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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Limoges
Limoges
(/lɪˈmoʊʒ/;[1] French pronunciation: ​[limɔʒ];[1] Occitan: Lemòtges or Limòtges [liˈmɔdʒes]) is a city and commune, the capital of the Haute-Vienne
Haute-Vienne
department and was the administrative capital of the former Limousin
Limousin
region in west-central France. Limoges
Limoges
is known for its medieval and Renaissance enamels (Limoges enamels) on copper, for its 19th-century porcelain ( Limoges
Limoges
porcelain) and for its oak barrels which are used for Cognac and Bordeaux production. Some are even exported to wineries in California.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Ancient and medieval history 1.2 Modern history 1.3 Sports

2 Climate 3 Demographics 4 Main sights 5 Art and literature 6 Transport 7 Notable people 8 Twin towns 9 See also 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Limoges Ancient and medieval history[edit] Scarce remains of pre-urban settlements have been found in the area of Limoges. The capital of the Gaulish
Gaulish
people of the Lemovices, who lived in the area, was probably either near Villejoubert, some kilometres south-east of Saint-Léonard-de-Noblat, or St Gence, just west of Limoges. The city proper was founded as Augustoritum by the Romans, around 10 BC: "rito-" is Gaulish
Gaulish
for "ford". The foundation was part of the reorganization of the province by the emperor Augustus, hence the new name. The Roman city included an amphitheatre measuring 136 x 115 metres, a theatre, a forum, baths and several sanctuaries. According to tradition, a temple consecrated to Venus, Diana, Minerva and Jupiter was located near the modern cathedral. The city was on the typical Roman square plan, with two main streets crossing in the centre. It had a Senate and a currency of its own, a sign of its importance in the imperial age. Later, like many towns and cities in Gaul, it was renamed after the tribe (here the Lemovices) whose chief town it was; "Lemovices" subsequently evolved into "Limoges", and "Lemovicinus" for the area around changed into "Limousin". Limoges
Limoges
was evangelized by Saint Martial, who came to the city around 250 with two companions, Alpinianus and Austriclinienus. However, in the late 3rd century it was increasingly abandoned, due to unsafe conditions created by the invasions of various Germanic tribes. The population was concentrated instead in a more easily fortifiable site, the modern Puy Saint-Étienne, which is the centre of the modern Limoges. Starting from the construction of the Abbey of St. Martial (9th century), another settlement grew around the tomb of the saint, while a third area, next to the residence of the viscount (the future Castle of Saint Martial), seems to have been populated from the 10th century. Starting from the 11th century, thanks to the presence of the Abbey of St. Martial and its large library, Limoges
Limoges
became a flourishing artistic centre. It was home to an important school of medieval music composition, which is usually called the St. Martial School; its most famous member was the 13th-century troubadour Bertran de Born.

Limoges enamel
Limoges enamel
ciborium with champlevé enamel, and center rim in pseudo-Kufic script, circa 1200.[2]

In the 13th century, at the peak of its splendour, central Limoges consisted of two fortified settlements.

The town proper, with a new line of walls encompassing the Vienne River, inhabited mainly by clerks and workers. It has a bridge on the Vienne
Vienne
river named after Saint-Étienne, built by the bishops, and a developed port. Sacked in 1370, it never recovered entirely. The castle, with 12 meter-high walls, including the abbey and controlled by the abbot, sometimes in contrast with the bishop-ruled town ("la Cité"). Traces of the walls can still be seen in the city centre. Outside the lines of walls were the popular quarters.

In 1370, Limoges
Limoges
was occupied by Edward, the Black Prince, who massacred some 300 residents, "perhaps a sixth of the normal population", with another 60 members of the garrison of 140 dead as well.[3] Modern history[edit] The city and castle were united in 1792 to form the single city of Limoges. During the French Revolution
French Revolution
several religious edifices, considered symbols of the Ancien Régime, were destroyed by the population: these included the Abbey of St. Martial
Abbey of St. Martial
itself.

Yale Mobile Hospital Unit No. 39 stationed at the Limoges
Limoges
factory, Christmas, 1917

Some years later the porcelain industry started to develop, favoured by the presence of kaolinite which was discovered near Limoges
Limoges
in 1768[4] (near St Yrieix, south-west of Limoges). Many of the inhabitants became employed in the new sector or in connected activities (including the lumbering of wood needed for firing the porcelain) in manufacture and exporting needed for European distribution of Limoges
Limoges
Boxes, dinnerware, and other porcelain wares. Because the Limousin
Limousin
region has had a long history of breeding (Baronet sheep and Limousine cows), the leather industry also settled in and around Limoges
Limoges
along the banks of the Vienne–the river providing the necessary water and power. Factories in Limoges
Limoges
and St Junien still produce luxury leather shoes, gloves, and bags. In the 19th century Limoges
Limoges
saw strong construction activity, which included the destruction and rebuilding of much of the city centre. The unsafe conditions of the poorer population is highlighted by the outbreak of several riots, including that of July–November 1830; April 1848. In early 1905 strikes began in another local industry, shoe factories soon followed in the porcelain factories. Barricades were built, the army intervened. There would be two casualties: a horse and a young porcelain worker, Camille Vardelle. The first French confederation of workers, Confédération Générale du Travail (CGT) (General Confederation of Labour), was created in Limoges
Limoges
in 1895. During the World War II, many Jews from Alsace were evacuated to and around Limoges. Sports[edit] The city is one of France's basketball capitals. The Palais des Sports de Beaublanc, has been host for international basketball events such as the EuroBasket 1983
EuroBasket 1983
and serves as home court for the professional team CSP Limoges
CSP Limoges
(Cercle St Pierre). Since 1983, the club has been French champion 11 times (1983, 1984, 1985, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1993, 1994, 2000, 2014, 2015) and 6 European titles (1982, 1983, 2000 (Korac Cup), 1988 (FIBA Saporta Cup), 1993 (Euroleague)). It was the first French club team to become European champion in a collective sport.[5][6] The team currently plays in Pro A, the French first basketball professional league. The Sports Palace of Beaublanc (Bòsc Blanc in Occitan) is located in the sports park of the city of Limoges. It was realized during the year 1981 thanks to Albert Chaminade (1912–2009), who long demanded an honorable basketball field of the sports facilities worthy to the Mayors Georges Guingouin then Léon Betoulle it was not until 1981, distant cousin of the Blessed Guillaume-Joseph Chaminade, (1761–1850), French religious priest, founder of the Society of Mary (Marianists). He was beatified on 3 September 2000 by St John Paul II. He was a CSP player during the 1920s, a basketball officer, an International and National Referee, a Police Inspector, then a municipal councilor, to cover the Palais des sports, which gives the hall a wave style and has a mandate for basketball French and later of the region his project asked the Mayor Louis Longequeue who accepted and validated for the cover, the Architects were Rauby & Marty. At the death of Albert Chaminade, in 2009, this one rests under the stele in memory of the French sportsmen of the Haute-Vienne
Haute-Vienne
this was accepted by the Mayor of (1990–2014) Alain Rodet before entrance of the Sports Palace. The Beaublanc Sports Center is equipped with a basketball hall, an athletics stadium, an Olympic swimming pool, tennis courts and various football fields. Limoges
Limoges
FC, founded in 1947, is a French association football team based in Limoges, France, which is currently playing in the fifth tier of the French football league system. Notable players: French international players:

François Remetter, (born August 8, 1928, in Strasbourg), is a French former football goalkeeper. Laurent Koscielny; (born September 10, 1985) is a French footballer who plays for Arsenal and the France
France
national football team. Koscielny is the vice-captain of Arsenal. He has been described as a clever, agile and ball-playing defender

Limoges
Limoges
Hand 87 is a French handball team based in Limoges, France, which is currently playing in the Division 2 of Ligue Nationale de Handball. Climate[edit] Limoges
Limoges
experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) common to much of Western France. Most precipitation occurs between October and February. On 27 December 1999, winds reached 148 km/h. On average, the city undergoes 41 days of frost and seven days of snow each winter. In June, July and August, precipitation tends to come only from violent thunderstorms coming from the Bay of Biscay.

Climate data for Limoges-Bellegarde (402 m) 1981–2010 averages, extremes 1973–present

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 17.0 (62.6) 22.0 (71.6) 24.7 (76.5) 27.8 (82) 29.8 (85.6) 35.7 (96.3) 37.3 (99.1) 37.2 (99) 32.6 (90.7) 27.3 (81.1) 22.9 (73.2) 18.3 (64.9) 37.3 (99.1)

Average high °C (°F) 6.9 (44.4) 8.3 (46.9) 11.5 (52.7) 14.1 (57.4) 18.0 (64.4) 21.4 (70.5) 23.9 (75) 23.8 (74.8) 20.4 (68.7) 16.1 (61) 10.4 (50.7) 7.6 (45.7) 15.2 (59.4)

Daily mean °C (°F) 4.2 (39.6) 5.0 (41) 7.7 (45.9) 10.0 (50) 13.8 (56.8) 17.0 (62.6) 19.3 (66.7) 19.1 (66.4) 16.0 (60.8) 12.5 (54.5) 7.4 (45.3) 4.9 (40.8) 11.4 (52.5)

Average low °C (°F) 1.5 (34.7) 1.7 (35.1) 3.9 (39) 5.9 (42.6) 9.5 (49.1) 12.6 (54.7) 14.6 (58.3) 14.5 (58.1) 11.7 (53.1) 9.0 (48.2) 4.5 (40.1) 2.2 (36) 7.7 (45.9)

Record low °C (°F) −19.2 (−2.6) −15.0 (5) −9.6 (14.7) −4.7 (23.5) −0.6 (30.9) 4.0 (39.2) 7.2 (45) 5.4 (41.7) 2.6 (36.7) −2.6 (27.3) −7.2 (19) −10.6 (12.9) −19.2 (−2.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 91.9 (3.618) 79.8 (3.142) 78.7 (3.098) 90.8 (3.575) 95.7 (3.768) 77.5 (3.051) 65.6 (2.583) 75.0 (2.953) 74.1 (2.917) 93.4 (3.677) 101.3 (3.988) 99.7 (3.925) 1,023.5 (40.295)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 13.5 11.0 11.3 12.4 12.6 9.4 8.5 8.5 9.6 12.1 13.2 12.8 134.9

Average snowy days 4.6 3.8 2.7 2.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.7 3.0 18.1

Average relative humidity (%) 85 80 76 71 75 73 71 72 75 80 82 84 77

Mean monthly sunshine hours 86.0 104.0 156.8 167.7 204.9 227.4 238.2 231.0 191.5 133.3 81.4 77.6 1,899.8

Source #1: Météo France[7][8][9]

Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days, 1961–1990)[10]

Demographics[edit] Population city: 139,502 (limougeauds), urban area: 281,570.[when?] At the 1999 census, the population was 133,968.[11] Main sights[edit]

St Etienne Cathedral, Limoges

Saint Martial
Saint Martial
Bridge

Gare des Bénédictins

The Crypt of Saint Martial, 10th century, including the tomb of the bishop who evangelized the city[12] It was discovered in the 1960s while building an underground parking lot (place de la république). Remains of the Gallo-Roman amphitheatre, one of the largest in ancient Gaul.[citation needed] The Gothic Limoges Cathedral
Limoges Cathedral
(Cathédrale Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
de Limoges), begun in 1273 and only finished in 1888. It is noted for a fine loft built in 1534 and for the partly octagonal bell tower. The main artistic works are a Renaissance rood screen and the tomb of the bishop Jean de Langeac, with sculpted scenes of the Apocalypse. The Chapelle Saint-Aurélien (14th–17th centuries). It includes the relics of St. Aurelian, the second bishop of Limoges, and has medieval statues and Baroque works of art. The church of St-Pierre-du-Queyroix, begun in the 12th century Church of St-Michel-des-Lions, begun in 1364. It houses the relics of St. Martial and has stained-glass windows from the 15th–16th century. The most striking feature is the 65 m-high tower, with a spire surmounted by a big bronze ball. The bridges of Saint Martial
Saint Martial
(dating from the Roman era) and of St-Etienne (13th century). The Limoges
Limoges
Fine Arts Museum (Musée des Beaux-Arts), housed in the 18th-century bishops' palace ('Palais de l'Évêché').[13] The railway station, Gare de Limoges
Limoges
Bénédictins, inaugurated in 1929. The Château de La Borie (17th century), at 4 km (2.5 mi) from the city. It is home to the Centre Culturel de Rencontre de La Borie et l'Ensemble Baroque de Limoges. The remains of the 12th-century Castle of Chalucet, 10 km (6.2 mi) south of the city. During the Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War
it was a base of the bands of pillagers which ravaged the country. The city's botanical gardens include the Jardin botanique de l'Evêché next to the cathedral and the Jardin botanique alpin "Daniella". The University of Limoges
University of Limoges
was founded in 1968.[14]

Art and literature[edit]

The murder of Thomas Becket, Limoges
Limoges
enamel, 12th century, Louvre Museum

"Le marché de Limoges" ( Limoges
Limoges
market) is the name of a section of Pictures at an Exhibition
Pictures at an Exhibition
by Modest Mussorgsky. In 1768,[4] kaolin, a rock rich in fine, white clay which is used for making porcelain, was discovered at Saint-Yrieix-la-Perche, 30 km south of Limoges. Under the impetus of the progressive economist Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de Laune, who had been appointed intendant of this impoverished and isolated region, a new ceramics industry was developed, and Limoges porcelain
Limoges porcelain
became famous during the 19th century. However, Limoges porcelain
Limoges porcelain
is a generic term for porcelain produced in Limoges
Limoges
rather than at a specific factory (there are still several porcelain factories in and around Limoges). More than 50% of all porcelain made in France
France
comes from Limoges[4] Limoges
Limoges
is mentioned in T.S. Eliot's poem Gerontion
Gerontion
( London
London
1919), lines 23 to 25: "... Mr. Silvero/ With caressing hands, at Limoges/ Who walked all night in the next room." Eliot's compatriot and mentor Ezra Pound
Ezra Pound
visited Limoges
Limoges
in 1912 when researching the landscape and the work of the 12th-century troubadours. As he states in his essay Troubadours: Theirs Sorts and Conditions: "... a man may walk the hill roads and river roads from Limoges
Limoges
and Charente
Charente
to Dordogne
Dordogne
and Narbonne
Narbonne
and learn a little, or more than a little, of what the country meant to the wandering singers ..." There is also a reference to Limoges
Limoges
in Jean-Paul Sartre's novel Nausea, near the middle of the book in the Shrove Tuesday
Shrove Tuesday
section, when the magistrate says: "I had a similar case at the beginning of my career. It was in 1902. I was deputy magistrate at Limoges
Limoges
..." While Limoges
Limoges
is absent from the work of Auguste Renoir, although a native of the city, it remains an important source of inspiration for local artists.[citation needed] Transport[edit] The main railway station of Limoges
Limoges
is the Gare de Limoges-Bénédictins. It offers direct connections with Paris, and Toulouse, and several regional destinations. The motorway A20 connects Limoges
Limoges
with Chateauroux, Vierzon, Orléans
Orléans
and Paris
Paris
to the north, and Brive-la-Gaillarde, Cahors, Montauban
Montauban
and Toulouse
Toulouse
to the south. The nearest airport is Limoges
Limoges
– Bellegarde Airport. Urban transport in Limoges
Limoges
and its metropolitan area is operated by Société de transports en commun de Limoges
Limoges
Métropole (STCL). The Limoges
Limoges
urban bus network includes the Limoges
Limoges
trolleybus system, one of only four such systems currently operating in France. Notable people[edit]

Pierre Basile, according to the chroniclers Roger de Wendover and Bernard Itier (Ithier), librarian of the Abbey Saint-Martial
Saint-Martial
de Limoges, the knight Limousin
Limousin
who mortally wounded Richard the Lionheart at the siege of *Châlus-Chabrol Castle, On March 26, 1199, of a crossbow tile which reached the King of England
England
at the base of the neck. Bernard Gui
Bernard Gui
(1261–1331), Inquisitor of Toulouse, Bishop of Lodève, buried in Limoges. Henri François d'Aguesseau
Henri François d'Aguesseau
(1668–1751), chancellor of France Jean Daurat
Jean Daurat
(or Dorat) (1508–1588), poet and scholar, member of the Pléiade Jean-Gilles du Coëtlosquet, Bishop of Limoges
Limoges
and tutor of grandchildren of Louis XV Stephen Grellet
Stephen Grellet
(1773–1855), Quaker
Quaker
missionary Jean-Baptiste Jourdan
Jean-Baptiste Jourdan
(1762–1833), marshal of France Thomas Robert Bugeaud de la Piconnerie, Duke of Duchy of Isly (1784–1849), marshal of France Spanish King Ferdinand VII
Ferdinand VII
had one night in 1808. Presented by Napoleon Bonaparte, and banished by the Emperor to King Ferdinand VII of Spain, spent a night in 1808 Castle Valençay
Valençay
(Indre), he spent a night in guard in Muret, owners at the time of this particular hotel says Sampigny. Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud
Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud
(1753–1793), orator and revolutionary Fabienne Delsol, a singer active since 1996 Roger Gonthier
Roger Gonthier
(1884–1978), architect Jean-Baptiste Joseph Émile Montégut (1825–1895), critic René Navarre
René Navarre
(1877–1968), actor Pierre- Auguste Renoir
Auguste Renoir
(1841–1919), painter Michel Chevalier
Michel Chevalier
(1806–1879), engineer, economist, and statesman Tōson Shimazaki
Tōson Shimazaki
(1872–1943), Japanese writer, exiled in Limoges
Limoges
in 1915 and 1916. Marie François Sadi Carnot
Marie François Sadi Carnot
(1837–1894), President of France Martial Valin (1898–1980), commander of the Free French Air Force Georges Guingouin (Magnac-Laval, 1913 Troyes, 2005), school teacher who led the French resistance from 1942 to 1944 (FTP then FFI) around Limoges. Also nicknamed "le préfet du maquis", under his orders the Resistance defeated the German brigade led by General Curt von Jesser, at the battle of the Mont Gargan, in July 1944 and liberated Limoges without any casualty one month later, on August 21. He was elected a mayor of Limoges
Limoges
(1945–47). François Mitterrand, linked to Limoges
Limoges
because his grandfather Joseph was born September 27, 1873 in Limoges, died in 1946 in Jarnac. Heinz Lammerding, (1905–1971) officier allemand de la Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
He is known – notably in France – for having been the commander of the SS Das Reich division, responsible for the massacres of Tulle
Tulle
and Oradour-sur-Glane
Oradour-sur-Glane
in 1944. Has been passing here Adolf Diekmann
Adolf Diekmann
(1914–1944) Commander of the 1 st battalion of the Der Führer
Führer
regiment of the 2nd SS Das Reich Division responsible for the Oradour-sur-Glane
Oradour-sur-Glane
massacre, where 642 people (240 women, 205 children and 197 men) were murdered. Has been passing here André Antoine
André Antoine
(1858–1943), theater pioneer, actor, director, filmmaker Maryse Bastié
Maryse Bastié
(1898–1952), aviator Jean Lefebvre The actor (1919–2004) drove one of the first Limoges trolleybuses, before starting upon his career in film and theater. Xavier Darcos
Xavier Darcos
(1947), politician Roland Dumas
Roland Dumas
(1922), politician Mario David, French actor, born August 9, 1927 in Charleville-Mezieres and died April 29, 1996 in Paris Georges-Emmanuel Clancier
Georges-Emmanuel Clancier
(1914), writer, poet and novelist. Theo Sarapo
Theo Sarapo
(1936–1970), singer, actor, died at Limoges Pascal Sevran
Pascal Sevran
(1945–2008), songwriter, television host, who died in Limoges Guillaume Moreau
Guillaume Moreau
(born in 1983 in Limoges), automobile driver Guy Roux, French player and football coach, born 18 October 1938 in Colmar, and then was transferred in 1958 in Limoges, where he became a boarding master at the Lycée Gay-Lussac
Gay-Lussac
Player Limoges FC
Limoges FC
1958–1961 Raoul Hausmann, artist born in Vienna, in 1886, co-founder of Dada-Berlin, famous for his collages. Moved to Limoges
Limoges
for safety in 1939 and then to Peyrat-le-château where he died in 1971. The Rochechouart
Rochechouart
Art Museum (west of Limoges) holds several of his works. Edmond Malinvaud
Edmond Malinvaud
(born in 1923 in Limoges), world-renowned economist Fred Sirieix (born 1972), maître d' famous for appearing on First Dates. Michel Denisot
Michel Denisot
(born 1945 Buzançais), former freelance radio ORTF
ORTF
in Limoges, now a pillar of the Canal +
Canal +
television channel. Damien Chouly (born 27 November 1985), is a French rugby union footballer. He played for Clermont Auvergne, in the Top 14, commonly in the Number 8 position. Edmond Malinvaud
Edmond Malinvaud
(1923–2015), economist David Ducourtioux
David Ducourtioux
(born April 11, 1978), in Limoges, is a French footballer. He held the right backside position in Valenciennes
Valenciennes
from 2007 to 2014. He now plays for Gazélec Ajaccio. Sébastien Puygrenier
Sébastien Puygrenier
(born 28 January 1982), is a French football player. He is a centre back, who currently plays for French team US Créteil. Pascal Hervé
Pascal Hervé
(1964), former cyclist, excluded from the Tour de France for doping in 1998 with the cycling team Festina, converted in the restaurant, Le Comptoir de Bacchus at 3 rue Filles Notre Dame and La Bicyclette at 15 rue Hubert Curien. Richard Dacoury (born July 6, 1959 in Abidjan, Ivory Coast) is a former player of the Limoges
Limoges
basketball club French professional basketball player. Philippe Bolo, (born on 25 March 1967), is a French politician, member of the MoDem
MoDem
and deputy MoDem
MoDem
of the seventh riding of Maine-et-Loire Natalia Pouzyreff
Natalia Pouzyreff
is an engineer and politician (born on February 18, 1961) Invested by La République en marche!, she was elected deputy in the sixth constituency of Yvelines
Yvelines
on 18 June 2017. Luc Leblanc, born on 4 August 1966 in Limoges, is a French cyclist, professional from 1987 to 1998. He was crowned world road champion in 1994 in Agrigento in Sicily
Sicily
ahead of Claudio Chiappucci
Claudio Chiappucci
in a very difficult race. Maxime Méderel
Maxime Méderel
is a French cyclist, born on September 19, 1980 in Limoges, professional since 2005. He is a member of the UV Limousine. Théo Vimpère, born on 3 July 1990 in Limoges, is a French cyclist. From 2013 to 2016 in the HP BTP–Auber93
HP BTP–Auber93
continental team, he has been a member of the Pro Immo Nicolas Roux team since 2017

Twin towns[edit]

Fountain and Carousel at Place de la République

Charlotte, North Carolina, United States Fürth, Germany Grodno, Belarus Seto, Aichi, Japan
Japan
[15] Icheon, South Korea Plzeň, Czech Republic

See also[edit]

Roman Catholic Diocese of Limoges, the Bishopric of Limoges Communes of the Haute-Vienne
Haute-Vienne
department

References[edit]

^ a b "Limoges". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014.  ^ " Louvre
Louvre
museum notice". Louvre.fr. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.  ^ Sumption, Jonathan. 2009. The Hundred Years War III: Divided Houses. 82–83 ^ a b c "Limoges". Facstaff.uindy.edu. Retrieved 14 March 2011.  ^ "F4 History: 1993, A surprise from France".  ^ "Une liste de 200 personnalités «à abattre» a été découverte lors de perquisitions chez des". 26 September 1992.  ^ "Données climatiques de la station de Limoges" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved January 7, 2016.  ^ "Climat Limousin" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved January 7, 2016.  ^ "Limoges–Bellegarde (87)" (PDF). Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records (in French). Meteo France. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018.  ^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Limoges-Bellegarde (87) - altitude 402m" (in French). Infoclimat. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2016.  ^ Limoges
Limoges
at INSEE (in French) ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: St. Martial". Newadvent.org. 1 October 1910. Retrieved 14 March 2011.  ^ "Découvrez le musée des Beaux-Arts de Limoges
Limoges
- Musée des Beaux-Arts de Limoges". www.museebal.fr.  ^ Université de Limoges
Limoges
website Archived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. (in English) ^ "International Exchange". List of Affiliation Partners within Prefectures. Council of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR). Archived from the original on 24 December 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015. 

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.  INSEE commune file

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Limoges External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Limoges.

City council website Adrien Dubouché Museum – ceramics, glassware, porcelain from Limoges History and Geography at Academy of Limoges

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Saint-Brieuc
(Côtes-d'Armor) Guéret
Guéret
(Creuse) Périgueux
Périgueux
(Dordogne) Besançon
Besançon
(Doubs) Valence (Drôme) Évreux
Évreux
(Eure) Chartres
Chartres
(Eure-et-Loir) Quimper
Quimper
(Finistère) Nîmes
Nîmes
(Gard) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Haute-Garonne) Auch
Auch
(Gers) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Gironde) Montpellier
Montpellier
(Hérault) Rennes
Rennes
(Ille-et-Vilaine) Châteauroux
Châteauroux
(Indre) Tours
Tours
(Indre-et-Loire) Grenoble
Grenoble
(Isère) Lons-le-Saunier
Lons-le-Saunier
(Jura) Mont-de-Marsan
Mont-de-Marsan
(Landes) Blois
Blois
(Loir-et-Cher) Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
(Loire) Le Puy-en-Velay
Le Puy-en-Velay
(Haute-Loire) Nantes
Nantes
(Loire-Atlantique) Orléans
Orléans
(Loiret) Cahors
Cahors
(Lot) Agen
Agen
(Lot-et-Garonne) Mende (Lozère) Angers
Angers
(Maine-et-Loire) Saint-Lô
Saint-Lô
(Manche) Châlons-en-Champagne
Châlons-en-Champagne
(Marne) Chaumont (Haute-Marne) Laval (Mayenne) Nancy (Meurthe-et-Moselle) Bar-le-Duc
Bar-le-Duc
(Meuse) Vannes
Vannes
(Morbihan) Metz
Metz
(Moselle) Nevers
Nevers
(Nièvre) Lille
Lille
(Nord) Beauvais
Beauvais
(Oise) Alençon
Alençon
(Orne) Arras
Arras
(Pas-de-Calais) Clermont-Ferrand
Clermont-Ferrand
(Puy-de-Dôme) Pau (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) Tarbes
Tarbes
(Hautes-Pyrénées) Perpignan
Perpignan
(Pyrénées-Orientales) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Bas-Rhin) Colmar
Colmar
(Haut-Rhin) Lyon
Lyon
(Rhône) Vesoul
Vesoul
(Haute-Saône) Mâcon
Mâcon
(Saône-et-Loire) Le Mans
Le Mans
(Sarthe) Chambéry
Chambéry
(Savoie) Annecy
Annecy
(Haute-Savoie) Paris
Paris
(Paris) Rouen
Rouen
(Seine-Maritime) Melun
Melun
(Seine-et-Marne) Versailles (Yvelines) Niort
Niort
(Deux-Sèvres) Amiens
Amiens
(Somme) Albi
Albi
(Tarn) Montauban
Montauban
(Tarn-et-Garonne) Toulon
Toulon
(Var) Avignon
Avignon
(Vaucluse) La Roche-sur-Yon
La Roche-sur-Yon
(Vendée) Poitiers
Poitiers
(Vienne) Limoges
Limoges
(Haute-Vienne) Épinal
Épinal
(Vosges) Auxerre
Auxerre
(Yonne) Belfort
Belfort
(Territoire de Belfort) Évry (Essonne) Nanterre
Nanterre
(Hauts-de-Seine) Bobigny
Bobigny
(Seine-Saint-Denis) Créteil
Créteil
(Val-de-Marne) Cergy, Pontoise
Pontoise
(Val-d'Oise)

Overseas departments

Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Saint-Denis (Réunion) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte)

v t e

Prefectures of the regions of France

Metropolitan France

Lyon
Lyon
(Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes) Dijon
Dijon
(Bourgogne-Franche-Comté) Rennes
Rennes
(Brittany) Orléans
Orléans
(Centre-Val de Loire) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corsica) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Grand Est) Lille
Lille
(Hauts-de-France) Paris
Paris
(Île-de-France) Rouen
Rouen
(Normandy) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Nouvelle-Aquitaine) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Occitanie) Nantes
Nantes
(Pays de la Loire) Marseille
Marseille
(Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur)

Overseas regions

Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte) Saint-Denis (Réunion)

v t e

Communes of the Haute-Vienne
Haute-Vienne
department

Aixe-sur-Vienne Ambazac Arnac-la-Poste Augne Aureil Azat-le-Ris Balledent La Bazeuge Beaumont-du-Lac Bellac Berneuil Bersac-sur-Rivalier Bessines-sur-Gartempe Beynac Les Billanges Blanzac Blond Boisseuil Bonnac-la-Côte Bosmie-l'Aiguille Breuilaufa Le Buis Bujaleuf Burgnac Bussière-Galant Bussière-Poitevine Les Cars Chaillac-sur-Vienne Le Chalard Châlus Chamboret Champagnac-la-Rivière Champnétery Champsac La Chapelle-Montbrandeix Chaptelat Château-Chervix Châteauneuf-la-Forêt Châteauponsac Le Châtenet-en-Dognon Cheissoux Chéronnac Cieux Cognac-la-Forêt Compreignac Condat-sur-Vienne Coussac-Bonneval Couzeix La Croisille-sur-Briance La Croix-sur-Gartempe Cromac Cussac Darnac Dinsac Dompierre-les-Églises Domps Le Dorat Dournazac Droux Eybouleuf Eyjeaux Eymoutiers Feytiat Flavignac Folles Fromental Gajoubert La Geneytouse Glandon Glanges Gorre Les Grands-Chézeaux Isle Jabreilles-les-Bordes Janailhac Javerdat La Jonchère-Saint-Maurice Jouac Jourgnac Ladignac-le-Long Laurière Lavignac Limoges Linards Lussac-les-Églises Magnac-Bourg Magnac-Laval Mailhac-sur-Benaize Maisonnais-sur-Tardoire Marval Masléon Meilhac Meuzac La Meyze Moissannes Montrol-Sénard Mortemart Nantiat Nedde Neuvic-Entier Nexon Nieul Nouic Oradour-Saint-Genest Oradour-sur-Glane Oradour-sur-Vayres Pageas Le Palais-sur-Vienne Panazol Pensol Peyrat-de-Bellac Peyrat-le-Château Peyrilhac Pierre-Buffière La Porcherie Rancon Razès Rempnat Rilhac-Lastours Rilhac-Rancon Rochechouart La Roche-l'Abeille Roussac Royères Roziers-Saint-Georges Saillat-sur-Vienne Saint-Amand-le-Petit Saint-Amand-Magnazeix Saint-Auvent Saint-Barbant Saint-Bazile Saint-Bonnet-Briance Saint-Bonnet-de-Bellac Saint-Brice-sur-Vienne Saint-Cyr Saint-Denis-des-Murs Sainte-Anne-Saint-Priest Sainte-Marie-de-Vaux Saint-Gence Saint-Genest-sur-Roselle Saint-Georges-les-Landes Saint-Germain-les-Belles Saint-Gilles-les-Forêts Saint-Hilaire-Bonneval Saint-Hilaire-la-Treille Saint-Hilaire-les-Places Saint-Jean-Ligoure Saint-Jouvent Saint-Julien-le-Petit Saint-Junien Saint-Junien-les-Combes Saint-Just-le-Martel Saint-Laurent-les-Églises Saint-Laurent-sur-Gorre Saint-Léger-la-Montagne Saint-Léger-Magnazeix Saint-Léonard-de-Noblat Saint-Martial-sur-Isop Saint-Martin-de-Jussac Saint-Martin-le-Mault Saint-Martin-le-Vieux Saint-Martin-Terressus Saint-Mathieu Saint-Maurice-les-Brousses Saint-Méard Saint-Ouen-sur-Gartempe Saint-Pardoux Saint-Paul Saint-Priest-Ligoure Saint-Priest-sous-Aixe Saint-Priest-Taurion Saint-Sornin-la-Marche Saint-Sornin-Leulac Saint-Sulpice-Laurière Saint-Sulpice-les-Feuilles Saint-Sylvestre Saint-Symphorien-sur-Couze Saint-Victurnien Saint-Vitte-sur-Briance Saint-Yrieix-la-Perche Saint-Yrieix-sous-Aixe Les Salles-Lavauguyon Sauviat-sur-Vige Séreilhac Solignac Surdoux Sussac Tersannes Thiat Thouron Val-d'Issoire Vaulry Vayres Verneuil-Moustiers Verneuil-sur-Vienne Veyrac Vicq-sur-Breuilh Videix Le Vigen Villefavard

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 137166008 GND: 4035770-3 BNF: cb1527

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