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Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(Polish: [ˈlɛɣ vaˈwɛ̃sa] ( listen);[1] born 29 September 1943) is a retired Polish politician and labour activist.[2] He co-founded and headed Solidarity (Solidarność), the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1983, and served as President of Poland
President of Poland
from 1990 to 1995.[3] While working at the Lenin Shipyard
Lenin Shipyard
(now Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Shipyard), Wałęsa, an electrician, became a trade-union activist, for which he was persecuted by the Communist authorities, placed under surveillance, fired in 1976, and arrested several times. In August 1980 he was instrumental in political negotiations that led to the ground-breaking Gdańsk Agreement between striking workers and the government. He co-founded the Solidarity trade-union movement. After martial law was imposed in Poland and Solidarity was outlawed, Wałęsa was again arrested. Released from custody, he continued his activism and was prominent in the establishment of the 1989 Round Table Agreement that led to semi-free parliamentary elections in June 1989 and to a Solidarity-led government. In the Polish general election of 1990, Wałęsa successfully ran for the newly re-established office of President of Poland. He presided over Poland's transition from communism to a post-communist state, but his popularity waned and his role in Polish politics diminished after he narrowly lost the 1995 presidential election. Since the fall of Communism
Communism
in Poland, there have been allegations that Wałęsa had collaborated with the earlier communist secret police. In 2017 a lengthy investigation by the Institute of National Remembrance concluded that a handwriting study proved the authenticity of documents that Wałęsa had agreed to collaborate with the communist secret police.[4]

Contents

1 Personal life 2 Solidarity movement 3 Presidency 4 Post-presidency 5 Wałęsa and secret police

5.1 Court ruling 5.2 2008 book 5.3 Kiszczak archives 5.4 Wałęsa's response

6 Religious and political views 7 Honors 8 Cultural references 9 Publications 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Personal life[edit] Wałęsa was born in Popowo, German-occupied Poland.[3] His father, Bolesław Wałęsa (1908–1945), was a carpenter who was rounded up and interned in a forced labour camp at Młyniec (outpost of KL Stutthof) by the German occupying forces before Lech was born.[note 1] Bolesław returned home after the war but died two months later from exhaustion and illness.[5] Lech's mother, Feliksa Wałęsa (née Kamieńska; 1916–1975),[6] has been credited with shaping her son's beliefs and tenacity.[7] When Lech was nine, Feliksa married her brother-in-law, Stanisław Wałęsa (1916–1981), a farmer.[8] Lech had three elder full siblings; Izabela (1934–2012),[note 2] Edward (b. 1937), and Stanisław (b. 1939); and three younger half-brothers; Tadeusz (b. 1946), Zygmunt (b. 1948), and Wojciech (1951–1988).[9] In 1973, Lech's mother and stepfather emigrated to the US for economic reasons.[8] They lived in Jersey City, where Feliksa died in a car accident in 1975, and Stanisław died of a heart attack in 1981.[8] Both of them were buried in Poland.[9] In 1961, Lech graduated from primary and vocational school in nearby Chalin and Lipno as a qualified electrician. He worked as a car mechanic from 1961 to 1965, and then embarked on his two-year, obligatory military service, attaining the rank of corporal before beginning work on 12 July 1967 as an electrician at Lenin Shipyard (Stocznia Gdańska im. Lenina), now called Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Shipyard (Stocznia Gdańska) in Gdańsk.[10] On 8 November 1969, Wałęsa married Mirosława Danuta Gołoś, who worked at a flower shop near the Lenin Shipyard. Soon after they married, she began using her middle name more often than her first name, per Lech's request.[11] The couple had eight children; Bogdan (b. 1970), Sławomir (b. 1972), Przemysław[12] (1974-2017), Jarosław (b. 1976), Magdalena (b. 1979), Anna (b. 1980), Maria-Wiktoria (b. 1982), and Brygida (b. 1985).[13][14] As of 2016[update], Anna is running her father's office in Gdańsk[15] and Jarosław is a European MP. In 2008, Wałęsa underwent a coronary artery stent placement and the implantation of a cardiac pacemaker at the Houston
Houston
Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas.[16] Solidarity movement[edit] Main article: Solidarity (Polish trade union) From early in his career, Wałęsa was interested in workers' concerns; in 1968 he encouraged shipyard colleagues to boycott official rallies that condemned recent student strikes.[13] He was a charismatic leader,[17] who helped organize the illegal 1970 protests at the Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Shipyard when workers protested the government's decree raising food prices and he was considered for the position of chairman of the strike committee.[3][13] The strikes' outcome, which involved the deaths of over 30 workers, galvanized Wałęsa's views on the need for change.[13] In June 1976, Wałęsa lost his job at the Gdańsk Shipyard because of his continued involvement in illegal unions, strikes, and a campaign to commemorate the victims of the 1970 protests.[3][13][14] Afterwards he worked as an electrician for several other companies but his activism led to him continually being laid off and he was jobless for long periods.[13] Wałęsa and his family were under constant surveillance by the Polish secret police; his home and workplace were always bugged.[13] Over the next few years, he was arrested several times for participating in dissident activities.[3]

Wałęsa during the strike at the Lenin Shipyard, August 1980

Wałęsa worked closely with the Workers' Defence Committee (KOR), a group that emerged to lend aid to people arrested after the 1976 labor strikes and to their families.[3] In June 1978 he became an activist of the underground Free Trade Unions of the Coast (Wolne Związki Zawodowe Wybrzeża).[14] On 14 August 1980, another rise in food prices led to a strike at the Lenin Shipyard
Lenin Shipyard
in Gdańsk, of which Wałęsa was one of the instigators. Wałęsa scaled the shipyard fence and quickly became one of the strike leaders.[3][13] The strike inspired other similar strikes in Gdańsk, which then spread across Poland. Wałęsa headed the Inter-Plant Strike Committee, coordinating the workers at Gdańsk
Gdańsk
and at 20 other plants in the region.[3] On 31 August the government, represented by Mieczysław Jagielski, signed an accord (the Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Agreement) with the Strike Coordinating Committee.[3] The agreement granted the Lenin Shipyard
Lenin Shipyard
workers the right to strike and permitted them to form an independent trade union.[18] The Strike Coordinating Committee legalized itself as the National Coordinating Committee of the Solidarność (Solidarity) Free Trade Union, and Wałęsa was chosen as chairman of the Committee.[3][14] The Solidarity trade union quickly grew, ultimately claiming over 10 million members—more than a quarter of Poland's population.[19] Wałęsa's role in the strike, in the negotiations, and in the newly formed independent trade union gained him fame on the international stage.[3][13]

Wałęsa signs autographs during the strike in August 1980

Wałęsa held his position until 13 December 1981, when General Wojciech Jaruzelski
Wojciech Jaruzelski
declared martial law in Poland.[3] Wałęsa and many other Solidarity leaders and activists were arrested; he was incarcerated for 11 months until 14 November 1982 at Chylice, Otwock, and Arłamów; eastern towns near the Soviet border.[13][14] On 8 October 1982 Solidarity was outlawed.[20] In 1983 Wałęsa applied to return to the Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Shipyard as an electrician.[13] The same year, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.[3] He was unable to accept it himself, fearing Poland's government would not let him back into the country.[3][13] His wife Danuta accepted the prize on his behalf.[3][13] Through the mid-1980s, Wałęsa continued underground Solidarity-related activities.[21] Every issue of the leading underground weekly publication Tygodnik Mazowsze bore his motto, "Solidarity will not be divided or destroyed".[22] Following a 1986 amnesty for Solidarity activists,[23] Wałęsa co-founded the Provisional Council of NSZZ Solidarity (Tymczasowa Rada NSZZ Solidarność), the first overt legal Solidarity entity since the declaration of martial law.[21] From 1987 to 1990, he organized and led the semi-illegal Provisional Executive Committee of the Solidarity Trade Union. In mid-1988 he instigated work-stoppage strikes at the Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Shipyard.[21] He was frequently hauled in for interrogations by the Polish secret police, the Security Service (SB), during the 1980s. On many of these occasions, Danuta--who was even more anti-Communist than her husband--was known to openly taunt SB agents when they picked Lech up.[24] After months of strikes and political deliberations, at the conclusion of the 10th plenary session of the Polish United Workers' Party
Polish United Workers' Party
(PZPR, the Polish communist party), the government agreed to enter into Round Table Negotiations that lasted from February to April 1989.[3] Wałęsa was an informal leader of the non-governmental side in the negotiations.[14] During the talks, he traveled throughout Poland giving speeches in support of the negotiations.[3] At the end of the talks, the government signed an agreement to re-establish the Solidarity Trade Union and to organize semi-free elections to the Polish parliament; in accordance with the Round Table Agreement, only members of the Communist Party and its allies could stand for 65 percent of the seats in the lower house, the Sejm.[3][19][25][26] In December 1988 Wałęsa co-founded the Solidarity Citizens' Committee;[14] this was ostensibly an advisory body but in practice a political party that won the parliamentary elections in June 1989. Solidarity took all the seats in the Sejm
Sejm
that were subject to free elections, and all but one seat in the newly re-established Senate.[27] Wałęsa was one of Solidarity's most public figures; he was an active campaigner, appearing on many campaign posters, but did not run for parliament himself.[3] Solidarity winners in the Sejm elections were referred to as "Wałęsa's team" or "Lech's team" because they had all appeared on their election posters with Wałęsa.[28][29] While ostensibly only chairman of Solidarity, Wałęsa played a key role in practical politics. In August 1989, he persuaded leaders of parties formerly allied with the Communist Party to form a non-communist coalition government—the first non-Communist government in the Soviet Bloc. The parliament elected Tadeusz Mazowiecki as the first non-communist Prime Minister of Poland
Prime Minister of Poland
in over forty years.[19] Presidency[edit]

President Bush meets privately with Wałęsa, November 1989

Following the June 1989 parliamentary elections, Wałęsa was disappointed some of his former fellow campaigners were satisfied to govern alongside former Communists.[19] He decided to run for the newly re-established office of president, using the slogan, "I don't want to, but I have to" ("Nie chcę, ale muszę.").[3][19] On 9 December 1990 Wałęsa won the presidential election, defeating Prime Minister Mazowiecki and other candidates to become Poland's first freely-elected head of state in 63 years, and the first non-Communist head of state in 45 years.[13] In 1993 he founded his own political party, the Nonpartisan Bloc for Support of Reforms
Nonpartisan Bloc for Support of Reforms
(BBWR); the grouping's Polish-language acronym echoed that of Józef Piłsudski's "Nonpartisan Bloc for Cooperation with the Government," of 1928–35, likewise an ostensibly non-political organization. During his presidency, Wałęsa saw Poland through privatization and transition to a free-market economy (the Balcerowicz Plan), Poland's 1991 first completely free parliamentary elections, and a period of redefinition of the country's foreign relations.[3][17] He successfully negotiated the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Poland and won a substantial reduction in foreign debts.[13] Wałęsa supported Poland's entry into NATO
NATO
and the European Union, both of which occurred after his presidency, in 1999 and 2004, respectively.[13] In the early 1990s he proposed the creation of a sub-regional security system called NATO
NATO
bis. The concept was supported by right-wing and populist movements in Poland but garnered little support abroad; Poland's neighbors, some of which (e.g. Lithuania), had recently regained independence and tended to see the proposal as Polish neo-imperialism.[19][30] Wałęsa has been criticized for a confrontational style and for instigating "war at the top", whereby former Solidarity allies clashed with one another, causing annual changes of government.[17][19][22][31][32] This increasingly isolated Wałęsa on the political scene.[33] As he lost political allies, he came to be surrounded by people who were viewed by the public as incompetent and disreputable.[22][33] Mudslinging during election campaigns tarnished his reputation.[3][34] Some thought Wałęsa, an ex-electrician with no higher education, was too plain-spoken and too undignified for the post of president.[17][19][35] Others thought him too erratic in his views[19][32][36] or complained he was too authoritarian and that he sought to strengthen his own power at the expense of the Sejm.[19][32][33][35] Wałęsa's national security advisor Jacek Merkel credited the shortcomings of Wałęsa's presidency to his inability to comprehend the office of the president as an institution. He was an effective union leader capable of articulating what the workers felt but as president he had difficulty delegating power or navigating bureaucracy.[37][clarification needed] Wałęsa's problems were compounded by the difficult transition to a market economy; in the long run it was seen as highly successful but it lost Wałęsa's government much popular support.[32][33][38] Wałęsa's BBWR performed poorly in the 1993 parliamentary elections; at times his popular support dwindled to 10 percent and he narrowly lost the 1995 presidential election, winning 33.11 percent of the vote in the first round and 48.28 percent in the run-off against Aleksander Kwaśniewski, who represented the resurgent Polish post-Communists the Democratic Left Alliance
Democratic Left Alliance
(SLD).[3][19][33] Wałęsa's fate was sealed by his poor handling of the media; in televised debates he appeared incoherent and rude; in response to Kwaśniewski's extended hand at the end of the first of the two debates, he replied that the post-Communist leader could "shake his leg".[33] After the election Wałęsa said he was going into "political retirement" and his role in politics became increasingly marginal.[31][39][40] Post-presidency[edit]

Wałęsa speaks on VIII European Economic Forum, 2015

After losing the 1995 election, Wałęsa announced he would return to work as an electrician at the Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Shipyard.[41] Soon afterwards he changed his mind and chose to travel around the world on a lecture circuit.[42] Wałęsa developed a portfolio of three lectures ("The Impact of an Expanded NATO
NATO
on Global Security", "Democracy: The Never-Ending Battle" and "Solidarity: The New Millennium"), and reads them at universities and public events with an appearance fee of around £50,000 ($70,000).[43][44][45] In 1995 he founded the Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
Institute, a think tank with a mission "to popularize the achievements of Polish Solidarity, educate young generations, promote democracy, and build civil society in Poland and around the world".[46] In 1997 he founded a new party, Christian Democracy of the 3rd Polish Republic, hoping it would help him to successfully run in future elections.[47] Wałęsa's contention for the 2000 presidential election ended with a crushing defeat when he polled 1.01 percent of the vote.[48][49] His humiliation was increased because Aleksander Kwaśniewski, who was re-elected in the first round with 54 percent of the vote, is a former Communist apparatchik.[48] Wałęsa polled in seventh place,[48] after which he announced his withdrawal from Polish politics.[50] In 2006 Wałęsa quit Solidarity in protest of the union's support of the ruling right-wing Law and Justice
Law and Justice
party, and Lech and Jarosław Kaczyński—twin brothers who had been prominent in Solidarity and were now serving as the country’s president and prime minister, respectively.[2] The main point of disagreement was the Kaczyńskis’ focus on rooting out those who had been involved in communist rule and their party's attempt to make public all the files of the former communist secret police.[2] Until then only members of the government and parliament had to declare any connection with the former security services.[51] Wałęsa and his supporters argued the so-called transparency legislation advocated by the government might turn into a witch hunt and the more than 500,000 Poles who had possibly collaborated with the communist secret police could face exposure.[51] Despite waning popularity at home, Wałęsa's international reputation remained untouched. He continued his lecture circuit around the world, occasionally appearing in headlines. In 2014 in a widely publicized interview, Wałęsa expressed his disappointment in another Nobel laureate, US president Barack Obama: he told CNN, "When he was elected there was great hope in the world. We were hoping that Obama would reclaim moral leadership for America, but that failed ...  in terms of politics and morality America no longer leads the world".[52] Wałęsa also accused Obama of not deserving his Nobel Peace Prize;[15] during the 2012 US presidential campaign he endorsed Obama's opponent Mitt Romney.[53] In September 2015, Wałęsa again hit the headlines after sharing his thoughts on the migrant crisis in Europe with media, saying, "watching the refugees on television, I noticed that ... they are well fed, well dressed and maybe even are richer than we are ... If Europe opens its gates, soon millions will come through and while living among us will start exercising their own customs, including beheading".[15] In August 2017, ten Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
laureates, including Wałęsa, urged Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
to stop the executions of 14 young people for participating in the 2011–12 Saudi Arabian protests.[54] Wałęsa and secret police[edit]

This section may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. Please help to create a more balanced presentation. Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message. (February 2016)

Since the early 1980s[55] there have been allegations that in the 1970s Wałęsa had served as an informant for the communist security services. Wałęsa vehemently denied the allegations, and in 2000 a special court cleared him of the alleged collaboration.[56] The controversy resurfaced in 2008 with the publication of a book that purported to show that Wałęsa, codenamed Bolek, had been an operative for the security services from 1970 to 1976.[2] The question resurfaced again in February 2016, when the Institute of National Remembrance seized materials from the widow of Czesław Kiszczak, a former minister of the interior, that were said to document Wałęsa’s role as a spy for the security services.[2] Court ruling[edit] On 12 August 2000, Wałęsa, who was running a presidential campaign at the time, was cleared by the special Lustration
Lustration
Court of charges that he collaborated with the Communist-era secret services and reported on the activities of his fellow shipyard workers, due to the lack of evidence.[56] Anti-communists Piotr Naimski, one of the first members of the Workers' Defense Committee that led to the Solidarity trade union, and Antoni Macierewicz, Wałęsa's former Interior Minister, testified against him in the closed vetting trial. Naimski, who said he testified with a "heavy heart", expressed his disappointment that Wałęsa "made a mistake by not going openly to the public, and he has missed an important chance".[56] According to Naimski, the court cleared Wałęsa on "technical grounds" because it did not find certain original documents—many of which had been destroyed since 1989—offered sufficient proof that Wałęsa was lying.[56] In 1992, Naimski, as a head of the State Protection Office, started the process of screening people suspected of being Communist collaborators in Poland.[56] In June that year he helped Antoni Macierewicz prepare a list of 64 members of the government and parliament who were named as spies in the police records; these included Wałęsa, then the Polish president.[56] Wałęsa's name was included on the list after a wrenching internal debate about the virtues of honesty versus political discretion.[56] In response to the publication of this list, President Wałęsa immediately engineered the fall of prime minister Jan Olszewski and the dismissal of Interior Minister Macierewicz.[57] A parliamentary committee later concluded Wałęsa had not signed an agreement with the secret police.[56] A 1997 Polish law made the vetting a requirement for those seeking high public office. According to the law, it is not a crime to have collaborated, but those who deny it and are found to have lied are banned from political life for ten years. The 2000 presidential election was the first use of this law.[56] Despite helping Wałęsa in 2005 to receive the official status of a "victim of communist regime" from the Institute of National Remembrance (IPN),[58] this court ruling did not convince many Poles.[56] In November 2009 Wałęsa sued the president of Poland, Lech Kaczyński
Lech Kaczyński
over his repeated collaboration allegations.[59] Five months later, Kaczyński failed to invite Wałęsa to the commemoration service at Katyn, which almost certainly saved Wałęsa's life because the presidential plane crashed, killing all on board.[60] In August 2010, Wałęsa lost a libel case against Krzysztof Wyszkowski, his former fellow activist, who also publicly accused Wałęsa of being a communist agent in 1970s.[55][61] 2008 book[edit] The most comprehensive analysis of Wałęsa's possible collaboration with secret police was provided in a 2008 book The SB (Służba Bezpieczeństwa; secret police) and Lech Wałęsa: A Biographical Contribution (SB a Lech Wałęsa. Przyczynek do biografii).[62] The book was written by two historians from the Institute of National Remembrance, Sławomir Cenckiewicz
Sławomir Cenckiewicz
and Piotr Gontarczyk, and included documents from the archives of the secret police that were inherited by the Institute.[63] Among the documents were registration cards, memos, notes from the secret police, and reports from the informant.[64][65] The book's authors said Wałęsa, working under the code name Bolek,[note 3] was a secret police informant from 1970 (after he was released from the arrest) till 1976 (before he was fired from the shipyard).[66] According to them, "he wrote reports and informed on more than 20 people and some of them were persecuted by the communist police. He identified people and eavesdropped on his colleagues at work while they were listening to Radio Free Europe for example".[67] The book describes the fate of the seven of his alleged victims; information regarding others was destroyed or stolen from the files.[63] According to them, Wałęsa received over 13,000 zlotys as remuneration for his services from the SB, while the monthly salary at the time was about 3,500 zlotys.[note 4][68][69] The authors said oppositionist activity in Poland in the first half of 1970s was minimal and Wałęsa's role in it was quite marginal.[65] However, according to the book, despite formally renouncing his ties with SB in 1976, Wałęsa went on to have contacts with communist officials.[70] The book also said that during his 1990–1995 presidency, Wałęsa used his office to destroy the evidence of his collaboration with secret police by removing incriminating documents from the archives.[65] According to the book, historians discovered that with the help of the state intelligence agency, Wałęsa, Interior Minister Andrzej Milczanowski, and other members of Wałęsa's administration, had borrowed from the archives the secret police files that had connections to Wałęsa, and returned them with key pages removed.[63][68] When it was discovered at the turn of 1995/96, the following prosecutorial inquiry was discontinued for political reasons despite the case attracting much public attention.[55][68] Sławomir Cenckiewicz
Sławomir Cenckiewicz
also said that in 1983, when Wałęsa was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize, the secret police tried to embarrass him and leaked information about Wałęsa's previous collaboration with the government. By this time though, Wałęsa was already so popular that most Poles did not believe the official media and dismissed the allegations as a manipulation by the Communist authorities.[63] The book's first print run sold out in Poland within hours.[71][72] The book received substantial coverage in the media, provoked nationwide debate, and was noted by the international press.[73][74][75] Wałęsa vowed to sue the authors but never did.[72] Kiszczak archives[edit] On 18 February 2016, the INR in Warsaw announced it had seized a package of original documents that allegedly proved Wałęsa was a paid Communist informant.[76] The documents dated from the period 1970–1976; they were seized from the home of a recently deceased former interior minister, General Czesław Kiszczak.[77] The documents' authenticity was confirmed by an archival expert,[77][78] but the prosecutors demanded a handwriting examination.[79] Eventually, the requested examination concluded that the documents were authentic and, hence, Wałęsa had collaborated with the communist secret police.[4]

Signature Lech Wałęsa-Bolek on the collaboration agreement with SB from the Kiszczak archives

The dossier consists of two folders. The first is a "personal file" containing 90 pages of documents, including a handwritten commitment to cooperate with the secret police dated 21 December 1970,[80] and signed Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
– Bolek with a pledge he would never admit his collaboration with secret police “not even to family”;[81] the file also contains the confirmations of having received funds.[76][77] The second is a "work file" which contains 279 pages of documents, including numerous reports by Bolek on his co-workers at Gdańsk Shipyard, and notes by secret police officers from meetings with him.[76][77] According to one note, Wałęsa agreed to collaborate out of fear of persecution after the workers’ protest in 1970.[80] The documents also show that at first Bolek eagerly provided information on opinions and actions by his co-workers and took money for the information, but his enthusiasm diminished and the quality of his information decreased until he was deemed no longer valuable and collaboration with him was terminated in 1976.[80]

The sealed dossier also contained a letter, hand-written by Kiszczak in April 1996, in which he informs the Director of the Polish Central Archives of Modern Records (Archiwum Akt Nowych) about the accompanying files documenting the collaboration of Wałęsa with the Communist Security Service and asks him not to publish this information until five years after Wałęsa’s death.[81] In his letter Kiszczak said he kept the documents out of reach: before the 1989 revolution, trying to protect Wałęsa’s reputation; and afterwards to make sure they did not disappear or were used for political reasons.[81] This letter and the accompanying documents had never been sent.[77] On 16 February 2016, about three months after Kiszczak's death, his widow Maria approached the Institute of National Remembrance
Institute of National Remembrance
and offered to sell the documents to the archives for 90,000 zlotys ($23,000).[82] However, according to Polish law, all documents of the political police must be handed in to the state.[82] The administration of the institute notified the prosecutor's office, which conducted a police search of the Kiszczak's house and seized all the historic documents.[82] Maria Kiszczak later said she had not read her husband’s letter and had "made a mistake".[83] Wałęsa's response[edit] For years Wałęsa vehemently denied collaborating with the communist secret police and dismissed the incriminating files as forgeries created by the SB to compromise him.[84] Wałęsa also denies that during his presidency he removed documents incriminating him from the archives.[68] Until 2008 he denied having ever seen his secret police file.[68] After the publication of the book SB a Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
in 2008, he said that while he was president "I did borrow the file, but didn't remove anything from it. I saw there were some documents there about me and that they were clearly forgeries. I told my secretaries to tape up and seal the file. I wrote 'don't open' on it. But someone didn't obey, removed the papers, now casting suspicion on me."[68][69] Wałęsa's interior minister Andrzej Milczanowski denied the cover-up and said he "had the full legal right to make those documents available to President Wałęsa" and "no original documents were removed from the file", which contained only photocopies.[68] Wałęsa has offered conflicting statements regarding the authenticity of the documents.[81] Initially he has appeared to come close to an admission, saying in 1992, "in December 1970, I signed three or four documents"[55][85] to escape from the secret police.[81] In his 1987 autobiography A Way of Hope,[86] Wałęsa said, "It is also the truth that I had not left that clash completely pure. They gave me a condition: signature! And then I signed."[55] He denies he acted upon the collaboration agreement.[87] However, in his later years Wałęsa said all the documents are forgeries and told BBC in 2008, "you will not find any signature of mine agreeing to collaborate anywhere".[67][76] In 2009, after publication of another biography connecting him with the secret police (Lech Wałęsa: Idea and History by Pawel Zyzak),[88] Wałęsa threatened to leave Poland if historians continue to question his past.[89][90] He said that before revealing such information "a historian must decide whether this serves Poland".[89] After the accusations against him resurfaced with the discovery of the Kiszczak dossier on 16 February 2016, Wałęsa called the files "lies, slander and forgeries",[91] and said he "never took money and never made any spoken or written report on anyone".[92] He said of the Polish public, which was about to believe in the allegations, "you have betrayed me, not me you"[83] and "it was I who safely led Poland to a complete victory over communism".[91] On his blog on 20 February 2016 Wałęsa said in the 1970s a secret police officer begged him to sign the financial documents because this officer lost money handed to him to purchase a vehicle. Wałęsa appealed to this officer to step forward now and clear him of the accusations.[93][94] Religious and political views[edit] Wałęsa is a devout Roman Catholic.[95] He is a staunch opponent of abortion; in 1993 during his presidency he signed a law restricting abortions in Poland.[96] This law reversed the virtually free access to abortion that existed since 1956[96] and limited its use to cases in which the woman's life is in danger, pregnancy has resulted from rape or incest, or the fetus is irreparably damaged.[95] Doctors who violate the rules now face up to two years in prison.[96] This abortion law is one of the most restrictive in Europe, deeply divided the country, and saw the former Solidarity coalition split between liberals and conservatives.[96] The Polish Catholic Church
Catholic Church
supported Wałęsa,[95] but public opinion polls indicated most Poles favored retaining a liberal abortion law; 1.3 million Poles signed a petition demanding a plebiscite rather than governmental imposition of the law.[96] In 1994 a group of women legislators tried to ease the criteria for abortion; Wałęsa vetoed their amendment.[97] In 2011, Wałęsa rejected Lithuania's Order of Vytautas the Great
Order of Vytautas the Great
as a result of constant discrimination on the part of the Lithuanian government towards its Polish minority.[98] In 2013, Wałęsa suggested the creation of a political union between Poland and Germany.[99] Wałęsa is well known for his anti-gay position.[15] In 2013 he said on Polish television that homosexual people have no right to a prominent role in politics, "They have to know that they are a minority and must adjust to smaller things".[100] He also said homosexual MPs should sit "behind a wall" in a parliament.[101] Despite sharp international criticism and a legal complaint of "propaganda of hate against a sexual minority",[102] Wałęsa refused to apologize for his comments.[103] At a political rally in 2000, he described gay people as "sick" and said, "I believe those people need medical treatment".[104] During the drawing up of a new Polish Constitution in 1995, President Wałęsa argued against the inclusion of gay rights provisions.[105] In 2014 City authorities of San Francisco renamed Walesa Street because of his "anti-gay remarks".[106] A deputy speaker of the Polish Parliament said Wałęsa's anti-gay position could jeopardize his international career as a human rights speaker.[107] Honors[edit] Main article: List of awards and honors received by Lech Wałęsa

Wałęsa receiving the Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Freedom Award, 2011

In 1983, Wałęsa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.[108] Since then he has received more than 30 state decorations and more than 50 awards from 30 countries, including Order of the Bath
Order of the Bath
(UK), Order of Merit (Germany), Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour
(France) and European Human Rights Prize (EU 1989).[14] In 2011, he declined to accept the Lithuanian highest order, citing his displeasure at Lithuania's policy towards the Polish diaspora.[109] In 2008, he established the Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
Award.[46]

Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
Airport

In 2004, Gdańsk
Gdańsk
International Airport was officially renamed Gdańsk Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
Airport and Wałęsa's signature was incorporated into the airport's logo.[110][111] A college hall in Northeastern Illinois University (Chicago),[112] six streets, and five schools in Canada, France, Sweden and Poland also were named after Lech Wałęsa. Wałęsa was named Man of the Year by Time magazine (1981),[113] Financial Times
Financial Times
(1980), Saudi Gazette
Saudi Gazette
(1989) and 12 other newspapers and magazines.[14] He was awarded with over 45 honorary doctorates by universities around the world,[46] including Harvard University
Harvard University
and Sorbonne.[108] He was named an honorary karate black belt by International Traditional Karate
Karate
Federation.[114] Wałęsa is also an honorary citizen of more than 30 cities, including London, Buffalo and Turin.[46] In the United States, Wałęsa was the first recipient of the Liberty Medal, in 1989.[115] That year he also received the Presidential Medal of Freedom[116] and became the first non-head-of-state to address a joint meeting of the United States
United States
Congress.[117] Wałęsa symbolically represented Europe by carrying the Olympic flag at the opening ceremony of the 2002 Winter Olympics.[118] In 2004, he represented ten newly acceded EU countries during the official accession ceremony in Strasbourg.[46] In 1993, the heraldic authority of the Kingdom of Sweden assigned Wałęsa a personal coat of arms on the occasion of his admittance into the Royal Order of the Seraphim.[citation needed] Cultural references[edit] Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
has been portrayed, as himself or a character based on him, in a number of feature films. The two most notable of them are:

Walesa. Man of Hope
Walesa. Man of Hope
(2013) is a biographical drama by Oscar-winning filmmaker Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
about the lives of Wałęsa (Robert Więckiewicz) and his wife Danuta (Agnieszka Grochowska) from 1970 to 1989. It shows Wałęsa's change from a shipyard worker into a charismatic labor leader. The film was shot in the historical locations of the depicted events, including the former Lenin Shipyard. It won three awards, including Silver Hugo for Robert Więckiewicz
Robert Więckiewicz
at Chicago International Film Festival and a Pasinetti Award for Maria Rosaria Omaggio at Venice Film Festival, and was nominated for five more awards.[119]

Shooting of Walesa. Man of Hope
Walesa. Man of Hope
on the Solidarity Square in Gdańsk

Man of Iron (1981) is another Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
film about the Solidarity movement. The main character, a young worker Maciej Tomczyk (Jerzy Radziwiłowicz) is involved in the anti-Communist labor movement. Tomczyk is clearly portrayed as a parallel to Wałęsa, who appears as himself in the movie. The film was made during the brief relaxation of censorship in Poland between the formation of Solidarity in August 1980 and its suppression in December 1981. Waida was awarded both the Palme d'Or
Palme d'Or
and the Prize of the Ecumenical Jury
Prize of the Ecumenical Jury
at the Cannes Film Festival for the film. In 1982 it was nominated for Oscar as the Best Foreign Language Film and gained seven other awards and nominations.[120]

Premiere of Walesa. Man of Hope
Walesa. Man of Hope
in Warsaw, 2013

Both of these films were produced in Poland. In December 1989, Warner Bros intended to produce a "major" movie about Wałęsa, to be made in 1990 and released in 1991.[121] The company paid Wałęsa a $1 million fee for the rights to produce a biopic.[122] Although the movie was never made, this payment sparked controversy in Poland when five years later it emerged that Wałęsa concealed this income to avoid paying taxes on it.[123] The Gdańsk
Gdańsk
tax office initiated a tax fraud case against Wałęsa but it was later dismissed because the five-year statute of limitations had already run out.[124] In 1982, Bono
Bono
was inspired by Wałęsa to write U2's first hit single, "New Year's Day".[125] Coincidentally, the Polish authorities lifted martial law on 1 January 1983, the same day this single was released. Wałęsa also became a hero of a number of Polish pop songs, including a satirical 1991 hit titled Nie wierzcie elektrykom (Don't Trust the Electricians) from the eponymous album by the punk rock band Big Cyc.[citation needed] Patrick Dailly's chamber opera Solidarity, starring Kristen Brown as Wałęsa, was premiered by the San Francisco Cabaret Opera in Berkeley, California, in September 2009.[126] Publications[edit]

Wałęsa, Lech (1987). A Way of Hope. New-York: Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 0805006680. LCCN 87021194. OL 2391768M.  Wałęsa, Lech (1991). Droga do wolności [Road to Freedom] (in Polish). Warsaw: Editions Spotkania. ISBN 8385195033. LCCN 92155586. OL 1293474M.  Wałęsa, Lech (1992). The Struggle and the Triumph: An Autobiography. Translated by Philip, Franklin. New York: Arcade Publishing. ISBN 1559701498. LCCN 91035875. OL 1555547M.  Wałęsa, Lech (1995). Wszystko, co robię, robię dla Polski [All That I Do, I Do for Poland] (in Polish). Warsaw: Kancelaria Prezydenta RP. ISBN 8390434709. LCCN 96130042. OL 18320510M. 

Notes[edit]

^ The German airfield Danzig-Langfuhr in Wrzeszcz- Gdańsk
Gdańsk
was located on the site of the former villages Młyniec and Zaspa (now neighborhoods of Gdańsk) and was serviced by prisoners of KL Stutthof forming the Außenkommando
Außenkommando
KL Stutthof
KL Stutthof
– Danzig-Langfuhr. Source: "Standort Danzig". Lexikon-der-Wehrmacht.de.  The airfield was heavily bombed by the Allies in 1945, but remained in use until 1974 (pl). ^ Izabela Młyńska, after marriage ^ Bolek was a main character of the popular children's cartoon series Bolek and Lolek, produced in Poland in 1962–1986. Wałęsa's father's name also was Bolesław (or Bolek in diminutive). ^ In a book published in 2011, Wałęsa’s wife Danuta said she believed the source of her husband’s extra money during the 1970s was lottery winnings (Source: The Wall Street Journal).

References[edit]

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Institute. Archived from the original on 3 February 2008. . ^ a b c d Melman, Yossi (20 September 2015). "'If Europe opens its gates to Muslims, there will be beheadings here'". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 28 February 2016.  ^ Nichols, Bruce (4 March 2008). "Walesa leaves Texas
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(1943– )," A Guide to the 20th century: Who's Who, Channel 4. ^ "Economist article". Economist. 22 September 1990. Retrieved 21 April 2009.  ^ Szporer, Michael (2012). The Great Workers Strike of 1980. Lexington Books. ISBN 9780739174876.  ^ Danielle Lussier, "From Solidarity to Division: An Analysis of Lech Wałęsa's Transition to Constituted Leadership", working paper, UC Berkeley. ^ Wojtek Kosc, "Here He Comes Again: Poland: Heating Up for the Presidency," Central Europe Review, vol. 2, no. 10, 13 March 2000. ^ "Europe: Poland: Walesa In Polystyrene," New York Times, 17 December 2003. ^ Bridge, Adrian (3 April 1996). "Walesa cruises into shipyard". The Independent. London. Retrieved 1 March 2016.  ^ Perlez, Jane (29 February 1996). "Out of a Job, Walesa Decides to Take to the Lecture Circuit". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 February 2016.  ^ "Lech Wałęsa". Speakers Associates Ltd. Retrieved 28 February 2016.  ^ "Lech Wałęsa". APB Speakers International. Retrieved 28 February 2016.  ^ "Lech Wałęsa". London
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Lech Wałęsa
loses court case". The Budapest Times. 6 September 2010. Retrieved 23 February 2016.  ^ Cenckiewicz, Sławomir; Gontarczyk, Piotr (2008). SB a Lech Wałęsa. Przyczynek do biografii [The SB and Lech Wałęsa: A Biographical Contribution] (in Polish). Gdańsk–Warszawa–Kraków: Instytut Pamieci Nardowej. ISBN 978-83-60464-74-8. LCCN 2009460072. OL 23626992M. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016.  ^ a b c d Puhl, Jan (23 June 2008). "'Positive Proof' Lech Wałęsa was a Communist Spy: Interview with Historian Slawomir Cenckiewicz". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 19 February 2016.  ^ Paterson, Tony (25 June 2008). " Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
fights claims that he was secret police informant". The Independent. London. Retrieved 20 February 2016.  ^ a b c Boyes, Roger (25 June 2008). " Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
was a Communist spy, says new book". The Times. London. Retrieved 20 February 2016. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Quetteville, Harry de (14 Jun 2008). " Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
was Communist spy, claims book". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 20 February 2016.  ^ a b Easton, Adam (23 June 2008). "Walesa scorns collaboration claim". BBC World Service. Retrieved 20 February 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g Kublik, Agnieszka; Czuchnowski, Wojciech (18 June 2008). "IPN Launching Hunt for Wałęsa". Gazeta Wyborcza. Retrieved 22 February 2016.  ^ a b Quetteville, Harry de (19 Jun 2008). " Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
denies allegations that he was a communist spy". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 6 December 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2016. [dead link] ^ Sobczyk, Martin M. (18 February 2016). "Poland State Archives Says Former President Walesa Was Communist Spy". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 22 February 2016.  ^ "New Book
Book
Claims Polish Icon Walesa Was Communist Spy". Deutsche Welle. 24 June 2008. Retrieved 23 February 2016.  ^ a b Scally, Derek (24 June 2008). "Walesa vows to sue authors over informer claims". The Irish Times. Dublin. Retrieved 23 February 2016.  ^ Staszewska, Joanna; Jones, Gareth; Lawrence, Janet (17 June 2008). "Polish book revives informer claims against Walesa". Reuters. Retrieved 23 February 2016.  ^ "Row over Lech Wałęsa's Alleged Collaboration with Communists Escalates," Wikinews, Friday, 20 June 2008. ^ Szporer, Michael (Spring 2009). " Sławomir Cenckiewicz
Sławomir Cenckiewicz
and Piotr Gontarczyk, SB a Lech Wałęsa: Przyczynek do biografii [The SB and Lech Wałęsa: A Contribution toward a Biography]". Journal of Cold War Studies. MIT Press. 11 (2): 119–121. ISSN 1520-3972. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ a b c d " Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
'was paid Communist informant'". BBC World Service. 18 February 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2016.  ^ a b c d e "Official statement on the inspection of the first batch of materials secured by the prosecutor of the IPN on 16 February 2016". Warsaw: Institute of National Remembrance. 18 February 2016. Archived from the original on 2016-02-24. Retrieved 18 February 2016.  ^ Berendt, Joanna (18 February 2016). " Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
Faces New Accusations of Communist Collaboration". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 February 2016.  ^ "Polish Prosecutors to Probe Secret Files on Lech Wałęsa". ABC News. Associated Press. 25 February 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2016.  ^ a b c Scislowska, Monika (22 February 2016). "Polish state archive releases secret file on Lech Wałęsa". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2016-03-07. Retrieved 22 February 2016.  ^ a b c d e Sobczyk, Martin M. (22 February 2016). "Poland's State Archives Releases Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
Documents". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 22 February 2016. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ a b c "Old documents revive Poland's debate over Walesa's past". Associated Press. 17 February 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2016.  ^ a b Berendt, Joanna (22 February 2016). " Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
Files Made Public Despite Forgery Claims". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 February 2016.  ^ Easton, Adam (18 February 2016). "Informant claims unlikely to alter Polish view of Walesa". BBC World Service. Retrieved 22 February 2016.  ^ "Trzy podpisy Wałęsy". Gazeta Wyborcza
Gazeta Wyborcza
(in Polish) (134). 8 June 1992. p. 3. Retrieved 26 February 2016. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Wałęsa, Lech (1987). A Way of Hope. New-York: Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 0805006680. LCCN 87021194. OL 2391768M.  ^ Szporer, Michael (2012). Solidarity: The Great Workers Strike of 1980. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. p. 148. ISBN 9780739174876. LCCN 2012014490. OL 25299438M.  ^ Zyzak, Paweł (March 2009). Lech Wałęsa. Idea i historia [Lech Wałęsa: Idea and History] (in Polish). Krakow: Arcana. ISBN 978-83-609-40-72-3. LCCN 2009460828. OL 23867915M.  ^ a b "Walesa threatens to leave Poland". BBC World Service. 30 March 2009. Retrieved 23 February 2016.  ^ Day, Matthew (30 March 2009). " Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
threatens to leave Poland and return Nobel peace prize over spy claims". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 24 February 2016.  ^ a b Day, Matt (17 February 2008). " Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
winner accused of being informant for Poland's secret police". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 25 February 2016.  ^ Scislowska, Monika (19 February 2016). "Ex-Polish president Walesa denies he was a paid informant". Associated Press. Retrieved 22 February 2016.  ^ Skłodowski, Tomasz (20 February 2016). " Lech Wałęsa
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znów zmienia wersję ws. podpisu w dokumentach SB. "Obiecał, że papiery wrócą do mnie"". Kurier Lubelski (in Polish). Retrieved 22 February 2016.  ^ Stankiewicz, Andrzej (20 February 2016). "Lech Wałęsa, niewolnik "Bolka"". Rzeczpospolita (in Polish). Retrieved 23 February 2016.  ^ a b c Barber, Tony (5 June 1994). "Abortion becomes test of power for Walesa". The Independent. London. Retrieved 26 February 2016.  ^ a b c d e "Walesa Signs Law Sharply Restricting Abortions". The New York Times. 16 February 1993. Retrieved 26 February 2016.  ^ Murphy, Dean E. (3 September 1994). "Poland's Strict Abortion Law Survives Challenge: Legislators fail to override President Walesa's veto of bill easing limits on women's access to the procedure". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 26 February 2016.  ^ "Walesa declines Lithuanian honour". Radio Poland. 7 September 2011. ^ "Poland and Germany should unite, says Lech Wałęsa". telegraph.co.uk.  ^ Masters, Sam (3 March 2013). "Lech Wałęsa: activist, electrician, president, Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
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accused of hate speech after gay rights criticism". The Guardian. London. Associated Press. 3 March 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2016.  ^ Day, Matthew (6 March 2013). "Lech Wałęsa: No apology for anti-gay comments". CNN. Retrieved 26 February 2016.  ^ "Walesa says gays are sick". Windy City Times. 9 August 2000. Retrieved 26 February 2016.  ^ "Under surveillance". The Advocate
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– Biographical". Nobel Foundation. Oslo. 5 October 1983. Retrieved 27 February 2016.  ^ Maslikowski, Dominika (9 September 2011). "Walesa rejects Lithuanian honor, cites treatment of Polish minority". Charleston Gazette-Mail. Associated Press. Retrieved 27 February 2016.  ^ "Profile: Lech Wałęsa". BBC World Service. 25 November 2004. Retrieved 27 February 2016.  ^ "Polish MP wants referendum over airport named after Wałęsa". Radio Poland. 23 February 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2016.  ^ Simonette, Matt (14 April 2014). "NEIU faculty, students ask for renaming of Walesa building". Windy City Times. Chicago. Retrieved 27 February 2016.  ^ "Lech Wałęsa, Man of the Year". Time. 4 January 1982. Retrieved 27 February 2016.  ^ " Lech Wałęsa
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Further reading[edit]

Sławomir Cenckiewicz, Wałęsa: Człowiek z teczki (Wałęsa: The Man in the File), Zysk i S-ka (Zysk and Company), 2013, ISBN 978-83-7785-356-6. Katarzyna Szewczuk, "Wałęsa był szantażowany przez bezpiekę" ("Wałęsa Was Blackmailed by Security", an interview with Professor Sławomir Cenckiewicz), Gwiazda Polarna, vol. 108, no. 5 (4 March 2017), pp. 7–8.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lech Wałęsa.

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Individual events

1988 Polish strikes April 9 tragedy Black January Baltic Way 1987–89 Tibetan unrest Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria Polish Round Table Agreement Hungarian Round Table Talks Pan-European Picnic Monday Demonstrations Alexanderplatz demonstration Malta Summit German reunification January Events in Lithuania January Events in Latvia 1991 protests in Belgrade August Coup Dissolution of the Soviet Union

Later events

Colour revolution Decommunization Lustration Democratization Economic liberalization Post-Soviet conflicts Neo-Sovietism Neo-Stalinism Post-communism Yugoslav Wars

v t e

Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam War First Taiwan Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts

v t e

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize

1901–1925

1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes

1926–1950

1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B. Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche

1951–1975

1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B. Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov

1976–2000

1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung

2001–present

2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016 Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

v t e

Candidates in the Polish presidential election, 1990
Polish presidential election, 1990
→ following

Winner

Lech Wałęsa

Lost in runoff

Stanisław Tymiński

Other candidates

Roman Bartoszcze Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz Tadeusz Mazowiecki Leszek Moczulski

v t e

previous ← Candidates in the Polish presidential election, 1995
Polish presidential election, 1995
→ following

Winner

Aleksander Kwaśniewski

Lost in runoff

Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(incumbent)

Other candidates

Leszek Bubel Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz Janusz Korwin-Mikke Tadeusz Koźluk Jacek Kuroń Andrzej Lepper Jan Olszewski Waldemar Pawlak Jan Pietrzak Kazimierz Piotrowicz Tadeusz Zieliński

Withdrew

Lech Kaczyński Marek Markiewicz Leszek Moczulski Bogdan Pawłowski

v t e

previous ← Candidates in the Polish presidential election, 2000
Polish presidential election, 2000
→ following

Winner

Aleksander Kwaśniewski

Other candidates

Dariusz Grabowski Piotr Ikonowicz Jarosław Kalinowski Janusz Korwin-Mikke Marian Krzaklewski Andrzej Lepper Jan Łopuszański Andrzej Olechowski Bogdan Pawłowski Lech Wałęsa Tadeusz Wilecki

Withdrew

Jan Olszewski

v t e

Heads of state of Poland

Kingdom of Poland (1916–1918)

Provisional Council Regency Council

Republic of Poland (1918–1939)

Józef Piłsudski Gabriel Narutowicz Maciej Rataj
Maciej Rataj
(Acting) Stanisław Wojciechowski Maciej Rataj
Maciej Rataj
(Acting) Ignacy Mościcki

Polish government-in-exile (1939–1990)

Władysław Raczkiewicz August Zaleski Stanisław Ostrowski Edward Raczyński Kazimierz Sabbat Ryszard Kaczorowski

People's Republic of Poland (1944–1989)

Bolesław Bierut Aleksander Zawadzki Edward Ochab Marian Spychalski Józef Cyrankiewicz Henryk Jabłoński Wojciech Jaruzelski

Republic of Poland (1990–present)

Wojciech Jaruzelski Lech Wałęsa Aleksander Kwaśniewski Lech Kaczyński Bronisław Komorowski
Bronisław Komorowski
(Acting) Bogdan Borusewicz
Bogdan Borusewicz
(Acting) Grzegorz Schetyna
Grzegorz Schetyna
(Acting) Bronisław Komorowski Andrzej Duda

v t e

Pacem in Terris Peace and Freedom Award laureates

1960s

1964 John Howard Griffin / John F. Kennedy 1965 Martin Luther King Jr. 1966 R. Sargent Shriver 1967 A. Philip Randolph 1968 James Groppi 1969 Saul Alinsky

1970s

1971 Dorothy Day 1974 Harold Hughes 1975 Hélder Câmara 1976 Mother Teresa 1979 Thomas Gumbleton

1980s

1980 Crystal Lee Sutton / Ernest Leo Unterkoefler 1982 George F. Kennan 1983 Helen Caldicott 1985 Joseph Bernardin 1986 Maurice John Dingman 1987 Desmond Tutu 1989 Eileen Egan

1990s

1990 Mairead Maguire 1991 María Julia Hernández 1992 César Chávez 1993 Daniel Berrigan 1995 Jim Wallis 1996 Samuel Ruiz 1997 Jim and Shelley Douglass

2000s

2000 George G. Higgins 2001 Lech Wałęsa 2002 Gwen Hennessey / Dorothy Hennessey 2004 Arthur Simon 2005 Donald Mosley 2007 Salim Ghazal 2008 Marvin Mottet 2009 Hildegard Goss-Mayr

2010s

2010 John Dear 2011 Álvaro Leonel Ramazzini Imeri 2012 Kim Bobo 2013 Jean Vanier 2014 Simone Campbell 2015 Thích Nhất Hạnh 2016 Gustavo Gutiérrez 2017 Widad Akreyi

Catholicism portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 109834327 LCCN: n81039335 ISNI: 0000 0001 2147 5062 GND: 118628704 SELIBR: 101112 SUDOC: 028676149 BNF: cb12046249m (data) NLA: 36204766 NDL: 00476706 NKC: jn20030305007 BNE: XX917

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