Guard, Eugene, Oregon. October 19, 1988. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  ^ Heberlein, L. A. (2002). The Rough guide to internet radio. London: Rough Guides. ISBN 1858289610. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2012). Dictionary of minor planet names (6th ed.). Berlin: Springer. ISBN 9783642297182. Retrieved 1 June 2015.  ^ Moody, Glyn (2002). Rebel Code: Linux
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and Release of New U.S. Postal Service Stamp". Events. Oregon State University. Retrieved April 25, 2013. 

Sources[edit]

Goertzel, Ted; Goertzel, Ben (1995). Linus Pauling: A Life in Science and Politics. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00672-8.  Hager, Thomas (1995). Force of Nature: The Life of Linus Pauling. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-80909-5.  — (1998). Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
and the Chemistry of Life. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513972-0.  Marinacci, Barbara; Krishnamurthy, Ramesh (1998). Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
on Peace. Rising Star Press. ISBN 0-933670-03-6.  Mead, Clifford; Hager, Thomas, eds. (2001). Linus Pauling: Scientist and Peacemaker. Oregon State University
Oregon State University
Press. ISBN 0-87071-489-9.  Serafini, Anthony (1989). Linus Pauling: A Man and His Science. Paragon House. ISBN 1-55778-440-X. 

Further reading[edit]

Coffey, Patrick (2008). Cathedrals of Science: The Personalities and Rivalries That Made Modern Chemistry. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-532134-0.  Davenport, Derek A. (1996). "The Many Lives of Linus Pauling: A Review of Reviews". Journal of Chemical Education. 73 (9): A210. Bibcode:1996JChEd..73..210D. doi:10.1021/ed073pA210. Retrieved April 26, 2013.  Hargittai, István (2000). Hargittai, Magdolna, ed. Candid science: conversations with famous chemists (Reprinted ed.). London: Imperial College Press. ISBN 978-1860941511.  Marinacci, Barbara, ed. (1995). Linus Pauling: In His Own Words; Selected Writings, Speeches, and Interviews. Introduction by Linus Pauling. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0684813875.  Sturchio, Jeffrey L. (6 April 1987). Linus C. Pauling, Transcript of an Interview Conducted by Jeffrey L. Sturchio in Denver, Colorado on 6 April 1987 (PDF). Philadelphia, PA: Chemical Heritage Foundation. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Linus Pauling

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Linus C. Pauling.

Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Online a Pauling portal created by Oregon State University Libraries Crick, Francis, "The Impact of Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
on Molecular Biology" (transcribed from video at the 1995 Oregon State University
Oregon State University
symposium) The Ava Helen and Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Papers at the Oregon State University Libraries The Pauling Catalogue Center for Oral History. "Linus C. Pauling". Science History Institute.  Sturchio, Jeffrey L. (6 April 1987). Linus C. Pauling, Transcript of an Interview Conducted by Jeffrey L. Sturchio in Denver, Colorado on 6 April 1987 (PDF). Philadelphia, PA: Chemical Heritage Foundation.  The Pauling Blog Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
(1901–1994) Berkeley Conversations With History interview Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Centenary Exhibit Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
from The Dictionary of Unitarian and Universalist Biography "It's in the Blood! A Documentary History of Linus Pauling, Hemoglobin and Sickle Cell Anemia - Special
Special
Collections & Archives Research Center - Oregon State University". Oregon State University
Oregon State University
Library. Retrieved 2015-02-25.  The Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University Publications of Pauling The Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Papers – Profiles in Science, National Library of Medicine Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
Documentary produced by Oregon Public Broadcasting

Awards and achievements

Preceded by Hermann Staudinger Laureate of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1954 Succeeded by Vincent du Vigneaud

Preceded by Dag Hammarskjöld Laureate of the Nobel Peace Prize 1962 Succeeded by International Committee of the Red Cross, League of Red Cross Societies

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize

1901–1925

1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes

1926–1950

1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B. Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche

1951–1975

1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B. Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov

1976–2000

1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung

2001–present

2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016 Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry

1901–1925

1901 Jacobus van 't Hoff 1902 Emil Fischer 1903 Svante Arrhenius 1904 William Ramsay 1905 Adolf von Baeyer 1906 Henri Moissan 1907 Eduard Buchner 1908 Ernest Rutherford 1909 Wilhelm Ostwald 1910 Otto Wallach 1911 Marie Curie 1912 Victor Grignard
Victor Grignard
/ Paul Sabatier 1913 Alfred Werner 1914 Theodore Richards 1915 Richard Willstätter 1916 1917 1918 Fritz Haber 1919 1920 Walther Nernst 1921 Frederick Soddy 1922 Francis Aston 1923 Fritz Pregl 1924 1925 Richard Zsigmondy

1926–1950

1926 Theodor Svedberg 1927 Heinrich Wieland 1928 Adolf Windaus 1929 Arthur Harden
Arthur Harden
/ Hans von Euler-Chelpin 1930 Hans Fischer 1931 Carl Bosch
Carl Bosch
/ Friedrich Bergius 1932 Irving Langmuir 1933 1934 Harold Urey 1935 Frédéric Joliot-Curie
Frédéric Joliot-Curie
/ Irène Joliot-Curie 1936 Peter Debye 1937 Norman Haworth
Norman Haworth
/ Paul Karrer 1938 Richard Kuhn 1939 Adolf Butenandt
Adolf Butenandt
/ Leopold Ružička 1940 1941 1942 1943 George de Hevesy 1944 Otto Hahn 1945 Artturi Virtanen 1946 James B. Sumner
James B. Sumner
/ John Northrop / Wendell Meredith Stanley 1947 Robert Robinson 1948 Arne Tiselius 1949 William Giauque 1950 Otto Diels
Otto Diels
/ Kurt Alder

1951–1975

1951 Edwin McMillan
Edwin McMillan
/ Glenn T. Seaborg 1952 Archer Martin
Archer Martin
/ Richard Synge 1953 Hermann Staudinger 1954 Linus Pauling 1955 Vincent du Vigneaud 1956 Cyril Hinshelwood / Nikolay Semyonov 1957 Alexander Todd 1958 Frederick Sanger 1959 Jaroslav Heyrovský 1960 Willard Libby 1961 Melvin Calvin 1962 Max Perutz
Max Perutz
/ John Kendrew 1963 Karl Ziegler
Karl Ziegler
/ Giulio Natta 1964 Dorothy Hodgkin 1965 Robert Woodward 1966 Robert S. Mulliken 1967 Manfred Eigen
Manfred Eigen
/ Ronald Norrish / George Porter 1968 Lars Onsager 1969 Derek Barton / Odd Hassel 1970 Luis Federico Leloir 1971 Gerhard Herzberg 1972 Christian B. Anfinsen
Christian B. Anfinsen
/ Stanford Moore / William Stein 1973 Ernst Otto Fischer
Ernst Otto Fischer
/ Geoffrey Wilkinson 1974 Paul Flory 1975 John Cornforth
John Cornforth
/ Vladimir Prelog

1976–2000

1976 William Lipscomb 1977 Ilya Prigogine 1978 Peter D. Mitchell 1979 Herbert C. Brown
Herbert C. Brown
/ Georg Wittig 1980 Paul Berg
Paul Berg
/ Walter Gilbert
Walter Gilbert
/ Frederick Sanger 1981 Kenichi Fukui
Kenichi Fukui
/ Roald Hoffmann 1982 Aaron Klug 1983 Henry Taube 1984 Robert Merrifield 1985 Herbert A. Hauptman
Herbert A. Hauptman
/ Jerome Karle 1986 Dudley R. Herschbach
Dudley R. Herschbach
/ Yuan T. Lee
Yuan T. Lee
/ John Polanyi 1987 Donald J. Cram
Donald J. Cram
/ Jean-Marie Lehn
Jean-Marie Lehn
/ Charles J. Pedersen 1988 Johann Deisenhofer
Johann Deisenhofer
/ Robert Huber
Robert Huber
/ Hartmut Michel 1989 Sidney Altman / Thomas Cech 1990 Elias Corey 1991 Richard R. Ernst 1992 Rudolph A. Marcus 1993 Kary Mullis
Kary Mullis
/ Michael Smith 1994 George Olah 1995 Paul J. Crutzen
Paul J. Crutzen
/ Mario J. Molina
Mario J. Molina
/ Frank Rowland 1996 Robert Curl
Robert Curl
/ Harold Kroto / Richard Smalley 1997 Paul D. Boyer
Paul D. Boyer
/ John E. Walker / Jens Christian Skou 1998 Walter Kohn
Walter Kohn
/ John Pople 1999 Ahmed Zewail 2000 Alan J. Heeger / Alan MacDiarmid / Hideki Shirakawa

2001–present

2001 William Knowles / Ryoji Noyori / K. Barry Sharpless 2002 John B. Fenn / Koichi Tanaka
Koichi Tanaka
/ Kurt Wüthrich 2003 Peter Agre
Peter Agre
/ Roderick MacKinnon 2004 Aaron Ciechanover
Aaron Ciechanover
/ Avram Hershko
Avram Hershko
/ Irwin Rose 2005 Robert H. Grubbs
Robert H. Grubbs
/ Richard R. Schrock
Richard R. Schrock
/ Yves Chauvin 2006 Roger D. Kornberg 2007 Gerhard Ertl 2008 Osamu Shimomura
Osamu Shimomura
/ Martin Chalfie
Martin Chalfie
/ Roger Y. Tsien 2009 Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
/ Thomas A. Steitz
Thomas A. Steitz
/ Ada E. Yonath 2010 Richard F. Heck
Richard F. Heck
/ Akira Suzuki / Ei-ichi Negishi 2011 Dan Shechtman 2012 Robert Lefkowitz
Robert Lefkowitz
/ Brian Kobilka 2013 Martin Karplus
Martin Karplus
/ Michael Levitt
Michael Levitt
/ Arieh Warshel 2014 Eric Betzig
Eric Betzig
/ Stefan Hell
Stefan Hell
/ William E. Moerner 2015 Tomas Lindahl
Tomas Lindahl
/ Paul L. Modrich
Paul L. Modrich
/ Aziz Sancar 2016 Jean-Pierre Sauvage
Jean-Pierre Sauvage
/ Fraser Stoddart
Fraser Stoddart
/ Ben Feringa 2017 Jacques Dubochet
Jacques Dubochet
/ Joachim Frank
Joachim Frank
/ Richard Henderson

v t e

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

v t e

Presidents of the American Chemical Society

1876–1900

John W. Draper (1876) J. Lawrence Smith
J. Lawrence Smith
(1877) Samuel W. Johnson (1878) T. Sterry Hunt (1879) Frederick A. Genth (1880) Charles F. Chandler
Charles F. Chandler
(1881) John W. Mallet (1882) James C. Booth (1883) Albert B. Prescott (1886) Charles Anthony Goessmann
Charles Anthony Goessmann
(1887) T. Sterry Hunt (1888) Charles F. Chandler
Charles F. Chandler
(1889) Henry B. Nason (1890) George F. Barker (1891) George C. Caldwell (1892) Harvey W. Wiley (1893) Edgar Fahs Smith
Edgar Fahs Smith
(1895) Charles B. Dudley (1896) Charles E. Munroe (1898) Edward W. Morley (1899) William McMurtrie
William McMurtrie
(1900)

1901–1925

Frank W. Clarke (1901) Ira Remsen (1902) John H. Long (1903) Arthur Amos Noyes
Arthur Amos Noyes
(1904) Francis P. Venable (1905) William F. Hillebrand (1906) Marston T. Bogert (1907) Willis R. Whitney (1909) Wilder D. Bancroft (1910) Alexander Smith (1911) Arthur Dehon Little
Arthur Dehon Little
(1912) Theodore W. Richards (1914) Charles H. Herty (1915) Julius Stieglitz (1917) William H. Nichols
William H. Nichols
(1918) William A. Noyes (1920) Edgar Fahs Smith
Edgar Fahs Smith
(1921) Edward C. Franklin (1923) Leo H. Baekeland (1924) James Flack Norris (1925)

1926–1950

George D. Rosengarten (1927) Samuel W. Parr (1928) Irving Langmuir
Irving Langmuir
(1929) William McPherson (1930) Moses Gomberg
Moses Gomberg
(1931) L.V. Redman (1932) Arthur B. Lamb (1933) Charles L. Reese (1934) Roger Adams (1935) Edward Bartow
Edward Bartow
(1936) Edward R. Weidlein (1937) Frank C. Whitmore (1938) Charles A. Kraus (1939) Samuel C. Lind (1940) William Lloyd Evans (1941) Harry N. Holmes (1942) Per K. Frolich (1943) Thomas Midgley Jr.
Thomas Midgley Jr.
(1944) Carl S. Marvel (1945) Bradley Dewey (1946) W. Albert Noyes Jr. (1947) Charles A. Thomas (1948) Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
(1949) Ernest H. Volwiler (1950)

1951–1975

N. Howell Funnan (1951) Edgar C. Britton (1952) Farrington Daniels (1953) Harry L. Fisher (1954) Joel H. Hildebrand (1955) John C. Warner (1956) Roger J. Williams (1957) Clifford F. Rassweiler (1958) John C. Bailar Jr. (1959) Albert L. Elder (1960) Arthur C. Cope (1961) Karl Folkers (1962) Henry Eyring (1963) Maurice H. Arveson (1964) Charles C. Price
Charles C. Price
(1965) William J. Sparks (1966) Charles G. Overberger (1967) Robert W. Cairns (1968) Wallace R. Brode
Wallace R. Brode
(1969) Byron Riegel (1970) Melvin Calvin
Melvin Calvin
(1971) Max Tishler
Max Tishler
(1972) Alan C. Nixon (1973) Bernard S. Friedman (1974) William J. Bailey (1975)

1976–2000

Glenn T. Seaborg
Glenn T. Seaborg
(1976) Henry A. Hill
Henry A. Hill
(1977) Anna J. Harrison
Anna J. Harrison
(1978) Gardner W. Stacy (1979) James D. D'Ianni (1980) Albert C. Zettlemoyer (1981) Robert W. Parry (1982) Fred Basolo (1983) Warren D. Niederhauser (1984) Ellis K. Fields (1985) George C. Pimentel (1986) Mary L. Good
Mary L. Good
(1987) Gordon L. Nelson (1988) Clayton F. Callis (1989) Paul G. Gassman (1990) S. Allen Heininger (1991) Ernest L. Eliel (1992) Helen M. Free (1993) Ned D. Heindel (1994) Brian M. Rushton (1995) Ronald Breslow
Ronald Breslow
(1996) Paul S. Anderson (1997) Paul H.L. Walter (1998) Edel Wasserman (1999) Daryle H. Busch (2000)

2001–present

Attila E. Pavlath (2001) Eli M. Pearce (2002) Elsa Reichmanis
Elsa Reichmanis
(2003) Charles P. Casey (2004) William F. Carroll Jr. (2005) Elizabeth Ann Nalley
Elizabeth Ann Nalley
(2006) Catherine T. Hunt
Catherine T. Hunt
(2007) Bruce E. Bursten (2008) Thomas H. Lane (2009) Joseph Francisco (2010) Nancy B. Jackson
Nancy B. Jackson
(2011) Bassam Z. Shakhashiri (2012) Marinda Li Wu (2013) Thomas J. Barton (2014) Diane Grob Schmidt
Diane Grob Schmidt
(2015) Donna J. Nelson (2016) Allison A. Campbell (2017)

v t e

Anti-nuclear movement in the United States

General

Anti-nuclear groups in the US

California movement

Great Peace March Nuclear history of the United States Nuclear power in the US

Canceled nuclear plants in the US

Nuclear weapons and the US Protests in the US Anti-nuclear advocates in the US

Organizations and groups

Abalone Alliance Alliance for Nuclear Responsibility Clamshell Alliance Committee for Nuclear Responsibility Corporate Accountability International Critical Mass Energy Project Friends of the Earth Greenpeace
Greenpeace
USA Institute for Energy and Environmental Research Mothers for Peace Musicians United for Safe Energy Nevada Desert Experience Nuclear Control Institute Nuclear Information and Resource Service Physicians for Social Responsibility Plowshares Movement Public Citizen Shad Alliance Sierra Club Three Mile Island Alert Women Strike for Peace

People

Daniel Berrigan William J. Bichsel Larry Bogart Pierce Brosnan Helen Caldicott Barry Commoner Frances Crowe Carrie Barefoot Dickerson Paul M. Doty Jane Fonda Randall Forsberg John Gofman Paul Gunter John Hall Jackie Hudson Sam Lovejoy Amory Lovins Gregory Minor Hermann Joseph Muller Ralph Nader Graham Nash Linus Pauling Eugene Rabinowitch Phil Radford Bonnie Raitt Martin Sheen Karen Silkwood Thomas Louis Vitale Harvey Wasserman Victor Weisskopf

Main protest sites

Black Fox Bodega Bay Diablo Canyon Indian Point Lawrence Livermore Montague Naval Base Kitsap Nevada Test Site Rancho Seco Rocky Flats San Onofre Seabrook Shoreham Three Mile Island Trojan Vermont Yankee White House Peace Vigil Y-12 Weapons Plant Yankee Rowe

Books

Carbon-Free and Nuclear-Free Conservation Fallout: Nuclear Protest
Protest
at Diablo Canyon Contesting the Future of Nuclear Power Critical Masses: Opposition to Nuclear Power in California, 1958-1978 The Cult of the Atom The Doomsday Machine (book) Fallout: An American Nuclear Tragedy Killing Our Own Licensed to Kill? The Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Shoreham Power Plant Making a Real Killing: Rocky Flats and the Nuclear West Nuclear Implosions: The Rise and Fall of the Washington Public Power Supply System Nuclear Politics in America We Almost Lost Detroit

Films

Atomic Ed and the Black Hole The China Syndrome Countdown to Zero Dark Circle Nuclear Tipping Point Silkwood

v t e

Gandhi Peace Award
Gandhi Peace Award
laureates

1960–1979

1960 Eleanor Roosevelt / Edwin T. Dahlberg 1961 Maurice Eisendrath / John Haynes Holmes 1962 Linus Pauling / James Warburg 1963 E. Stanley Jones 1964 1965 1966 A. J. Muste 1967 Norman Thomas / Jerome Davis / William Sloane Coffin 1968 Benjamin Spock 1969 1970 Wayne Morse / Willard Uphaus 1971 1972 U Thant 1973 1974 1975 Dorothy Day 1976 Daniel Ellsberg 1977 1978 Peter Benenson / Martin Ennals 1979 Roland Bainton

1980–1999

1980 Helen Caldicott 1981 Corliss Lamont 1982 Randall Watson Forsberg 1983 1984 Robert Jay Lifton / Kay Camp 1985 1986 Bernard Lown 1987 John Somerville 1988 1989 César Chávez 1990 Marian Wright Edelman 1991 George McGovern 1992 Ramsey Clark 1993 Lucius Walker 1994 Roy Bourgeois 1995 Edith Ballantyne 1996 New Haven-León Sister City Project

Alan Wright Paula Kline

1997 Howard / Alice Frazier 1998 1999

2000–2019

2000 2001 2002 Michael True 2003 Dennis Kucinich 2004 Karen Jacob / David Cortright 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Ehud Bandel / Arik Ascherman 2012 Amy Goodman 2013 Bill McKibben 2014 Medea Benjamin

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 91892412 LCCN: n79144786 ISNI: 0000 0001 2143 5407 GND: 118789953 SELIBR: 328524 SUDOC: 027060896 BNF: cb11918822h (data) MGP: 113591 NLA: 35248754 NDL: 00452314 NKC: ola2004216927 BNE: XX1062701 SN

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