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Leonid Danylovych Kuchma (Ukrainian: Леонід Данилович Кучма, born 9 August 1938) is a Ukrainian politician who was the second President of independent Ukraine
Ukraine
from 19 July 1994 to 23 January 2005. Kuchma took office after winning the 1994 presidential election against his rival, incumbent Leonid Kravchuk. Kuchma won re-election for an additional five-year term in 1999. His presidency was surrounded by numerous corruption scandals and the lessening of media freedoms. Corruption accelerated after Kuchma's election in 1994, but in 2000–2001, his power began to weaken in the face of exposures in the media.[3] On his watch the Ukrainian economy continued to decline until 1999, whereas growth was recorded since 2000, bringing relative prosperity to some segments of urban residents. During his presidency, Ukrainian-Russian ties began to improve.[4] After a successful career in the machine-building industry of the Soviet Union, Kuchma began his political career in 1990, when he was elected to the Verkhovna Rada
Verkhovna Rada
(the Ukrainian parliament); he was re-elected in 1994.[5] He served as Ukrainian Prime Minister
Ukrainian Prime Minister
between October 1992 and September 1993.[5] Since July 2014, Kuchma has been Ukraine's representative at the semi-official peace talks regarding the ongoing War in Donbass.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Career 3 President (1994–2005)

3.1 Domestic policy 3.2 Foreign policy 3.3 Kuchma and the Cassette Scandal 3.4 Role in the election crisis of 2004

4 Post-presidency

4.1 Involvement in the 2014 pro-Russian conflict in Ukraine

5 Politicians closely associated with Kuchma

5.1 Aides and advisors that became public figures after or before 5.2 Influential statesmen 5.3 Business oligarchs and managers of important state-owned companies

6 Family and personal life 7 Awards 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Early life[edit] Leonid Kuchma
Leonid Kuchma
was born in the village of Chaikine in rural Chernihiv Oblast.[6] His father Danylo Prokopovych Kuchma (1901–1942) was wounded in World War II
World War II
and eventually died of his wounds in the field hospital #756 (near the village of Novoselytsia) when Leonid was four.[7][8] His mother Paraska Trokhymivna Kuchma worked at a kolhoz. Kuchma attended the Kostobobrove general education school in the neighboring Semenivka Raion. Later he enrolled in Dnipropetrovsk National University and graduated in 1960 with a degree in mechanical engineering (majoring in aerospace engineering).[9] The same year he joined the Communist Party of Soviet Union.[10] Kuchma is a candidate of technical sciences. In 1967 Kuchma married Lyudmyla.[11] Career[edit] After graduation, Kuchma worked in the field of aerospace engineering for the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau
Yuzhnoye Design Bureau
in Dnipropetrovsk. At 28 he became a testing director for the Bureau deployed at the Baikonur cosmodrome. Some political observers suggested that Kuchma's early career was significantly boosted by his marriage to Lyudmila Talalayeva, an adopted daughter of Gennadiy Tumanov, the Yuzhmash
Yuzhmash
chief engineering officer and later the Soviet Minister of Medium Machine Building.[12][13] At 38 Kuchma became the Communist party chief at Yuzhny Machine-building Plant and a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine. He was a delegate of the 27th and 28th Congresses of the Communist Party of Soviet Union. By the end of the 1980s, Kuchma openly criticized the Communist Party.[14] In 1982 Kuchma was appointed the first deputy of general design engineer at Yuzhmash, and from 1986 to 1992, he held the position of the company's general director. From 1990 to 1992, Kuchma was a member of the Verkhovna Rada
Verkhovna Rada
(Ukraine's parliament). In 1992 he was appointed as Prime Minister of Ukraine.[14] He resigned a year later, complaining of "slow pace of reform".[14] He was re-elected into parliament in 1994.[5] President (1994–2005)[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2013)

Kuchma resigned from the position of Prime Minister of Ukraine
Prime Minister of Ukraine
in September 1993 to run for the presidency in 1994 on a platform to boost the economy by restoring economic relations with Russia and faster pro-market reforms. Kuchma won a clear victory against the incumbent President Leonid Kravchuk, receiving strong support from the industrial areas in the east and south. His worst results were in the west of the country.[14] Kuchma was re-elected in 1999 to his second term.[5][14] This time the areas that gave him strongest support last time voted for his opponents, and the areas which voted against him last time came to his support.[14] During Kuchma's Presidency, he closed opposition papers and several journalists died in mysterious circumstances.[15]

Results in the Second round of the 1994 presidential election: Blue – Leonid Kuchma, orange – Leonid Kravchuk

Results in the Second round of the 1999 presidential election: Blue – Leonid Kuchma, red – Petro Symonenko

Domestic policy[edit] In October 1994, Kuchma announced comprehensive economic reforms, including reduced subsidies, lifting of price controls, lower taxes, privatization of industry and agriculture, and reforms in currency regulation and banking. The parliament approved the plan's main points. The International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(IMF) promised a $360 million loan to initiate reforms. He was re-elected in 1999 to his second term. Opponents accused him of involvement in the killing in 2000 of journalist Georgiy Gongadze (see also SBU, "Cassette Scandal", Mykola Mel'nychenko), which he has always denied. Critics also blamed Kuchma for restrictions on press freedom. Kuchma is believed to have played a key role in sacking the Cabinet of Viktor Yushchenko
Viktor Yushchenko
by Verkhovna Rada
Verkhovna Rada
on 26 April 2001. Kuchma's Prime Minister from 2002 until early January 2005 was Viktor Yanukovych, after Kuchma dismissed Anatoliy Kinakh, his previous appointee. Foreign policy[edit]

President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
with Leonid Kuchma, in the centre, and Azeri President Heydar Aliyev
Heydar Aliyev
before an expanded meeting of the CIS Council of Heads of State.

In 2002 Kuchma stated that Ukraine
Ukraine
wanted to sign an association agreement with the European Union
European Union
(EU) by 2003–2004 and that Ukraine would meet all EU membership requirements by 2007–2011.[16] He also hoped for a free-trade treaty with the EU.[16] In his inaugural address Kuchma said:

Historically, Ukraine
Ukraine
is part of the Euro-Asian cultural and economics space. Ukraine's vitally important national interests are now concentrated on this territory of the former Soviet Union. ... We are also linked with... the former republics of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
by traditional scientific, cultural and family ties... I am convinced that Ukraine
Ukraine
can assume the role of one of the leaders of Euro-Asian economic integration.[17]

Kuchma signed a "Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Partnership" with Russia, and endorsed a round of talks with the CIS. Additionally, he referred to Russian as "an official language". He signed a special partnership agreement with NATO
NATO
and raised the possibility of membership of the alliance. After Kuchma's popularity at home and abroad sank as he became mired in corruption scandals, he turned to Russia as his new ally. He said that Ukraine
Ukraine
needed a "multivector" foreign policy that balanced eastern and western interests[citation needed]. Kuchma and the Cassette Scandal[edit] See also: Cassette Scandal From 1998 to 2000, Kuchma's bodyguard Mykola Melnychenko was allegedly eavesdropping Kuchma's office, later publishing the recordings. The release of the tapes – dubbed "Kuchmagate" by the Ukrainian press – supposedly revealed Kuchma's numerous crimes. In particular, his approving the sale of radar systems to Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
(among other illegal arms sales) and ordering the Ukraine's police minister to "take care" of the journalist Georgiy Gongadze.

Ukraine
Ukraine
Without Kuchma protests. 6 February 2001.

In September 2000, Gongadze disappeared and his headless corpse was found mutilated on 3 November 2000. On 28 November, the opposition politician Oleksandr Moroz
Oleksandr Moroz
publicised the tape recordings implicating Kuchma in Gongadze's murder. In 2005 the Ukrainian Prosecutor General’s office instigated criminal proceedings against Kuchma and members of his former administration in connection with the murder of Gongadze.[18] In 2005 the press reported that Kuchma had been unofficially granted immunity from prosecution in return for his graceful departure from office in 2005.[19][20] Critics of the tape point to the difficulty of Melnychenko recording 500 hours of dictaphone tape unaided and undetected, the lack of material evidence of said recording equipment, and other doubts which question the authenticity and motive of the release of the tape. Kuchma acknowledged in 2003 that his voice was one of those on the tapes, but claimed the tapes had been selectively edited to distort his meaning.[21] The General Prosecutor of Ukraine's Office canceled its resolution to deny opening of criminal cases against Kuchma and other politicians within the Gongadze-case on 9 October 2010.[22] On 22 March 2011, Ukraine
Ukraine
opened an official investigation into the murder of Gongadze and, two days later, Ukrainian prosecutors charged Kuchma with involvement in the murder.[23][24] A Ukrainian district court ordered prosecutors to drop criminal charges against Kuchma on 14 December 2011 on grounds that evidence linking him to the murder of Gongadze was insufficient.[25] The court rejected Melnychenko's recordings as evidence.[26] Gongadze's widow Myroslava Gongadze
Myroslava Gongadze
lodged an appeal against the ruling one week later.[27] During the trial of Oleksiy Pukach, he claimed that Kuchma and (Kuchma's head of his Presidential Administration, Volodymyr Lytvyn) were the ones who ordered the murder of Gongadze.[28][29] Pukach was convicted and sentenced to life for his part in the murder of Gongadze.[28] First Deputy Prosecutor General of Ukraine
Ukraine
Renat Kuzmin
Renat Kuzmin
claimed 20 February 2013 that his office had collected enough evidence confirming Kuchma's responsibility for ordering Gongadze's assassination.[30] Kuchma's reply the next day was, "This is another banal example of a provocation, which I've heard more than enough in the past 12 years".[30] Role in the election crisis of 2004[edit] Kuchma's role in the election crisis of 2004 is not entirely clear. After the second round on 22 November 2004, it appeared that Yanukovych had won the election by fraud, which caused the opposition and independent observers to dispute the results, leading to the Orange Revolution. Kuchma was urged by Yanukovych and Viktor Medvedchuk
Viktor Medvedchuk
(the head of the presidential office) to declare a state of emergency and hold the inauguration of Yanukovych. He denied the request. Later, Yanukovych publicly accused Kuchma of a betrayal. Kuchma refused to officially dismiss Prime Minister Yanukovych after the parliament passed a motion of no confidence against the Cabinet on 1 December 2004. Soon after, Kuchma left the country. He returned to Ukraine
Ukraine
in March 2005. Kuchma said in October 2009 he would vote for Victor Yanukovych at the Ukrainian presidential election, 2010.[31] In a document dated 2 February 2010 uncovered during the United States diplomatic cables leak, Kuchma in conversation with United States Ambassador to Ukraine John F. Tefft, called the voters' choice between Yanukovych and Yulia Tymoshenko during the second round of the 2010 presidential election as a choice between “bad and very bad" and praised (the candidate eliminated in the first round of the election) Arseniy Yatsenyuk instead.[32] As of September 2011, Kuchma believes that Yanukovych was the real winner of the 2004 election.[33] Post-presidency[edit] Leonid Kuchma
Leonid Kuchma
has been active in politics since his presidency ended. He aligned himself with President Viktor Yushchenko
Viktor Yushchenko
in 2005,[34] but later raised concerns about the president in correspondence with then U.S. Ambassador to the Ukraine, John Tefft.[35] Kuchma endorsed Yanukovych for president in 2010.[36] Involvement in the 2014 pro-Russian conflict in Ukraine[edit] Main article: 2014 pro-Russian conflict in Ukraine Kuchma represented Ukraine
Ukraine
at negotiations with the armed separatist in the Donetsk and Luhansk provinces on 21 June 2014 to discuss President Petro Poroshenko
Petro Poroshenko
peace plan.[37][38][38] His role as a diplomat has been received positively by the west and Russia as well as the public in Ukraine.[39] On 11, February 2015, Kuchma was one of the signatories of a draft plan to end the conflict in Donbas. The summit was known as Minsk II. The plan ensured that a ceasefire was implemented and reaction from leaders in Europe was generally positive.[40] In March 2015, Kuchma delivered an address and called on the west for greater involvement in the region.[41] He criticized the action of Russian backed forces in the attempt to seize the town of Debaltseve.[42] Kuchma decommissioned the Chernobyl power plant's reactor.[when?][citation needed] In September, 2015 Kuchma was again appointed as the representative for Ukraine
Ukraine
at the Trilateral Contact Group. The group met in Belarus to discuss ending the conflict in Donbas. The choice of Kuchma comes nearly a decade after his presidency ended.

Kuchma delivering an address on the occasion of the Liberation Day of Ukraine
Ukraine
in 2004.

In early 2017, Kuchma spoke out against the transport blockade of Donbass.[43][44] In March 2017 at the Trilateral Contact Group (TCG) in Minsk, he demanded the Russian Federation repeal their decree on the recognition of passports issued in separatist-held areas.[45] Politicians closely associated with Kuchma[edit] Aides and advisors that became public figures after or before[edit]

Volodymyr Horbulin
Volodymyr Horbulin
– personal friend, aide, later Head of the National Security and Defense Council Volodymyr Lytvyn
Volodymyr Lytvyn
– long-term first aide, later Head of Presidential Administration, then Speaker of the Verkhovna Rada Viktor Medvedchuk
Viktor Medvedchuk
– business oligarch, then First Vice Speaker of Verkhovna Rada, later Head of Presidential Administration (2001–2004) Dmytro Tabachnyk
Dmytro Tabachnyk
– manager of the Kuchma's first successful election campaign, later Head of Presidential Administration, then Vice Prime Minister;,[46] Minister of Science and Education (2010-2014)

Influential statesmen[edit]

Leonid Derkach – personal friend, Head of the Security Service of Ukraine Yuri Kravchenko – Minister of Internal Affairs (police chief), committed suicide after the fall of Kuchma's regime Oleksandr Omelchenko
Oleksandr Omelchenko
– long-term governor and mayor of Kiev

Business oligarchs and managers of important state-owned companies[edit]

Ihor Bakai – business oligarch, later head of Naftogas
Naftogas
of Ukraine national gas and oil company, then Head of the State Accommodation Department, escaped to Russia after the fall of Kuchma's regime, refusing to return permanently Heorhiy Kirpa
Heorhiy Kirpa
– long-term head of the Ukrzaliznytsia
Ukrzaliznytsia
national railways, then Minister of Transportation, committed suicide after the fall of Kuchma's regime Viktor Pinchuk
Viktor Pinchuk
– second son-in-law, Jewish business oligarch in control of several important media

Family and personal life[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2013)

Leonid Kuchma
Leonid Kuchma
is married to Lyudmyla Kuchma since 1967.[11] She is the Honorary President of the National Fund of Social Protection of Mothers and Children, " Ukraine
Ukraine
to Children"[47] and is also known as a paralympic movement in Ukraine
Ukraine
supporter.[11] Kuchma's only child, daughter Olena Pinchuk, is married to Viktor Pinchuk, a Jewish industrialist and philanthropist whose Victor Pinchuk Foundation regularly hosts Ukraine-dedicated and philanthropic fora at the annual World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum
in Davos. Olena Pinchuk has a son Roman (born in 1991, from her previous marriage with Ukrainian businessman Igor Franchuk) who attends Brown University, and two daughters with Viktor Pinchuk, Katerina (born in 2003) and Veronica (2011). Olena Pinchuk founded the ANTIAIDS Foundation in 2003.[48] According to the Ukrainian magazine Focus, Olena Pinchuk was amongst the "top 10 most influential women" in Ukraine
Ukraine
as of 2010.[49] Victor Pinchuk recently made headlines when it was revealed that one of his lobbyists was previously picked by Donald Trump for national security aide.[50][51] It was also revealed that his Foundation made significant contributions to both Trump and Clinton campaigns.[52] Kuchma was an amateur guitar player in his younger years. He was also known for his skill at the complicated card game preferans. In 2003, he published his book Ukraine
Ukraine
is not Russia (uk). After retirement, Kuchma was allowed to keep the state-owned dacha in Koncha-Zaspa
Koncha-Zaspa
for his personal use upon completion of his state duties.[53] The government order #15-r that would allow for Kuchma to keep his estate was signed by the acting prime-minister Mykola Azarov on 19 January 2005. Kuchma was also allowed to keep his full presidential salary and all the service personnel, along with two state-owned vehicles. That order also stated that these costs would be paid out of the state budget. Awards[edit] Kuchma was awarded the Azerbaijani Istiglal Order for his contributions to Azerbaijan- Ukraine
Ukraine
relations and strategic cooperation between the states by President of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Heydar Aliyev on 6 August 1999.[54]

Ukrainian Honours

Order of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) of St. Ilya of Murom, 1st class (2004) Honorary Citizen of the Donetsk Oblast
Donetsk Oblast
(2002)

Foreign Honours

Knight Grand Cross with Grand Cordon of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (3 May 1995) Order of Merit for the Fatherland, 1st class (Russia, 20 April 2004) – for his contribution to strengthening friendship and cooperation between Russia and Ukraine Grand Cross of the Order of Vytautas the Great
Order of Vytautas the Great
(Lithuania, 20 September 1996)[55] Grand Cross of the Order of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Gediminas (Lithuania, 4 November 1998, Ludmila too)[55] Order of the Golden Eagle
Order of the Golden Eagle
(Kazakhstan, 1999) Order of the Republic (Moldova, 2003) Order Laila Utama Dardzha Kerabat, 1st class (Brunei, 2004) Chain of the Order of Prince Henry
Order of Prince Henry
(Portugal, 16 April 1998) February 3, 1999 Order "Bethlehem – 2000" (State of Palestine, 2000)

References[edit]

^ " People's Deputy of Ukraine
People's Deputy of Ukraine
of the I convocation". Official portal (in Ukrainian). Verkhovna Rada
Verkhovna Rada
of Ukraine. Retrieved 22 December 2014.  ^ " People's Deputy of Ukraine
People's Deputy of Ukraine
of the II convocation". Official portal (in Ukrainian). Verkhovna Rada
Verkhovna Rada
of Ukraine. Retrieved 22 December 2014.  ^ Adrian Karatnycky, "Ukraine's Orange Revolution," Foreign Affairs, Vol. 84, No. 2 (Mar. – Apr., 2005), pp. 35–52 in JSTOR ^ Robert S. Kravchuk, "Kuchma as Economic Reformer," Problems of Post-Communism Vol. 52#5 September–October 2005, pp 48–58 ^ a b c d "Profile: Leonid Kuchma". BBC. 26 September 2002.  ^ " Leonid Kuchma
Leonid Kuchma
president of Ukraine". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2016-01-13.  ^ "single The Jamestown Foundation". www.jamestown.org. Retrieved 2016-01-13.  ^ "Engology,Engineer, Leonid Kuchma
Leonid Kuchma
- President of the Ukraine,". www.engology.com. Retrieved 2016-01-13. [permanent dead link] ^ "Profile: Leonid Kuchma". BBC. 2002-09-26. Retrieved 2016-01-13.  ^ Erlanger, Steven (1994-07-12). "UKRAINIANS ELECT A NEW PRESIDENT". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-01-13.  ^ a b c First ladies of Ukraine, ITAR-TASS
ITAR-TASS
(6 June 2014) ^ Бондаренко К. Леонід Кучма: портрет на фоні епохи. «Фоліо». Харків, 2007; стр. 21 ^ Деньги к деньгам: браки в украинской политике (UNIAN, 12 July 2007). Unian.net. Retrieved on 6 August 2011. ^ a b c d e f "Profile: Leonid Kuchma". BBC. 29 October 1999.  ^ "Country profile: Ukraine", BBC
BBC
News ^ a b EU- Ukraine
Ukraine
Summits: 16 Years of Wheel-Spinning, The Ukrainian Week (28 February 2012) ^ ' Leonid Kuchma
Leonid Kuchma
sklav prysiagu na virnist' ukrains'komu narodovy', Holos Ukrainy, 21 July 1994. ^ Mosnews.com ^ Crouch, David (6 April 2005). "Secrets of journalist's murder cast long shadow over Ukraine's orange revolution", The Guardian. Retrieved on 6 August 2011. ^ " Ukraine
Ukraine
ex-leader charged over murder". Al Jazeera. 24 March 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2011.  ^ Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia 2004], (Europa Publications), Routledge, December 12, 2003, ISBN 1-85743-187-1 (page 504) ^ "Prosecutor general's office can open criminal cases against former President Leonid Kuchma
Leonid Kuchma
and other politicians", Kyiv Post (October, 2010) ^ "Ukraine's ex-president: Catching Kuchma". The Economist. 399 (8727): 25. 2–8 April 2011.  ^ "Ukraine's ex-leader Kuchma probed over Gongadze murder", BBC
BBC
News (22 March 2011). Retrieved on 6 August 2011. ^ "Court clears Kuchma of Gongadze murder charges", Kyiv Post (14 December 2011) ^ "Court rejects Melnychenko's tapes as evidence in Gongadze case", Kyiv Post (14 December 2011) ^ "Gongadze's widow appeals closure of criminal case against Kuchma", Kyiv Post (21 December 2011) ^ a b "Court sentences Pukach to life for murdering Gongadze, disregards claims against Kuchma, Lytvyn", Kyiv Post (29 January 2013) " Ukraine
Ukraine
police officer accuses ex-president after being jailed for life", Reuters
Reuters
(29 January 2013) Gongadze killer pointed on Kuchma and Lytvyn. "LIGABusinessInform". 2013-1-29 ^ "Former policeman 'carried out Georgiy Gongadze murder on behalf of Leonid Kuchma'", Telegraph.co.uk
Telegraph.co.uk
(1 September 2011) ^ a b Ukraine's Leonid Kuchma
Leonid Kuchma
'implicated' in Gongadze death, BBC
BBC
news (20 February 2013) Kuchma outraged by reports alleging his arrest, Kyiv Post (21 February 2013) ^ Kuchma says he'll vote for Yanukovych as Ukraine's president, Kyiv Post (16 October 2009) ^ "Kuchma: Yanukovych-Tymoshenko contest a choice between 'bad and very bad'", Kyiv Post (3 December 2010) ^ Kuchma: Orange Revolution
Orange Revolution
defines Ukrainians as Europeans, Kyiv Post (17 September 2011) ^ Warner, Tom (2005-09-12). "Kuchma backs Yushchenko in Ukraine turmoil". Financial Times. ISSN 0307-1766. Retrieved 2016-01-13.  ^ "WikiLeaks: Former President Leonid Kuchma
Leonid Kuchma
with U.S. Ambassador John Tefft". KyivPost. Retrieved 2016-01-13.  ^ "Kuchma campaigns for Yanukovych as president of Ukraine". KyivPost. Retrieved 2016-01-13.  ^ "NSDC Says Medvedchuk not Representing Ukraine
Ukraine
at Peace Plan Talks". Ukrinform. 24 June 2014.  ^ a b Birnbaum, Michael (23 June 2014). "Separatists in Ukraine
Ukraine
Agree to Honor Cease-fire". The Washington Post.  ^ "From Disgraced President to Ukraine's Lead Diplomat: The Unlikely Redemption of Leonid Kuchma". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2016-01-13.  ^ " Ukraine
Ukraine
crisis: Leaders agree peace roadmap - BBC
BBC
News". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 2016-01-13.  ^ "Ukraine's Kuchma Says West Too Soft On Russia Over Debaltseve". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. 2015-03-05. Retrieved 2016-01-13.  ^ " Ukraine
Ukraine
crisis: 'Dozens killed' in east as Minsk talks held - BBC News". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 2016-01-13.  ^ "Donbas blockade harmful for Ukraine
Ukraine
- Kuchma". Interfax-Ukraine. Retrieved 2017-05-04.  ^ "Kuchma says Donbas blockade harmful for Ukraine
Ukraine
KyivPost". KyivPost. 2017-02-28. Retrieved 2017-05-04.  ^ "Kyiv insists on cancellation of separatists IDs recognition by Russia KyivPost". KyivPost. 2017-03-15. Retrieved 2017-05-04.  ^ In the cabinet of Yanukovych ^ "About Us: Kuchma, Ludmila Molaivna". Ukraine
Ukraine
for Children. 2004.  ^ "Elena Franchuk ANTIAIDS Foundation : The daughter of Kuchma will be fighting against AIDS and her husband Pinchuk will provide his media support" Archived 11 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Antiaids.org (28 November 2003), Retrieved on 6 August 2011 ^ 100 самых влиятельных женщин Украины. Рейтинг Фокуса, Focus.ua. Retrieved on 6 August 2011. ^ "One-Time Trump National Security Pick Registers As Foreign Agent for Ukrainian Oligarch". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2017-05-04.  ^ "Woman loses job with Trump, gets one with Ukrainian billionaire". The Independent. 2017-03-15. Retrieved 2017-05-04.  ^ "Trump foundation received $150,000 donation from Ukrainian oligarch". Mail Online. Retrieved 2017-05-04.  ^ Ukrayinska Pravda exposes president’s Mezhygirya deal, Kyiv Post (6 May 2009) ^ "Ukraynanın Prezidenti Leonid Daniloviç Kuçmanın "İstiqlal" ordeni ilə təltif edilməsi haqqında AZƏRBAYCAN RESPUBLİKASI PREZİDENTİNİN FƏRMANI" [Order of the President of Azerbaijan Republic on awarding President of Ukraine
President of Ukraine
Leonid Kuchma
Leonid Kuchma
with Istiglal Order]. Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2011.  ^ a b Lithuanian Presidency Archived 19 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine., Lithuanian Orders searching form

Further reading[edit]

Åslund, Anders, and Michael McFaul.Revolution in Orange: The Origins of Ukraine's Democratic Breakthrough. (2006) Aslund, Anders. How Ukraine
Ukraine
Became a Market Economy and Democracy. (2009) Birch, Sarah. Elections and Democratization in Ukraine. (2000) online edition Kubicek, Paul. The History of Ukraine. (2008) excerpt and text search Kuzio, Taras. Ukraine: State and Nation Building (1998) online edition Sochor, Zenovia A. "Political Culture and Foreign Policy: Elections in Ukraine
Ukraine
1994." in: Tismăneanu, Vladmir (ed.). 1995. Political Culture and Civil Society in Russia and the New States of Eurasia. (1994) ISBN 1-56324-364-4. pp. 208–224. Whitmore, Sarah. State Building in Ukraine: The Ukrainian Parliament, 1990–2003. Routledge, 2004 online edition Wilson, Andrew. Ukraine's Orange Revolution. (2005) Wilson, Andrew. The Ukrainians: Unexpected Nation. 2nd ed. 2002; online excerpts at Amazon Wolczuk, Roman. Ukraine's Foreign and Security Policy 1991–2000. (2002) excerpt and text search Zon, Hans van. The Political Economy of Independent Ukraine. 2000 online edition

External links[edit]

Liudmyla Shanghina, "UKRAINE IS NOT AMERICA", Razumkov "Yushchenko Won the Competition of Personalities", (Kuchma's 2005 interview), Vremia Novostey (Russia) (in Russian) Korzh, H. Leonid Kuchma: Real biography of the second President of Ukraine. Leonid Kuchma
Leonid Kuchma
inauguration speech at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived 14 September 2014)

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Leonid Kuchma.

Political offices

Preceded by Valentyn Symonenko Prime Minister of Ukraine 1992–1993 Succeeded by Yukhym Zvyahilsky Acting

Preceded by Leonid Kravchuk President of Ukraine 1994–2005 Succeeded by Viktor Yushchenko

v t e

Candidates in the 1994 Ukrainian presidential election

Winner

Leonid Kuchma

Lost in runoff

Leonid Kravchuk

Other candidates

Oleksandr Moroz Volodymyr Lanovyi Valeriy Babych Ivan Plyushch Petro Talanchuk

v t e

Candidates in the 1999 Ukrainian presidential election

Winner

Leonid Kuchma

Lost in runoff

Petro Symonenko

Other candidates

Oleksandr Moroz Nataliya Vitrenko Yevhen Marchuk Yuriy Kostenko Hennadiy Udovenko Vasyl Onopenko Oleksandr Rzhavskyy Yuriy Karmazin Vitaliy Kononov Oleksandr Bazyliuk Mykola Haber

Withdrew

Volodymyr Oliynyk Oleksandr Tkachenko

Disqualified

Hennadiy Balashov Ivan Bilas Hryhoriy Novodvorsky Mykhailo Pavlovsky

v t e

President of Ukraine

List of Presidents

Leonid Kravchuk Leonid Kuchma Viktor Yushchenko Viktor Yanukovych Oleksandr Turchynov
Oleksandr Turchynov
(acting) Petro Poroshenko

History

Hetman of Zaporizhian Host Hetman of Ukraine President of Ukraine
President of Ukraine
(in exile)

Inauguration

Peresopnytsia Gospel Symbols

Bulava Flag Collar Seal

First Lady

Residences

Mariyinsky Palace House with Chimaeras House of the Weeping Widow

Elections

1991 1994 1999 2004 2010 2014 2019

Administration and supporting agencies

"Security bloc"

National Security and Defense Council Procurator General* Foreign Intelligence Service Derzhspetszviazok Security Service of Ukraine* Administration of State Security General Staff Pardons Commission

"Administrative bloc"

Anti-Monopoly Committee* State Property Fund* State Committee on Television and Radio broadcasting* Public Humanitarian Council National Institute of Strategic Research National Academy of State Administration

Supporting

Administration

building

Constitutional Assembly of Ukraine Representatives

Crimea

State Management of Affairs

(*) approved by parliament

v t e

Leaders of Ukraine

Ukrainian People's Republic

(1917–1920)

Mykhailo Hrushevsky Volodymyr Vynnychenko Symon Petliura
Symon Petliura
(Holovnyi Otaman)

West Ukrainian People's Republic

(1918–1919)

Kost Levytsky Yevhen Petrushevych

Hetmanate

(1918)

Pavlo Skoropadskyi

Ukrainian People's Republic1

(1920–1992)

Andriy Livytskyi Stepan Vytvytskyi Mykola Livytskyi Mykola Plaviuk

Ukrainian National Council2

(1941)

Kost Levytsky

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic3

(1922–1991)

Georgy Pyatakov Stanislav Kosior Dmitry Manuilsky Emmanuil Kviring Lazar Kaganovich Stanislav Kosior Nikita Khrushchev Lazar Kaganovich Nikita Khrushchev Leonid Melnikov Alexei Kirichenko Nikolai Podgorny Petro Shelest Volodymyr Shcherbytsky Volodymyr Ivashko Stanislav Hurenko

Ukraine

(since 1991)

Leonid Kravchuk Leonid Kuchma Viktor Yushchenko Viktor Yanukovych Oleksandr Turchynov
Oleksandr Turchynov
(Acting) Petro Poroshenko

1Presidents of the Ukrainian People's Republic
Ukrainian People's Republic
in exile.   2 Chairman of the Ukrainian National Council.   3First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.

v t e

Prime Ministers of Ukraine

List of Prime Ministers of Ukraine

Ukrainian People's Republic (1917–1920)

Volodymyr Vynnychenko Vsevolod Holubovych Mykola Vasylenko1 Fedir Lyzohub Serhii Gerbel Volodymyr Chekhivsky Serhii Ostapenko Borys Martos Isaak Mazepa Vyacheslav Prokopovych

Council of Ministers

Yevgenia Bosch1 Mykola Skrypnyk Georgy Pyatakov Christian Rakovsky Vlas Chubar Panas Lyubchenko Mykhailo Bondarenko Mykola Marchak1 Demyan Korotchenko Leonid Korniyets Nikita Khrushchev Demyan Korotchenko Nikifor Kalchenko Volodymyr Shcherbytsky Ivan Kazanets Volodymyr Shcherbytsky Oleksandr Liashko Vitaliy Masol Vitold Fokin

Government (in exile)

Yaroslav-Bohdan Rudnytsky Ivan Samiylenko

Cabinet of Ministers

Vitold Fokin Valentyn Symonenko1 Leonid Kuchma Yukhym Zvyahilsky1 Vitaliy Masol Yevhen Marchuk Pavlo Lazarenko Vasyl Durdynets1 Valeriy Pustovoitenko Viktor Yushchenko Anatoliy Kinakh Viktor Yanukovych Mykola Azarov1 Viktor Yanukovych Mykola Azarov1 Yulia Tymoshenko Yuriy Yekhanurov Viktor Yanukovych Yulia Tymoshenko Oleksandr Turchynov1 Mykola Azarov Serhiy Arbuzov1 Oleksandr Turchynov1 Arseniy Yatsenyuk Volodymyr Groysman

1 denotes acting

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 25437718 LCCN: no97024312 ISNI: 0000 0001 1439 9719 GND: 12059392

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