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Leontios
Leontios
(or Leontius) (Greek: Λεόντιος, Latin: Leontius Augustus) (d. 15 February 706) was Byzantine emperor
Byzantine emperor
from 695 to 698. Little is known of his early life, other than that he was born in Isauria. He was given the title of patrikios, and made Strategos
Strategos
of the Anatolic Theme
Anatolic Theme
under Emperor Justinian II. He led forces against the Umayyads
Umayyads
during the early years of Justinian's reign, securing victory and forcing the Umayyad caliph, Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, to sue for peace. In 692, Justinian declared war upon the Umayyads
Umayyads
again, and sent Leontios
Leontios
to campaign against them. However, he was defeated decisively after the Battle of Sebastopolis, and imprisoned for his failure by Justinian. He was released in 695, and given the title of Strategos
Strategos
of Hellas. After being released, he led a rebellion against Justinian, and seized power, becoming emperor in the same year. He ruled until 697, when he was overthrown by Apsimar, a Droungarios who had taken part in a failed expedition that had been launched by Leontios, to recover Carthage. After seizing Constantinople, Apsimar took the royal name Tiberios III, and had Leontios' nose and tongue cut off. He was sent to the Monastery of Dalmatou, where he remained until February 706. By this time Justinian had retaken the throne; both Leontios
Leontios
and Tiberios were executed.

Contents

1 History 2 References

2.1 Primary sources 2.2 Citations 2.3 Bibliography

3 See also 4 External links

History[edit] Before the reign of Justinian II, Leontios' life is somewhat obscure. It is known that he was originally from Isauria. During the reign of Justinian II, Leontios
Leontios
was initially a patrikios, and strategos of the Anatolic Theme.[1] Leontios
Leontios
led forces against the Umayyads, who were distracted by a war with the Zubayrids, at some point during the early reign of Justinian. The Umayyad caliph, Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, sued for peace in 688, agreeing to increase the tribute payments from the Umayyad Caliphate to the Byzantine Empire, which had started under Emperor Constantine IV, to a weekly tribute of 1,000 pieces of gold, one horse, and one slave. Justinian invaded again around 692, because he felt the Umayyads
Umayyads
were in a weak position. The Umayyads
Umayyads
repulsed the Byzantine attackers and invaded North Africa
North Africa
and Anatolia. After the decisive defeat of the Byzantines by the Umayyads
Umayyads
at the Battle of Sebastopolis, Justinian blamed Leontios, and had him imprisoned in 692.[2][3] Leontios
Leontios
was released in 695, in order to lead troops against the Umayyads, because Justinian feared losing the city of Carthage in the Exarchate of Africa.[2] Leontios
Leontios
was made Strategos
Strategos
of Hellas upon his release.[4][5] However, upon his release, Leontios
Leontios
launched a revolt,[2] taking advantage of Justinian's upopularity. Justinian was vastly unpopular amongst the population, with the aristocracy opposed to his land policies, and the peasantry to his tax policies.[6] Leontios
Leontios
led a march on the guards barracks, freeing those who were imprisoned by Justinian for opposing him. His force was joined by a host of Blues supporters, and then marched to the Hagia Sophia. He was met by Patriarch Kallinikos, who declared his support for Leontios' bid for the throne. Leontios
Leontios
then led his forces to the Great Palace of Constantinople, and captured Justinian and his ministers.[7] They were brought to the Hippodrome, where Justinian's nose was cut off, a common practice in Byzantine culture, in order to remove threats to the throne.[6][8] After Justinian's nose was cut off, Leontios
Leontios
exiled him to Cherson,[4][6] and his ministers were dragged by their feet from wagons, and then burned alive.[7] In 698, the Umayyads, led by Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, invaded the Exarchate of Africa, and seized Carthage. Leontios
Leontios
sent a fleet to retake the Exarchate, but the expedition failed.[7][9] The forces initially were able to retake Carthage, however it was swiftly retaken by the Umayyads
Umayyads
after the Byzantine fleet was decisively defeated just outside the harbor of the city.[10] One of the commanders of this expedition, Apsimar, a Droungarios of German origins, started a revolt against Leontios, taking the regnal name Tiberios III, leading his men back to Constantinople, and allied himself with the Greens. His force seized Leontios, and cut off his nose and tongue,[7][9][11][12] before sending him to live in the Monastery of Dalmatou,[7][9] where he stayed under guard until 15 February 706, when Justinian II
Justinian II
retook the throne with the assistance of the Bulgar
Bulgar
king Tervel, and had both Leontios
Leontios
and Tiberios III
Tiberios III
dragged to the Hippodrome.[13] There they were publicly humiliated, then taken away and beheaded.[14][15] References[edit] Primary sources[edit]

Theophanes the Confessor, Chronographia.

Citations[edit]

^ Brubaker & Haldon 2011, p. 586. ^ a b c Necipoğlu & Leal 2010, p. 15. ^ Rosser 2001, p. 2. ^ a b Saxby & Angelov 2016, p. 27. ^ Carr 2015, p. 100. ^ a b c Ostrogorsky 1956, pp. 116–122. ^ a b c d e Carr 2015, p. 101. ^ Saxby & Angelov 2016, p. 45. ^ a b c Garland 2017, p. 2. ^ Konstam 2015, p. 8. ^ Melton 2014, p. 533. ^ Brubaker & Haldon 2011, p. 730. ^ Carr 2015, p. 102. ^ Carr 2015, p. 103. ^ Kazhdan 1991, p. 2084.

Bibliography[edit]

Brubaker, Leslie; Haldon, John (2011). Byzantium in the Iconoclast Era, C. 680-850: A History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521430937.  Carr, John (2015). Fighting Emperors of Byzantium. Pen and Sword. ISBN 9781783831166.  Garland, Lynda (2017). Byzantine Women: Varieties of Experience 800-1200. Routledge. ISBN 9781351953719.  Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991), Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6  Konstam, Angus (2015). Byzantine Warship vs Arab Warship: 7th–11th Centuries. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781472807588.  Melton, J. Gordon (2014). Faiths Across Time: 5,000 Years of Religious History. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781610690263.  Necipoğlu, Gülru; Leal, Karen (2010). Muqarnas. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9789004185111.  Ostrogorsky, George (1956). History of the Byzantine State. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0813511986.  Rosser, John H. (2001). Historical Dictionary of Byzantium. Lanham: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810866218.  Saxby, Michael; Angelov, Dimiter (2016). Power and Subversion in Byzantium: Papers from the 43rd Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, Birmingham, March 2010. Routledge. ISBN 9781317076933. 

See also[edit]

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
portal

List of Byzantine emperors

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Leontius.

Leontios Born: Unknown Died: February 706

Regnal titles

Preceded by Justinian II Byzantine Emperor 695–698 Succeeded by Tiberios III

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
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with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
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Galerius
(East) and Maxentius
Maxentius
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Constantine the Great
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Galerius
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Licinius
I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius
Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II
Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
(first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II
Justinian II
(second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian
with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II
Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates

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