The Info List - Libreville

is the capital and largest city of Gabon, in western central Africa. The city is a port on the Komo River, near the Gulf of Guinea, and a trade center for a timber region. As of 2013[update] its census population was 703,904.[1]


1 History 2 Geography 3 Climate 4 Transport 5 Culture and education 6 Languages 7 Economy 8 Notable residents 9 Gallery 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Libreville

La résidence, ca.1899

The area was inhabited by the Mpongwé
tribe long before the French acquired the land in 1839. In 1842, American missionaries from New England established a mission in Baraka, Gabon, on what is now Libreville. In 1846, the Brazilian slave ship L'Elizia, carrying slaves from the Congo, was captured near Loango by the French navy which was tasked with contributing the British Blockade of Africa. Fifty-two of the freed slaves were resettled on the site of Libreville
(French for "Freetown") in 1849. It was the chief port of French Equatorial Africa
French Equatorial Africa
from 1934 to 1946 and was the central focus of the Battle of Gabon
in 1940. In 1910, French Equatorial Africa
French Equatorial Africa
(Afrique équatoriale française, AEF) was created, and French companies were allowed to exploit the Middle Congo (modern-day Congo Brazzaville). It soon became necessary to build a railroad that would connect Brazzaville, the terminus of the river navigation on the Congo River
Congo River
and the Ubangui River, with the Atlantic coast. As rapids make it impossible to navigate on the Congo River
Congo River
past Brazzaville, and the coastal railroad terminus site had to allow for the construction of a deep-sea port, authorities chose the site of Ponta Negra instead of Libreville
as originally envisaged. Construction of the Congo-Ocean Railway
Congo-Ocean Railway
began in 1921, and Libreville
was surpassed by the rapid growth of Pointe-Noire, farther down the coast. Libreville
was named in imitation of Freetown
and grew only slowly as a trading post and a minor administrative centre to a population of 32,000 on independence in 1960. It only received its first bank branch when Bank of West Africa (BAO)
Bank of West Africa (BAO)
opened a branch in 1930. Since independence, the city has grown rapidly and now houses nearly half the national population. Geography[edit]

Satellite view of Libreville.

From north to south, major districts of the city are the residential area Batterie IV, Quartier Louis (known for its nightlife), Mont-Bouët and Nombakélé (busy commercial areas), Glass (the first European settlement in Gabon), Oloumi (a major industrial area) and Lalala, a residential area. The city's port and train station on the Trans- Gabon
Railway line to Franceville
lie in Owendo, south of the main built-up area. Inland from these districts lie poorer residential areas. North-west of the Equatorial Guinea
is where the city stands, labeling the city as a part of North-west Gabon. In terms of the country's surrounding boundaries, north is Cameroon, east is Congo, and south-east is the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It also rides the shores of the South Atlantic Ocean, which is on the country's west coast for reference. Additionally, in terms of aquatic geography, the Komo River
Komo River
passes through the city and empties into the ocean. The Komo River
Komo River
also stands as a potential hydroelectric source of power for the city which could generate supportive amounts of energy and power. Several city districts provide distinct and separate benefits throughout the city as well. In terms of night life, the Quartier Louis sector is most renown. One of this zone's sides includes the coast and this heavily influences the possibilities in terms of activities available in the area. Commercial areas within Libreville are housed in the Mont-Bouët and Nombakélé which feature several shopping centers and stations selling purchasable goods. Industry within the capital city is heavy in Oloumi, integrating production separately from the districts that focus upon other aspects. Finally, Lalala and Batterie IV serve as residential and housing sectors, where much of the populous are placed.[2] Climate[edit] Libreville
features a tropical monsoon climate with a lengthy wet season and a short dry season. Libreville's wet season spans about nine months (September through May), with a heavy amount of rain falling during these months. The city's dry season lasts from June through August and is caused by the cold Benguela Current
Benguela Current
reaching its northernmost extent and suppressing rainfall. Despite the lack of rain, Libreville
remains very cloudy during this time of year. As common with many cities with this climate, average temperatures remain relatively constant throughout the course of the year, with average high temperatures at around 29 °C (84 °F).

Climate data for Libreville

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 29.5 (85.1) 30.0 (86) 30.2 (86.4) 30.1 (86.2) 29.4 (84.9) 27.6 (81.7) 26.4 (79.5) 26.8 (80.2) 27.5 (81.5) 28.0 (82.4) 28.4 (83.1) 29.0 (84.2) 28.6 (83.5)

Daily mean °C (°F) 26.8 (80.2) 27.0 (80.6) 27.1 (80.8) 26.6 (79.9) 26.7 (80.1) 25.4 (77.7) 24.3 (75.7) 24.3 (75.7) 25.4 (77.7) 25.7 (78.3) 25.9 (78.6) 26.2 (79.2) 25.9 (78.6)

Average low °C (°F) 24.1 (75.4) 24.0 (75.2) 23.9 (75) 23.1 (73.6) 24.0 (75.2) 23.2 (73.8) 22.1 (71.8) 21.8 (71.2) 23.2 (73.8) 23.4 (74.1) 23.4 (74.1) 23.4 (74.1) 23.3 (73.9)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 250.3 (9.854) 243.1 (9.571) 363.2 (14.299) 339.0 (13.346) 247.3 (9.736) 54.1 (2.13) 6.6 (0.26) 13.7 (0.539) 104.0 (4.094) 427.2 (16.819) 490.0 (19.291) 303.2 (11.937) 2,841.7 (111.878)

Average rainy days 17.9 14.8 19.5 19.2 16.0 3.7 1.7 4.9 14.5 25.0 22.6 17.6 177.4

Average relative humidity (%) 86 84 84 84 84 81 81 81 84 87 87 86 84

Mean monthly sunshine hours 175.2 176.8 176.9 176.8 159.5 130.6 119.2 90.4 95.9 112.9 134.6 167.8 1,716.6

Source: NOAA[3]

Transport[edit] Libreville International Airport
Libreville International Airport
is the largest airport in Gabon
and is located around 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) north of the city. National Taxis operate around the city. Each district has a colour for its taxis and Libreville's is red. The National Society of Transport (SOGATRA) just[when?] launched the new taxis that operate on a counter system.[4] The Gabonese Transport Company operates a bus service to all districts of Libreville. Culture and education[edit]

The Embassy of the United States in Libreville.

Sights in Libreville

the National Museum of Arts and Traditions the French cultural centre St Marie's Cathedral, seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Libreville the carved wood church of St Michael, Nkembo the Arboretum de Sibang two cultural villages

Libreville's main market lies in Mont-Bouët. Gabon's school of administration and school of law are in Libreville. Libreville
also hosts the Omar Bongo University (est. 1970), various research institutes and a library. Alongside the Komo estuary is the Pongara National Park of 929 km2. Behind Cap Esterias is Akanda National Park, famed for its large congregations of migrating waterbirds. The city is served by Libreville
Hospital. There are several high-end international schools in Libreville, including:

American International School of Libreville – American curriculum Lycée Blaise Pascal de Libreville – French curriculum International School of Gabon
Ruban Vert – IB curriculum

Languages[edit] Libreville
is one of several African cities where French is truly becoming a native language,[5] with some local features. Economy[edit]

beachfront, 2009, showing a billboard for President Ali Bongo Ondimba's campaign.

The city is home to a shipbuilding industry, brewing industry, and sawmills. The city exports raw materials such as wood, rubber and cocoa from the city's main port, and the deepwater port at Owendo.[6] Gabon
Airlines has its headquarters in Libreville.[7] Prior to their dissolutions, both Air Gabon
and Gabon
Express were headquartered on the grounds of Libreville
International Airport.[8][9] Notable residents[edit]

Daniel Cousin, footballer who played for Larissa FC and the Gabon National Team Anthony Obame, Olympic silver medalist in the men's Taekwondo 80+ kg at the 2012 Summer Olympics. Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang, footballer who plays for Arsenal
and the Gabon
Team[10] Charles Tchen, Honorary consul for the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
in Gabon Marcel Lefebvre, traditionalist Roman Catholic bishop, served as a missionary in Libreville Nadège Noële Ango-Obiang, writer and economist


Libreville, 1899

The entrance to Libreville, 1899


This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (October 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

^ "GeoHive – Gabon". 22 October 2015. Archived from the original on 6 September 2011.  ^ " Libreville
Geography – Information, climate and weather in Libreville". libreville.com.  ^ " Libreville
Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved September 10, 2015.  ^ [1] Archived 14 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ (in French) "De plus, le français est également devenu la langue maternelle de plus de 30 % des Librevillois et il est de plus en plus perçu comme une langue gabonaise." Archived 29 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Libreville
– safari gateway into Gabon". Zambezi.com. 2012-06-19. Retrieved 2015-01-21.  ^ Gabon
Airlines: Mentions légales Retrieved 8 October 2009 ^ World Airline Directory. Flight International. 16–22 March 2004. "64" ^ World Airline Directory. Flight International. 23–29 March 2004. 78 ^ Press Association (2013-11-26). "Borussia Dortmund 3-1 Napoli Champions League Group F Match Report Football". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-01-21. 


See also: Bibliography of the history of Libreville

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Libreville.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Libreville.

(in French) Site officiel de la Mairie de Libreville

Coordinates: 0°23′24″N 9°27′16″E / 0.3901°N 9.4544°E / 0.3901; 9.4544

v t e

Capitals of Africa

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

Abuja, Nigeria Accra, Ghana Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Algiers, Algeria Antananarivo, Madagascar Asmara, Eritrea Bamako, Mali Bangui, Central African Republic Banjul, Gambia Bissau, Guinea-Bissau Brazzaville, Rep. of the Congo Bujumbura, Burundi Cairo, Egypt Conakry, Guinea Dakar, Senegal Djibouti, Djibouti Dodoma, Tanzania El Aaiún(claimed)/Tifariti(factual), Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1 Freetown, Sierra Leone Funchal, Madeira4 Gaborone, Botswana Harare, Zimbabwe Hargeisa, Somaliland1 Jamestown, St Helena, Ascension & Tristan da Cunha2 Juba, South Sudan Kampala, Uganda Khartoum, Sudan Kigali, Rwanda Kinshasa, D.R. Congo Libreville, Gabon Lilongwe, Malawi Lomé, Togo Luanda, Angola Lusaka, Zambia Malabo, Equatorial Guinea Mamoudzou, Mayotte3 Maputo, Mozambique Maseru, Lesotho

(executive)   Lobamba
(legislative), Swaziland

Mogadishu, Somalia Monrovia, Liberia Moroni, Comoros Nairobi, Kenya N'Djamena, Chad Niamey, Niger Nouakchott, Mauritania Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Port Louis, Mauritius Porto-Novo, Benin Praia, Cape Verde

(executive)   Cape Town
Cape Town
(legislative)   Bloemfontein
(judicial), South Africa

Rabat, Morocco Saint-Denis, Réunion3 Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
and Las Palmas, Canary Islands5 São Tomé, São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe Tripoli, Libya Tunis, Tunisia Victoria, Seychelles Windhoek, Namibia

(political)   Abidjan
(economic), Ivory Coast

Yaoundé, Cameroon

1 An unrecognised or partially-recognised nation 2 British Overseas Territory 3 Overseas region
Overseas region
of France 4 Autonomous region of Portugal 5 Autonomous community of Spain

v t e

1964 Gabon
coup d'état

Key figures

Léon M'ba Jean-Hilaire Aubame Paul Gondjout Louis Bigmann

Key places

Libreville Lambaréné

Key events

1964 United States Embassy in Libreville
bombings Gabonese parliamentary election, 1964

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 124324283 LCCN: n79099509 GND: 4417068-3 SELIBR: 152396 BNF: cb1228