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Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson
Day is an annual American observance which occurs on October 9.[1] It honors Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson
(Old Norse: Leifr Eiríksson, Icelandic: Leifur Eiríksson, Norwegian: Leiv Eiriksson), the Norse explorer who led the first Europeans thought to have set foot in continental North America[2][3][4] ( Greenland
Greenland
excluded).

Contents

1 History 2 Date 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External links

History[edit] The book America Not Discovered by Columbus by Rasmus B. Anderson
Rasmus B. Anderson
was published in 1874, helping popularize the idea that Vikings
Vikings
were the first Europeans in the New World, an idea that was all but verified in 1960.[5] During his appearance at the Norse-American Centennial
Norse-American Centennial
in 1925, President Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
gave recognition to Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson
as the discoverer of America due to research by Norwegian-American scholars such as Knut Gjerset and Ludvig Hektoen.[6] In 1929, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
became the first U.S. state
U.S. state
to officially adopt Leif Erikson Day as a state holiday,[7][8] thanks in large part to efforts by Rasmus Anderson.[9] In 1931, Minnesota
Minnesota
did also.[10] By 1956, Leif Erikson Day had been made an official observance in seven states (Wisconsin, Minnesota, South Dakota, Illinois, Colorado, Washington, and California) and one Canadian province (Saskatchewan).[11] In 2012, the day was also made official in Las Vegas, Nevada.[12] In 1963, the U.S. Representative
U.S. Representative
from Duluth, John Blatnik, introduced a bill to observe Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson
Day nationwide. The following year Congress adopted this unanimously. In 1964, the United States
United States
Congress authorized and requested the President to create the observance through an annual proclamation. Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
did so, as has each President since. Presidents have used the proclamation to praise the contributions of Americans of Nordic descent generally and the spirit of discovery. In addition to the federal observance, some states officially commemorate Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson
Day, particularly in the Upper Midwest, where large numbers of people from the Nordic countries settled. Date[edit] October 9 is not associated with any particular event in Leif Erikson's life. The date was chosen because the ship Restauration coming from Stavanger, Norway, arrived in New York Harbor
New York Harbor
on October 9, 1825, at the start of the first organized immigration from Norway to the United States.[13][14] References[edit]

^ Office of the Press Secretary (October 8, 2015). "Presidential Proclamation – Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson
Day, 2015". The White House.  ^ "Leiv Erikson". Go Norway. 2007.  ^ "History – Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson
(11th century)". BBC. Retrieved October 12, 2015.  ^ "Why Do We Celebrate Columbus Day
Columbus Day
and Not Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson
Day?". National Geographic. October 11, 2015. Retrieved October 12, 2015.  ^ "L'Anse Aux Meadows & the Viking Discovery of North America". JSTOR Daily. 2015-07-23. Retrieved 2016-10-10.  ^ Gjerset, Knut; Hektoen, Ludvig. 'Becoming American, Becoming Suburban: Norwegians in the 1920s. 33. Norwegian-American Historical Association. p. 3.  ^ "Kohler Signs Two Bills". Manitowoc Herald-Times. May 15, 1929. p. 13. Retrieved October 9, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  ^ " Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Schools Will Observe Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson
Day Next Wednesday". The Capital Times. October 6, 1929. p. 9. Retrieved October 9, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  ^ " Minnesota
Minnesota
Ready to Adopt Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson
Day, Says Hoen". The Capital Times. December 28, 1930. p. 18. Retrieved October 9, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  ^ Hansen, Carl G.O. " Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson
Comes to the Front". My Minneapolis. Nasjonalbiblioteket
Nasjonalbiblioteket
(The National Library of Norway). The Norwegian National League in Minneapolis took the initiative in getting the Minnesota
Minnesota
legislature to adopt a law of the same import and contents as the Wisconsin
Wisconsin
law making October 9 Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson
Day. Such a bill was signed by Governor Floyd B. Olson, April 7, 1931  ^ Hansen, Carl Gustav Otto (1956). " Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson
Comes to the Front". My Minneapolis. Minneapolis.  ^ Radke, Jace (October 2, 2012). "City Council To Recognize Leif Erikson Day" (Press release). City of Las Vegas. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved October 9, 2013.  ^ " Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson
Day in United States". TimeandDate.com.  ^ " Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson
in Humboldt Park". Norwegian National League. Archived from the original on October 19, 2009. 

Further reading[edit]

Anderson, Rasmus Bjorn (1874). America Not Discovered by Columbus: an historical sketch of the discovery of America by the Norsemen
Norsemen
in the Tenth Century. Chicago: S.C. Griggs. 

External links[edit]

" Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson
Day (U.S. Holiday)". Sol-Land Lodge. Kennewick, Washington. 2014. Archived from the original on October 14, 2014.  Leif Ericson Viking Ship, Inc. Brief History of Leif Erikson's Life & Voyages Selected proclamations

1998 2005 2007 2009 2017 (Issued retroactively on October 10, 2017)

v t e

Norse exploration of the Americas

Explorers

Erik the Red Leif Erikson Thorvald Eiriksson Freydís Eiríksdóttir Gunnbjörn Ulfsson Snæbjörn Galti Bjarni Herjólfsson Thorfinn Karlsefni Helgi and Finnbogi

Places

Greenland Vinland Eastern Settlement Western Settlement Middle Settlement Markland Helluland L'Anse aux Meadows Gunnbjörn's skerries Great Ireland Point Rosee Skræling Tanfield Valley Kingdom of Saguenay Norumbega

Artifacts

Maine penny Skálholt Map

Accounts and study

Literature

Saga of Erik the Red Grœnlendinga saga Flateyjarbók Hauksbók Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum Book of Icelanders

Researchers

Adam of Bremen Carl Christian Rafn Helge Ingstad Anne Stine Ingstad

Disputed sources

Kensington Runestone Vinland
Vinland
map

In popular culture

Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson
Day Vinland
Vinland
Saga

album manga

"Immigrant Song" Pathfinder

Related topics

Viking ship Norwegian penning Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact History of Greenland History of Nunavut History of Newfoundland Iceland Norway

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