The Legion of Honour, full name, National Order of the Legion of
Honour (French: Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the
highest French order of merit for military and civil merits,
established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the
divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to
The order's motto is "Honneur et Patrie" ("Honour and Fatherland"),
and its seat is the
Palais de la Légion d'Honneur
Palais de la Légion d'Honneur next to the Musée
d'Orsay, on the left bank of the
River Seine in Paris.
The order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction:
Chevalier (Knight), Officier (Officer), Commandeur (Commander), Grand
Officier (Grand Officer), and Grand-Croix (Grand Cross).
1.2 First Empire
1.3 Restoration of the Kings of Bourbon in 1814
1.4 July Monarchy
1.5 Second Republic
1.6 Second Empire
1.7 Third Republic
1.8 Fourth Republic
2.1 Legal status and leadership
2.1.1 Grand Master
2.1.2 The Grand Chancery
2.2.1 French nationals
2.2.2 Non-French recipients
2.2.3 Collective awards
18.104.22.168 French service-members
22.214.171.124 Collective military awards
3 Classes and insignia
5 See also
6 References and notes
7 External links
In the French Revolution, all of the French orders of chivalry were
abolished, and replaced with Weapons of Honour. It was the wish of
Napoleon Bonaparte, the First Consul, to create a reward to commend
civilians and soldiers and from this wish was instituted a Légion
d'Honneur, a body of men that was not an order of chivalry, for
France wanted a recognition of merit rather than a
new system of nobility. The Légion however did use the organization
of old French orders of chivalry for example the Ordre de Saint-Louis.
The badges of the legion also bear a resemblance to the Ordre de
Saint-Louis, which also used a red ribbon.
Napoleon originally created this to ensure political loyalty. The
organization would be used as a façade to give political favours,
gifts, and concessions. The Légion was loosely patterned after a
Roman legion, with legionaries, officers, commanders, regional
"cohorts" and a grand council. The highest rank was not a grand cross
but a Grand Aigle (grand eagle), a rank that wore all the insignia
common to grand crosses. The members were paid, the highest of them
5,000 francs to a grand officier,
2,000 francs to a commandeur,
1,000 francs to an officier,
250 francs to a légionnaire.
Napoleon famously declared, "You call these baubles, well, it is with
baubles that men are led... Do you think that you would be able to
make men fight by reasoning? Never. That is good only for the scholar
in his study. The soldier needs glory, distinctions, rewards." This
has been often quoted as "It is with such baubles that men are led."
The order was the first modern order of merit. Under the monarchy,
such orders were often limited to Roman Catholics, and all knights had
to be noblemen. The military decorations were the perks of the
officers. The Légion, however, was open to men of all ranks and
professions—only merit or bravery counted. The new legionnaire had
to be sworn in the Légion.
It is noteworthy that all previous orders were crosses or shared a
clear Christian background, whereas the Légion is a secular
institution. The badge of the Légion has five arms.
In a decree issued on the 10
Pluviôse XIII (30 January 1805), a grand
decoration was instituted. This decoration, a cross on a large sash
and a silver star with an eagle, symbol of the Napoleonic Empire,
became known as the Grand Aigle ("Grand Eagle"), and later in 1814 as
the Grand Cordon (big sash, literally big ribbon). After Napoleon
Emperor of the French
Emperor of the French in 1804 and established the
Napoleonic nobility in 1808, award of the Légion gave right to the
title of "
Knight of the Empire" (Chevalier de l'Empire). The title was
made hereditary after three generations of grantees.
Napoleon had dispensed 15 golden collars of the legion among his
family and his senior ministers. This collar was abolished in 1815.
Although research is made difficult by the loss of the archives, it is
known that three women who fought with the army were decorated with
the order: Virginie Ghesquière, Marie-Jeanne Schelling and a nun,
Sister Anne Biget.
The Légion d'honneur was prominent and visible in the French Empire.
The Emperor always wore it and the fashion of the time allowed for
decorations to be worn most of the time. The king of
declined the order; it was too common in his eyes. Napoleon's own
decorations were captured by the Prussians and were displayed in the
Zeughaus (armoury) in Berlin until 1945. Today, they are in Moscow.
Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour under the Empire
A depiction of
Napoleon making some of the first awards of the Legion
of Honour, at a camp near Boulogne on 16 August 1804.
Napoleon always wore the Cross and Grand Eagle of the
Legion of Honour.
Embroided insignia of the Legion of Honour, detail of Napoleon's
uniform of colonel of the Chasseurs à cheval of the Imperial
First Légion d'Honneur investiture, 15 July 1804, at Saint-Louis des
Jean-Baptiste Debret (1812).
Restoration of the Kings of Bourbon in 1814
Louis XVIII changed the appearance of the order, but it was not
abolished. To have done so would have angered the 35,000 to 38,000
members. The images of
Napoleon and his eagle were removed and
replaced by the image of King Henry IV, the popular first king of the
Bourbon line. Three Bourbon fleurs-de-lys replaced the eagle on the
reverse of the order. A king's crown replaced the imperial crown. In
1816, the grand cordons were renamed grand crosses and the
legionnaires became knights. The king decreed that the commandants
were now commanders. The Légion became the second order of knighthood
of the French monarchy, after the Order of the Holy Spirit.
Louis Philippe I, King of the French, wearing the sash of the order
Following the overthrow of the Bourbons in favour of King
Louis-Philippe of the House of Orleans, the Bourbon monarchy's orders
were once again abolished and the order of the Légion d'honneur in
1830 was restored as the paramount decoration of the French nation.
The insignia were drastically altered. The cross now displayed
tricolour flags. In 1847, there were 47,000 members.
Yet another revolution in
Paris (1848) brought a new republic (the
second) and a new design to the Légion d'honneur. A nephew of the
founder, Prince Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte was elected president and he
restored the image of his uncle on the crosses of the order. In 1852,
the first recorded woman, Angélique Duchemin, an old revolutionary of
the 1789 uprising against the absolute monarchy, was admitted into the
order. On 2 December 1851, President Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte staged
a coup d'état with the help of the armed forces. He made himself
Emperor of the French
Emperor of the French exactly one year later on 2 December 1852, after
a successful plebiscite.
An Imperial crown was added. During
Napoleon III's reign, the first
American was admitted: Dr. Thomas Wiltberger Evans, dentist of
In 1870 the defeat of the French Imperial Army in the Franco-Prussian
War brought the end of the Empire and the creation of the Third
Republic (1871–1940). As
France changed, the Légion d'honneur
changed as well. The crown was replaced by a laurel and oak wreath. In
1871, during the
Paris Commune uprising, the Hôtel de Salm,
headquarters of the Légion d'Honneur, was burned to the ground in
fierce street combats; the archives of the order were lost.
In the second term of President
Jules Grévy which started in 1885,
newspaper journalists brought to light the trafficking of Grévy's
son-in-law, Daniel Wilson, in the awarding of decorations of the
Légion d'Honneur. Grévy was not accused of personal participation in
this scandal, but he was slow to accept his indirect political
responsibility, which caused his eventual resignation on 2 December
During World War I, some 55,000 decorations were conferred, 20,000 of
which went to foreigners. The large number of decorations resulted
from the new posthumous awards authorised in 1918. Traditionally
membership in the Légion d'Honneur could not be awarded posthumously.
The establishment of the Fourth Republic in 1946 brought about the
latest change in the design of the Legion of Honour. The date "1870"
on the obverse was replaced by a single star.
Legal status and leadership
Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour is a national order of France, meaning a public
incorporated body. The Legion is regulated by a civil law code, the
Code of The
Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour and of the
Military Medal. While the
President of the French Republic
President of the French Republic is the Grand Master of the Order,
day-to-day running is entrusted to the Grand Chancery (Grande
Chancellerie de la Légion d'Honneur).
Since the establishment of the Legion, the Grand Master of the order
has always been the Emperor, King or President of France. President
Emmanuel Macron became the Grand Master of the Legion on 14 May 2017.
The Grand Master appoints all other members of the order, on the
advice of the Government. The Grand Master's insignia is the Grand
Collar of the Legion, worn only by the President of the Republic, as
Grand Master of the Order.
The Grand Chancery
The Grand Chancery is headed by the Grand Chancellor, usually a
retired general, and the Secretary General, a civilian administrator.
Grand Chancellor: General
Benoît Puga since 23 August 2016
Secretary-General: Luc Fons since 2007
The Grand Chancery also regulates the National Order of Merit and the
médaille militaire (
Military Medal). There are several structures
funded by and operated under the authority of the Grand Chancery, like
Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour Schools (Maisons d'éducation de la Légion
d'Honneur) and the
Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour Museum (Musée de la Légion
Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour Schools are élite boarding schools
in Saint-Denis and Les Loges in the forest of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
Study there is restricted to daughters, granddaughters, and
great-granddaughters of members of the order, the médaille militaire
or the ordre national du Mérite.
There are five classes in the Legion of Honour:
Chevalier (Chev. L.H.) (Knight): minimum 20 years of public service or
25 years of professional activity with "eminent merits"
Officier (O.L.H.) (Officer): minimum 8 years in the rank of Chevalier
Commandeur (Cdr L.H.) (Commander): minimum 5 years in the rank of
Grand Officier (G.O.L.H.) (Grand Officer): minimum 3 years in the rank
Grand Croix (G.C.L.H.) (Grand Cross): minimum 3 years in the rank of
The "eminent merits" required to be awarded the order require the
flawless performance of one's trade as well as doing more than
ordinarily expected, such as being creative, zealous and contributing
to the growth and well-being of others.
The order has a maximum quota of 75 Grand Cross, 250 Grand Officers,
1,250 Commanders, 10,000 Officers, and 113,425 (ordinary) Knights. As
of 2010, the actual membership was 67 Grand Cross, 314 Grand Officers,
3,009 Commanders, 17,032 Officers and 74,384 Knights. Appointments of
veterans of World War II, French military personnel involved in the
North African Campaign
North African Campaign and other foreign French military operations,
as well as wounded soldiers, are made independently of the quota.
Members convicted of a felony (crime in French) are automatically
dismissed from the order. Members convicted of a misdemeanour (délit
in French) can be dismissed as well, although this is not automatic.
Wearing the decoration of the Légion d'honneur without having the
right to do so is a serious offence. Wearing the ribbon or rosette of
a foreign order is prohibited if that ribbon is mainly red, like the
ribbon of the Legion of Honour. French military personnel in uniform
must salute other military members in uniform wearing the medal,
whatever the Légion d'honneur rank and the military rank of the
bearer. This is not mandatory with the ribbon. In practice, however,
this is rarely done.
There is not a single, complete list of all the members of the Legion
in chronological order. The number is estimated at one million,
including about 2,900 Grand Cross.
French nationals, men and women, can be received into the Légion, for
"eminent merit" (mérites éminents) in military or civil life. In
practice, in current usage, the order is conferred to entrepreneurs,
high-level civil servants, scientists, artists including famous actors
and actresses, sport champions as well as others with connections
in the executive. Members of the
French Parliament cannot receive the
order, except for valour in war, and ministers are not allowed to
nominate their accountants.
Until 2008, French nationals could only enter the
Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour at
the class of Chevalier (Knight). To be promoted to a higher class, one
had to perform new eminent services in the interest of
France and a
set number of years had to pass between appointment and promotion.
This was however amended in 2008 when entry became possible at
Officer, Commander and Grand Officer levels, as a recognition of
"extraordinary careers" (carrières hors du commun). In 2009, Simone
Veil became the first person to enter the Order at Grand Officer
level. Veil was a member of the Académie française, a former
Health Minister and President of the European Parliament, as well as
Auschwitz survivor. She was promoted to
Grand Cross in 2012.
The acceptance of being awarded the
Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour is not mandatory.
The composers Maurice Ravel and Charles Koechlin, for example,
declined the award when it was offered to them.
Main article: List of foreign recipients of the Légion d'Honneur
While membership in the Légion is technically restricted to French
nationals, foreign nationals who have served
France or the ideals
it upholds may receive the honour. Foreign nationals who live
France are subject to the same requirements as the French. Foreign
nationals who live abroad may be awarded a distinction of any rank or
dignity in the Légion. Foreign heads of state and their spouses or
consorts of monarchs are made
Grand Cross as a courtesy. American and
British veterans who served in either
World War I
World War I on French soil,
or during the 1944 campaigns to liberate France, may be
eligible for appointment as Chevalier of the Legion of Honour,
provided they were still living when the honour was approved.
Collective appointments can be made to cities, institutions or
companies. A total of 64 settlements in
France have been decorated, as
well as five foreign cities: Liège in 1914,
Belgrade in 1920,
Luxembourg City in 1957,
Volgograd in 1984, and
Algiers in 2004.
French towns display the decoration in their municipal coat of arms.
Organisations to receive the honour include the French Red Cross
(Croix-Rouge Française), the Abbaye de Nôtre-Dame des Dombes (Abbey
of Notre-Dame des Dombes), the French National Railway Company (SNCF,
Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français), the Préfecture de
Police de la Ville de
Paris (Prefecture of Police of Paris), and
various Grandes Écoles (National (Elite) Colleges) and other
Notice of posthumous award of the Croix de Chevalier to lieutenant
Tessier—Mort pour la
France ("Died for France") in World War I
The military distinctions (Légion d'honneur à titre militaire) are
awarded for bravery (actions de guerre) or for service.
award for extreme bravery: the Légion d'Honneur is awarded jointly
with a mention in dispatches. This is the top valour award in France.
It is rarely awarded, mainly to soldiers who have died in battle.
award for service: the Légion is awarded without any citation.
For active-duty commissioned officers, the
Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour award for
service is achieved after 20 years of meritorious service, having been
awarded the rank of Chevalier of the Ordre National du Mérite.
Bravery awards lessen the time needed for the award—in fact
decorated servicemen become directly chevaliers of the Légion
d'Honneur, skipping the Ordre du Mérite. NCOs almost never achieve
that award, except for the most heavily decorated service members.
Collective military awards
Collective appointments can be made to military units. In the case of
a military unit, its flag is decorated with the insignia of a knight,
which is a different award than the fourragère. Twenty-one schools,
mainly schools providing reserve officers during the World Wars, were
awarded the Légion d'Honneur. Foreign military units can be decorated
with the order, such as the U.S.
The Flag or Standard of the following units was decorated with the
Cross of a
Knight of the Legion of Honour:
1st Foreign Regiment
1st Marine Artillery Regiment
1st Marine Infantry Regiment
1st Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment
1st Regiment of African Chasseurs
1st Regiment of Algerian Tirailleurs
1st Regiment of Riflemen
1st Regiment of Senegalese Tirailleurs
1st Train Regiment
2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment
2nd Marine Infantry Regiment
2nd Regiment of Algerian Tirailleurs
2nd Regiment of Zouaves
3rd Algerian Infantry Regiment
3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment
3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment (Regiment walk from the Foreign Legion)
3rd Regiment of Zouaves
4th Regiment of Tunisian Tirailleurs
4th Regiment of Zouaves
Joint 4th Regiment of Zouaves and Tirailleurs
7th Algerian Infantry Regiment
8th Infantry Regiment
8th Regiment of Zouaves
9th Regiment of Zouaves
11th Marine Artillery Regiment
23rd Infantry Regiment
23rd Marine Infantry Regiment
24th Marine Infantry Regiment
26th Infantry Regiment
30th Battalion of Chasseurs
43rd Marine Infantry Regiment
51st Infantry Regiment
57th Infantry Regiment
112th Line Infantry Regiment (French infantry regiment consisting of
mostly Belgians, known as "The Victors of Raab")
137th Infantry Regiment
152nd Infantry Regiment
153rd Infantry Regiment
298th Infantry Regiment
324th Intelligence Squadron (USAF Forward Deployed Intelligence
Fighter Squadron 1/30 Normandie-Niemen
Fusiliers Marins (Naval Infantry)
Paris Fire Brigade
Régiment d'infanterie-chars de marine
Régiment d'infanterie-chars de marine (Colonial Infantry Regiment of
Morocco). Book of the regiment will be fighting its most decorated
emblem of the French army.
Classes and insignia
The five classes wearing their respective insignia (gentlemen): 1:
Chevalier; 2: Officier; 3: Commandeur; 4: Grand Officier; 5:
The order has had five levels since the reign of King Louis XVIII, who
restored the order in 1815. Since the reform, the following
distinctions have existed:
Chevalier (knight): badge worn on left breast suspended from ribbon.
Officier (Officer): badge worn on left breast suspended from a ribbon
with a rosette.
Commandeur (Commander): badge around neck suspended from ribbon
Grand Officier (Grand Officer): badge worn on left breast suspended
from a ribbon, with star displayed on right breast.
Grand-Croix (Grand Cross) formerly grande décoration, grand aigle or
grand cordon: the highest level; badge affixed to sash worn over the
right shoulder, with star displayed on left breast.
The badge of the Légion is a five-armed "Maltese Asterisk" (for want
of a better description—see Maltese Cross) in gilt (in silver for
chevalier) enamelled white, with an enamelled laurel and oak wreath
between the arms. The obverse central disc is in gilt, featuring the
head of Marianne, surrounded by the legend République Française on a
blue enamel ring. The reverse central disc is also in gilt, with a set
of crossed tricolores, surrounded by the Légion's motto Honneur et
Patrie (Honour and Fatherland) and its foundation date on a blue
enamel ring. The badge is suspended by an enamelled laurel and oak
The star (or plaque) is worn by the
Grand Cross (in gilt on the left
chest) and the Grand Officer (in silver on the right chest)
respectively; it is similar to the badge, but without enamel, and with
the wreath replaced by a cluster of rays in between each arm. The
central disc features the head of Marianne, surrounded by the legend
République Française (French Republic) and the motto Honneur et
The ribbon for the medal is plain red.
The badge or star is not usually worn, except at the time of the
decoration ceremony or on a dress uniform or formal wear. Instead, one
normally wears the ribbon or rosette on one's suit.
Original Légionnaire insignia (1804).
Late Empire Légionnaire insignia: the front features Napoleon's
profile and the rear, the imperial Eagle. An imperial crown joins the
cross and the ribbon.
Louis XVIII era (1814)
Knight insignia: the front features Henry IV's
profile and the rear, the arms of the French Kingdom (three
fleurs-de-lis). A royal crown joins the cross and the ribbon.
Rear of a Republican cross, with two crossed French flags.
Knight insignia: the centre features Marianne's head. A
crown of laurels joins the cross and the ribbon.
Current medal for the officer class, decorated with a rosette.
Chiang Kai-shek's Légion d'honneur plaque. In his day, the plaque was
made of silver.
Chiang Kai-shek's Légion d'honneur. This is the reverse of his Grand
The insignia of a Grand Cross. Nowadays the star of a
Grand Cross is
gilt. The silver star is the Grand Officer's badge.
Charles Lindbergh's Legion of Honour
Insignia with figure of Henry IV
Commander of the Order of the Legion of Honour
List of Légion d'honneur recipients by name
List of British recipients of the Légion d'Honneur for the Crimean
List of foreign recipients of the Légion d'Honneur
Musée national de la Légion d'honneur et des ordres de chevalerie
Ribbons of the French military and civil awards
Military history of
References and notes
^ le petit Larousse 2013 p1567
^ Formerly the Royal Order of the
Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour (Ordre royal de la
^ The award for the French Legion of Hono(u)r is known by many titles,
also depending on the five levels of degree:
Knight of the Legion of
Honour; Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur; Officer of the Legion of
Honour; Officier de la Légion d'honneur; Commander of the Legion of
Honour; Commandeur de la Légion d'honneur; Grand Officer of the
Legion of Honour; Grand Officier de la Légion d'honneur; Grand Cross
of the Legion of Honour; Grand'Croix de la Légion d'honneur. The word
honneur is often capitalised, as in the name of the palace Palais de
la Légion d'Honneur.
^ Pierre-Louis Roederer, "Speech Proposing the Creation of a Legion of
Honour", Napoleon: Symbol for an Age, A Brief History with Documents,
ed. Rafe Blaufarb (New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2008), 101–102.
^ Jones, Colin. The Cambridge Illustrated History of
France (1st ed.).
Cambridge University Press. p. 196.
Antoine Claire Thibaudeau (1827). Mémoires sur le Consulat. 1799 à
1804 [Memories of the Consulate, 1799–1804] (in French). Paris: Chez
Ponthieu et Cie. pp. 83–84.
^ The first recorded women's award is 1851, under Louis-Napoleon
^ "Modalités d'admission". Maison d’éducation de la Légion
d’honneur. Archived from the original on 25 December 2013.
^ Wattel, Michel; Wattel, Béatrice (2009). Les Grand'Croix de la
Légion d'honneur. De 1805 à nos jours, titulaires français et
étrangers. Archives et Culture.
^ All Olympic Gold
Medal winners are awarded the Légion.
^ Légion Code, article R22
Simone Veil grand officier de la légion d'honneur". Le Nouvel
Observateur (in French). Paris. 31 December 2008. Retrieved 25 August
^ 1927-, Watkins, Glenn, (2003-01-01). Proof through the night music
and the great war. University of California Press.
ISBN 9780520927896. OCLC 937278246.
^ Légion Code, article 16
^ "Les étrangers qui se seront signalés par les services qu’ils
ont rendus à la
France ou aux causes qu’elle soutient", Légion
Code, article 128
^ "5 Things to Know about the Legion of Honor". US News and World
Report. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
^ "The London Gazette: 15 October 1998. Issue: 55282. Notice
^ "MOD press release: 25 July 2014. Legion d'Honneur awarded to
surviving veterans of 1944 French campaigns".
^ The Legion d’Honneur for US veterans
^ Officially military units are not members of the Legion of Honour,
which include only individuals. As for foreign Legionnaires, they are
"decorated with the
Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour insignia", not "member of the
Legion of Honour". Do not confuse military units that received the
fourragère to the colour of the ribbon of the
Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour (units
quoted at six, seven or eight times in the order of the army with
military units whose flag is decorated with the Cross of the Legion of
^ "The Legion of Honor in 10 questions". The Grand Chancery of the
Legion of Honor. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to National Order of the Legion of
Code de la légion d'honneur et de la médaille militaire,
Base Léonore, recensement des récipiendaires de la Légion
d’honneur (décédés avant 1977), on the website of the French
Ministry of Culture (in French)
"Legion of Honor". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
Orders, decorations and medals of France
Legion of Honour
Order of Liberation
National Order of Merit
Medal for Victims of Terrorism
Ordre des Palmes Académiques
Order of Agricultural Merit
Ordre du Mérite Maritime
Ordre des Arts et des Lettres
Honour medal for courage and devotion
Médaille d'honneur de l'Aéronautique
Honour medal of Foreign Affairs
Médaille d'honneur agricole
Honour medal of railroads
Regional, departmental and municipal honour medal
Honour medal of customs
Médaille d'honneur des Eaux et Forêts
Médaille d'honneur de l'Enseignement du 1er degré
Médaille d'honneur pénitentiaire
Honour medal for civilian personnel of the Defense Ministry
Honour medal of the National Police
Honour medal for firefighters
Medal for internal security
Médaille d'honneur de Sociétés musicales et Chorales
Médaille d'honneur de la protection judiciaire de la jeunesse
Honour medal for work
Médaille d'honneur des Travaux publics
Insignia for wounded civilians
Médaille de la Famille française
Honour medal for youth, sports and associative engagements
Médaille des Mines
Médaille du Tourisme
Ordre de Tahiti Nui
1914–1918 War Cross
1939–1945 War Cross
War Cross for foreign operational theaters
Médaille de la Gendarmerie nationale
Volunteer combatant's cross
Volunteer combatant's cross 1914–1918
Volunteer combatant's cross
Cross of the resistance volunteer combatant
National Defence Medal
Medal for voluntary military service
Medal of the Nation's Recognition
Medal for the War Wounded
Military Health Service honour medal
Saint Helena Medal
Commemorative medal of the 1859 Italian Campaign
Commemorative medal of the 1860 China Expedition
Commemorative medal of the Mexico Expedition
Commemorative medal of the 1870–1871 War
Tonkin Expedition commemorative medal
Dahomey Expedition commemorative medal 1892
Madagascar commemorative medal
1901 China expedition commemorative medal
Morocco commemorative medal (1909)
1914–1918: World War I
1914–1918 Inter-Allied Victory medal
Dardanelles campaign medal
Orient campaign medal
1914–1918 Commemorative war medal
Medal of French Gratitude
Medal for Victims of the Invasion
Medal for civilian prisoners, hostages and prisoners of the 1914-1918
1918–1939 (Interwar period)
Syria-Cilicia commemorative medal
1939–1945: World War II
Commemorative medal for voluntary service in Free France
1943-1944 Italian Campaign medal
Medal for deportation and internment for acts of resistance
Political deportation and internment medal
Médaille commémorative de la guerre 1939–1945
Medal of a liberated France
Commemorative medal for United Nations operations in Korea
Indochina Campaign commemorative medal
Middle East operations commemorative medal (1956)
North Africa Security and Order Operations Commemorative Medal
North Africa medal
United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon medal
French commemorative medal
Medal for the
Military Protection of the Territory
Ordre du Mérite combattant
Ordre du Mérite militaire
Ordre du Mérite civil
Ordre du Mérite social
Ordre du Mérite du Travail
Ordre du Mérite touristique
Ordre de l'Économie nationale
Ordre du Mérite commercial et industriel
Ordre du Mérite artisanal
Ordre de la Santé publique
Ordre du Mérite postal
Ordre du Mérite sportif
Ordre du Mérite indochinois
Ordre du Mérite saharien
Ordre de l'Étoile Noire
Ordre de l'Étoile d'Anjouan
Ordre du Nichan el Anouar
Ordre impérial du Dragon d'Annam
Ordre royal du Cambodge
Highest military awards for gallantry
List of highest military decorations
Argentine Nation to the Heroic Valour in Combat Cross (Argentina)
National Hero of Armenia
National Hero of Armenia (Armenia)
National Hero of Azerbaijan
National Hero of Azerbaijan title (Azerbaijan)
Bir Sreshtho (Bangladesh)
Hero of Belarus
Hero of Belarus title (Belarus)
Order of Bravery
Order of Bravery (Bulgaria)
Order of Heroic Exemplar
Order of Heroic Exemplar (China)
Valour Cross (Denmark)
Cross of Liberty (Estonia)
Mannerheim Cross (Finland)
Légion d'honneur (France)
Cross of Honour for Valour (Germany)
Cross of Valour (Greece)
Param Vir Chakra
Param Vir Chakra (India)
Medal for Gallantry (Ireland)
Medal of Valor (Israel)
Military Valour (Italy)
Seri Pahlawan Gagah Perkasa
Seri Pahlawan Gagah Perkasa (Malaysia)
Military William Order (Netherlands)
War Cross (Norway)
Medal of Valor (Philippines)
Virtuti Militari (wartime) / Order Krzyża Wojskowego
Order of the Tower and Sword
Order of the Tower and Sword (Portugal)
Order of Michael the Brave
Order of Michael the Brave (Romania)
Hero of the Russian Federation
Hero of the Russian Federation title (Russian Federation)
Nkwe ya Gauta
Nkwe ya Gauta (South Africa)
Laureate Cross of St. Ferdinand (Spain)
Parama Weera Vibhushanaya
Parama Weera Vibhushanaya (Sri Lanka)
Grand Cross of the
Order of the Sword
Order of the Sword (Sweden)
Order of Rama
Order of Rama (Thailand)
Order of Katonga
Order of Katonga (Uganda)
Order of the Gold Star (Ukraine)
Victoria Cross (United Kingdom
Medal of Honor (United States)
Order of Saint Louis
Order of Saint Louis (Kingdom of France)
Military Order of Maria Theresa (Austria-Hungary)
Medal of Bravery (Kingdom of Hungary)
Pour le Mérite
Pour le Mérite (Kingdom of Prussia)
Military Order of Max Joseph (Kingdom of Bavaria)
Military Order of St. Henry (Kingdom of Saxony)
Military Merit Order (Kingdom of Württemberg)
Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Nazi Germany)
Order of the Golden Kite
Order of the Golden Kite (Empire of Japan)
Order of Lāčplēsis
Order of Lāčplēsis (Latvia)
Grand Cross of Valour (Rhodesia)
Laureate Plate of Madrid
Laureate Plate of Madrid (Second Spanish Republic)
Castle of Good Hope Decoration
Castle of Good Hope Decoration (South Africa)
Medal (South Vietnam)
Hero of the Soviet Union
Hero of the Soviet Union (Soviet Union)
Order of the Karađorđe's Star with Swords (Kingdom of Yugoslavia)
Order of Freedom (SFR Yugoslavia)
Coordinates: 48°51′37″N 2°19′29″E / 48.8602°N
2.3247°E / 48.