The Info List - Lazar Kaganovich

Lazar Moiseyevich Kaganovich (Russian: Ла́зарь Моисе́евич Кагано́вич; 22 November [O.S. 10 November] 1893 – 25 July 1991) was a Soviet politician and administrator and one of the main associates of Joseph Stalin. He is known for helping Stalin seize power, for his role in the Soviet famine of 1932–33 in Ukraine, and for his harsh treatment and execution of those deemed threats to Stalin's regime. At his death in 1991, he was the last surviving Old Bolshevik.[1] The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
itself outlived him by a mere five months.


1 Early life 2 Communist functionary 3 Responsibility for 1932–33 famine 4 "Iron Lazar" 5 Later life 6 The Wolf of the Kremlin 7 Miscellanea 8 Decorations and awards 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Early life[edit] Kaganovich was born in 1893 to Jewish parents[2] in the village of Kabany, Radomyshl
uyezd, Kiev
Governorate, Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(now named Dibrova, Poliske Raion, Kiev
Oblast, Ukraine). Early in his political career, in 1915, Kaganovich became a Communist organizer at a shoe-factory where he worked. Circa 1911 he entered the Bolshevik
party (his older brother Mikhail Kaganovich had become a member in 1905). In 1915 Kaganovich was arrested and sent back[by whom?] to Kabany. During March–April 1917 he served as the Chairman of the Tanners Union and as the vice-chairman of the Yuzovka
Soviet. In May 1917 he became the leader of the military organization of Bolsheviks in Saratov, and in August 1917, he became the leader of the Polessky Committee of the Bolshevik party in Belarus. During the October Revolution
October Revolution
of 1917 he led the revolt in Gomel. Communist functionary[edit] In 1918 Kaganovich acted as Commissar
of the propaganda department of the Red Army. From May 1918 to August 1919 he was the Chairman of the Ispolkom
(Committee) of the Nizhny Novgorod gubernia. In 1919–1920, he served as governor of the Voronezh gubernia. The years 1920 to 1922 he spent in Turkmenistan
as one of the leaders of the Bolshevik struggle against local Muslim
rebels (basmachi), and also commanding the succeeding punitive expeditions against local opposition. In May 1922, Stalin became the General Secretary of the Communist Party and immediately transferred Kaganovich to his apparatus to head the Organizational Bureau or Orgburo of the Secretariat. This department was responsible for all assignments within the apparatus of the Communist Party. Working there, Kaganovich helped to place Stalin's supporters in important jobs within the Communist Party bureaucracy. In this position he became noted for his great work capacity and for his personal loyalty to Stalin. He stated publicly that he would execute absolutely any order from Stalin, which at that time was a novelty.[citation needed] In 1924 Kaganovich became a member of the Central Committee. From 1925 to 1928, Kaganovich was the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Ukrainian SSR. He was given the task of "ukrainizatsiya" – meaning at that time the building up of Ukrainian communist popular cadres. He also had the duty of implementing collectivization and the policy of economic suppression of the kulaks (wealthier peasants). He opposed the more moderate policy of Nikolai Bukharin, who argued in favor of the "peaceful integration of kulaks into socialism". In 1928, due to numerous protests[by whom?] against Kaganovich's management, Stalin was forced to transfer Kaganovich from Ukraine
to Moscow, where he returned to his position as a Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, a job he held until 1939. As Secretary, he endorsed Stalin's struggle against the so-called Left and Right Oppositions within the Communist Party, in the hope that Stalin would become the sole leader of the country. In 1933–1934 he served as the Chairman of the Commission for the Vetting of the Party Membership (Tsentralnaya komissiya po proverke partiynykh ryadov) and ensured personally that nobody associated with anti-Stalin opposition would be permitted to remain a Communist Party member. In 1934, at the XVII Congress of the Communist Party, Kaganovich chaired the Counting Committee. He falsified voting for positions in the Central Committee, deleting 290 votes opposing the Stalin candidacy. His actions resulted in Stalin's being re-elected as the General Secretary instead of Sergey Kirov. By the rules, the candidate receiving fewer opposing votes should become the General Secretary. Before Kaganovich's falsification, Stalin received 292 opposing votes and Kirov only three. However, the "official" result (due to the interference of Kaganovich) saw Stalin with just two opposing votes (Radzinsky, 1996). In 1930 Kaganovich became a member of the Soviet Politburo
and the First Secretary of the Moscow
of the Communist Party (1930–1935). He later headed the Moscow
of the Communist Party (1931–1934). He also supervised the implementation of many of Stalin's economic policies, including the collectivization of agriculture and rapid industrialization. In the 1930s, Kaganovich, along with project managers Ivan Kuznetsov and, later, Isaac Segal, organized and contributed greatly to the building of the first Soviet underground rapid-transport system, the Moscow
Metro, known as Metropoliten imeni L.M. Kaganovicha after him until 1955. During this period, he also supervised the destruction of many of the city's oldest monuments, including the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour.[3] In 1932, he led the suppression of the workers' strike in Ivanovo-Voznesensk. Responsibility for 1932–33 famine[edit] Kaganovich (together with Vyacheslav Molotov) participated with the All-Ukrainian Party Conference of 1930 and were given the task of implementation of the collectivization policy that caused a catastrophic 1932–33 famine (known as the Holodomor
in Ukraine). Similar policies also inflicted enormous suffering on the Soviet Central Asian republic of Kazakhstan, the Kuban
region, Crimea, the lower Volga
region, and other parts of the Soviet Union. As an emissary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, Kaganovich traveled to Ukraine, the central regions of the USSR, the Northern Caucasus, and Siberia
demanding the acceleration of collectivization and repressions against the Kulaks, who were generally blamed for the slow progress of collectivization. Attorney Rafael Lemkin
Rafael Lemkin
in his work The Soviet Genocide
in Ukraine
tried to present the fact of Holodomor to the Nuremberg trials
Nuremberg trials
as a genocide of a totalitarian regime.[4] On 13 January 2010 Kiev
Appellate Court posthumously found Kaganovich, Postyshev, Kosior and other Soviet Communist Party functionaries guilty of genocide against Ukrainians during the catastrophic Holodomor
famine.[5] Though they were pronounced guilty as criminals, the case was ended immediately according to paragraph 8 of Article 6 of the Criminal Procedural Code of Ukraine.[6] The importance of the case is its historical aspect that legally explains the particularity of that historical event[clarification needed]. By New Years Day, the Security Service of Ukraine
had finished pre-court investigation and transferred its materials to the Prosecutor General of Ukraine. The materials consist of over 250 volumes of archive documents (from within Ukraine
as well as from abroad), interviews with witnesses, and expert analysis of several institutes of National Academies of Sciences. Oleksandr Medvedko, the Prosecutor General, confirmed that the material gives clear evidence of the genocide occurring in Ukraine[citation needed]. "Iron Lazar"[edit] From 1935 to 1937, Kaganovich worked as Narkom (Minister) for the railways. Even before the start of the Great Purges, he organized the arrests of thousands of railway administrators and managers as supposed "saboteurs". From 1937 to 1939, Kaganovich served as Narkom for Heavy Industry. During 1939–1940, he served as Narkom for the Oil Industry. Each of his assignments was associated with arrests in order to improve discipline and compliance with Stalin's policies. In all Party conferences of the later 1930s, he made speeches demanding increased efforts in the search for and prosecution of "foreign spies" and "saboteurs". For his ruthlessness in the execution of Stalin's orders, he was nicknamed "Iron Lazar". During the period of the Great Terror starting in 1936 Kaganovich's signature appears on 188 out of 357 documented execution lists.[7]

Alexander Kosarev image and name in the caption painted over soon after he was dismissed from the position of the First Secretary of the Central Committee of Komsomol. It was a common practice in the public libraries of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to deface the enemies of the people.

One of many who perished during these years was Lazar's brother, Mikhail Kaganovich, who was People's Commissar
of the Aviation Industry. On 10 January 1940 Mikhail was demoted to director of aviation plant 124 in Kazan[citation needed]. In February 1941, during the 18th Conference of the Communist Party, Mikhail was warned that if the plant missed its quotas he would be eliminated from the Party[citation needed]. On 1 June 1941 Stalin mentioned to Lazar that he had heard that Mikhail was "associating with the right wing". Lazar reportedly did not speak in the defence of his brother to Stalin, but did notify him by telephone. The same day Mikhail committed suicide.[8] During World War II (known as the Great Patriotic War
Great Patriotic War
in the USSR), Kaganovich was Commissar
(Member of the Military Council) of the North Caucasian and Transcaucasian Fronts. During 1943–1944, he was again the Narkom for the railways. In 1943, he was presented with the title of Hero of Socialist Labour. From 1944 to 1947, Kaganovich was the Minister for Building Materials. In 1947, he became the First Secretary of the Ukrainian Communist Party. From 1948 to 1952, he served as the Chairman of Gossnab (State Committee for Material-Technical Supply, charged with the primary responsibility for the allocation of producer goods to enterprises, a critical state function in the absence of markets), and from 1952 to 1957, as the First Vice-Premier of the Council of Ministers. He was also the first Chairman of Goskomtrud (State Committee for Labour and Wages, charged with introducing the minimum wage, with other wage policy, and with improving the old-age pension system).[citation needed] Until 1957, Kaganovich was a voting member of the Politburo
as well as the Presidium. He was also an early mentor of the eventual First Secretary of the Communist Party Nikita Khrushchev, who first became important as Kaganovich's Moscow
City deputy during the 1930s. In 1947, when Khrushchev was dismissed as the Party secretary of Ukraine (he remained in the somewhat lesser "chief of government" position), Stalin dispatched Kaganovich to replace him until Khrushchev was reinstated later that year. Later life[edit] Kaganovich was a doctrinaire Stalinist, and though he remained a member of the Presidium, he quickly lost influence after Stalin's death in March 1953. In 1957, along with fellow devoted Stalinists as well as other opponents of Khrushchev, Vyacheslav Molotov, Dmitri Shepilov, and Georgy Malenkov
Georgy Malenkov
(the so-called Anti-Party Group), he participated in an abortive party coup against his former protégé Khrushchev, whose criticism of Stalin had become increasingly harsh during the preceding two years. As a result of the unsuccessful coup, Kaganovich was forced to retire from the Presidium and the Central Committee, and was given the job of director of a small potash works in the Urals.[9] In 1961, Kaganovich was completely expelled from the party and became a pensioner living in Moscow. His grandchildren reported that after his dismissal from the Central Committee, Kaganovich (who had a reputation for his temperamental and allegedly violent nature) never again shouted and became a devoted grandfather.[10] In 1984 his re-admission to the Party was considered by the Politburo, alongside that of Molotov.[11] At the time of Molotov's death in November 1986, he was refused access to his friend's funeral because of his severe state of dementia.[citation needed] Kaganovich survived to the age of 97, dying in 1991, just before the events that resulted in the end of the USSR. He is buried in the famed Novodevichy Cemetery
Novodevichy Cemetery
in Moscow. The Wolf of the Kremlin[edit] In 1987, American journalist Stuart Kahan published a book entitled The Wolf of the Kremlin: The First Biography of L.M. Kaganovich, the Soviet Union's Architect of Fear (William Morrow & Co). In the book, Kahan made a series of claims about Kaganovich's working relationship with Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
and his activities during the Ukrainian famine, and claimed to be Kaganovich's long-lost nephew. He also claimed to have interviewed Kaganovich personally and stated that Kaganovich admitted to being partially responsible for the death of Stalin in 1953 (supposedly by poisoning). A number of other unusual claims were made as well, including that Stalin was married to a sister of Kaganovich (supposedly named "Rosa") during the last year of his life and that Kaganovich (a Jew) was the architect of anti-Jewish pogroms.[12] After The Wolf of the Kremlin was translated into Russian by Progress Publishers, and a chapter from it printed in the Nedelya (Week) newspaper in 1991, remaining members of Kaganovich's family composed the Statement of the Kaganovich Family in response. The statement disputed all of Kahan's claims. Rosa Kaganovich, who the Statement of the Kaganovich Family says was fabricated, was referenced as Stalin's wife in the 1940s and 1950s by Western media including The New York Times, Time and Life.[13][14] Miscellanea[edit]

This section contains a list of miscellaneous information. Please relocate any relevant information into other sections or articles. (December 2016)

Kaganovich is responsible for the use of the "eggs and omelette" metaphor in reference to the Great Terror ( "Why wail over broken eggs when we are trying to make an omelette!" ), a usage commonly attributed to Stalin himself.[15] The expression was first used in 1742 in reference to a French Royalist counter-revolution.[16] According to Time magazine and some newspapers, Lazar Kaganovich's son Mikhail (named after Lazar's late brother) married Svetlana Dzhugashvili, daughter of Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
on 3 July 1951.[17] Svetlana in her memoirs denies even the existence of such a son.[18] Decorations and awards[edit]

Order of Lenin, four times Order of the Red Banner Hero of Socialist Labour
Hero of Socialist Labour
(5 November 1943)


^ Garthoff, Raymond L. (1994). The Great Transition: American-Soviet Relations and the End of the Cold War. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. p. 461, n30. ISBN 0-8157-3060-8.  ^ Compare: "Kaganovich, Lazar Moiseyevich". Jewish Virtual Library. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. 2013. Retrieved 2016-05-23. Born in Kiev
province, Kaganovich joined the Communist Party in 1911 [...]. [...] For a number of years he was the only Jew to occupy a top position in the Soviet leadership.  ^ Rees, Edward Afron. 1994. Stalinism
and Soviet Rail Transport, 1928–41. Birmingham: Palgrave Macmillan [1] ^ Lemkin, Raphael (2009). "Soviet Genocide
in the Ukraine
(reprint of 1951 article)". Holodomor: Reflections on the Great Famine of 1932–1933 in Soviet Ukraine. Kingston: Kashtan Press.  ^ Ukraine
court finds Bolsheviks guilty of Holodomor
genocide, RIA Novosti (13 January 2010) Yushchenko Praises Guilty Verdict Against Soviet Leaders For Famine, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
(14 January 2010) ^ The Kiev
Court of Appeals named the organizers of Holodomor. by Ya.Muzychenko (in Ukrainian) ^ "Сталинские списки". stalin.memo.ru.  ^ http://www.hrono.ru/biograf/kaganov_m.html citing K. A. Zalesskiy, Stalin's Empire ^ Sebag Montefiore, Simon (2004). The Court of the Red Tsar. Phoenix. "Postscript" ^ Sebag Montefiore, Simon (2004). The Court of the Red Tsar. Phoenix. p. 668 ^ editors (1 July 2016). "12 July 1984".  ^ Kahan, Stuart. The Wolf of the Kremlin: The First Biography of L.M. Kaganovich, the Soviet Union's Architect of Fear (William Morrow & Co, 1987) ^ See:

Life – July 14, 1941. p. 19: "A sister Rosa first lived with Stalin, then after the suicide of his second wife is supposed to have married Stalin" Life – March 29, 1943. p. 40: "His sister Rosa is supposedly married to Stalin"[2] Time – April 18, 1949: "Lazar Kaganovich, who is Stalin's brother-in-law" Time – July 23, 1951: "Lazar Kaganovich, long time politburo member and Stalin's brother-in-law" Life – March 16, 1953. p. 22: "Kaganovich, the brilliant and energetic Jew, Stalin's brother-in-law" Life – April 13, 1953. p. 168: "Kaganovich (a member of the Politburo
and brother of Stalin's third wife)" Time – September 7, 1953: " Lazar Kaganovich
Lazar Kaganovich
(Stalin's brother-in-law)" The New York Times
The New York Times
– November 22, 1953 Kaganovich Decorated: Malenkov's Regime Gives High Honor to Stalin's Brother-in-Law Time – February 7, 1955 – "Lazar M. Kaganovich, wartime commissar for transport, reputedly Stalin's brother-in-law" Youngstown Vindicator – March 7, 1953: "Rosa Kaganovich" Milwaukee Sentinel – June 11, 1960: "Rosa Kaganovich" The New York Times
The New York Times
– July 27, 1991: "Kaganovich's sister, Rosa"

^ Face of a Victim is the autobiography of Elizabeth Lermolo, a woman who fled Russia, arriving in the US in 1950. The book tells the story of the death of Stalin's second wife Nadezhda (Nadya) as witnessed by Natalia Trushina, who was employed as a housekeeper in Stalin's home, and who in 1937, Elizabeth Lermolo shared an NKVD prison cell with. Rosa (Roza) Kaganovich, with whom Stalin was having an affair, was whom Stalin and his wife were arguing about before she died. This book alleges Stalin struck Nadya a fatal blow with his revolver.[3][4] Robert Payne mentioned Rosa in a 1965 biography of Stalin, where he said: "At such parties he was always inclined to drink dangerously. Something said by Nadezhda – it may have been about another woman, Rosa Kaganovich, who was also present, or about the expropriations in the villages which were dooming the peasants to famine - reduced Stalin to a state of imbecile rage. In front of her friends he poured out a torrent of abuse and obscenity. He was a master of the art of cursing, with an astonishing range of vile phrases and that peculiarly." (The Rise and Fall of Stalin, p. 410)[5] Harford Montgomery Hyde also wrote about Rosa in his 1982 biography of Stalin: "However, it has been established that after the birth of their second child Svetlana, Stalin ceased to share his wife's bed and moved into a small bedroom beside the dining room of the Kremlin apartment. It has also been stated that, after the Georgian singer's departure for Afghanistan, the woman who was the chief cause of their difference was another dark-eyed beauty, the brunette Rosa Kaganovich, sister of the commissar Lazar, with whom Molotov had previously had an affair. At all events, by 1931 Nadya was thoroughly disillusioned with her husband and most unhappy." (Stalin: The History of a Dictator, p. 260)[6] ^ "RUSSIA: Stalin's Omelette" Time October 24, 1932 ^ Vuolo, Mike (2013-12-30). "Let's Resolve in the New Year to Stop Using That Expression About Breaking Eggs and Making Omelets". Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Retrieved 2016-03-23.  ^ "Social Notes" Time July 23, 1951 ^ Alliluyeva, Svetlana (1969). Only One Year. Harper & Row. p. 382. 

Further reading[edit]

Rees, E.A. Iron Lazar: A Political Biography of Lazar Kaganovich (Anthem Press; 2012) 373 pages; scholarly biography (in Russian) Collection of six Kaganovich bios at Khronos Radzinsky, Edvard, (1996) Stalin, Doubleday (English translation edition), 1996. ISBN 0-385-47954-9 Rubenstein, Joshua, The Last Days of Stalin, (Yale University Press: 2016)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lazar Kaganovich.

Profile at http://www.hrono.ru (in Russian)

Political offices

Preceded by Pavel Yudin position created Minister of Building Materials Industry 1956–1957 1946–1947 Succeeded by Ivan Grishmanov Semyon Ginzburg

Preceded by position created Chairman of State Committee on Labor and Salary 1955–1956 Succeeded by Aleksandr Volkov

Preceded by ? First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers 1953–1957 Succeeded by ?

Preceded by position created Chairman of State Committee on Materiel-Technical Supply for National Economy 1948–1952 Succeeded by Ivan Kabanov

Preceded by Andrei Khrulyov Aleksei Bakulin Andrei Andreyev People's Commissar
of Commuting Routes 1943–1944 1938–1942 1935–1937 Succeeded by Ivan Kovalyov Andrei Khrulyov Aleksei Bakulin

Preceded by ? Chairman of Council on Evacuation 1941–1941 Succeeded by ?

Preceded by position created People's Commissar
of Oil Industry 1939–1940 Succeeded by Ivan Sedin

Preceded by position created People's Commissar
of Fuel Industry 1939–1939 Succeeded by position liquidated

Preceded by Valeriy Mezhlauk People's Commissar
of Heavy Industry 1937–1939 Succeeded by position liquidated

Party political offices

Preceded by Nikita Khrushchev Emanuil Kviring 1st Secretary of the Communist Party of Ukraine 1947–1947 1925–1928 Succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev Stanislav Kosior

Preceded by ? 1st Secretary of the Communist Party of Moscow
City 1931–1934 Succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev

Preceded by Karl Bauman 1st Secretary of the Communist Party of Moscow
Oblast 1930–1935 Succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev

v t e

Premiers of the Soviet Union


Lenin (1923–1924) Rykov (1924–1930) Molotov (1930–1941) Stalin (1941–1953) Malenkov (1953–1955) Bulganin (1955–1958) Khrushchev (1958–1964) Kosygin (1964–1980) Tikhonov (1980–1985) Ryzhkov (1985–1991) Pavlov (Jan.–Aug. 1991) Silayev (Sep.–Dec. 1991)

First Deputies

Kuybyshev (1934–35) Voznesensky (1941–46) Molotov (1942–57) Bulganin (1950–55) Beria (Mar.–June 1953) Kaganovich (1953–57) Mikoyan (1955–64) Pervukhin (1955–57) Saburov (1955–57) Kuzmin (1957–58) Kozlov (1958–60) Kosygin (1960–64) Ustinov (1963–65) Mazurov (1965–78) Polyansky (1965–73) Tikhonov (1976–80) Arkhipov (1980–86) Aliyev (1982–87) Gromyko (1983–85) Talyzin (1985–88) Murakhovsky (1985–89) Maslyukov (1988–90) Voronin (1989–90) Niktin (1989–90) Velichko (Jan.–Nov. 1991) Doguzhiyev (Jan.–Nov. 1991)

First Deputy Premiers Deputy Premiers Prime Ministers of Russia

v t e

Leaders of Ukraine

Ukrainian People's Republic


Mykhailo Hrushevsky Volodymyr Vynnychenko Symon Petliura
Symon Petliura
(Holovnyi Otaman)

West Ukrainian People's Republic


Kost Levytsky Yevhen Petrushevych



Pavlo Skoropadskyi

Ukrainian People's Republic1


Andriy Livytskyi Stepan Vytvytskyi Mykola Livytskyi Mykola Plaviuk

Ukrainian National Council2


Kost Levytsky

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic3


Georgy Pyatakov Stanislav Kosior Dmitry Manuilsky Emmanuil Kviring Lazar Kaganovich Stanislav Kosior Nikita Khrushchev Lazar Kaganovich Nikita Khrushchev Leonid Melnikov Alexei Kirichenko Nikolai Podgorny Petro Shelest Volodymyr Shcherbytsky Volodymyr Ivashko Stanislav Hurenko


(since 1991)

Leonid Kravchuk Leonid Kuchma Viktor Yushchenko Viktor Yanukovych Oleksandr Turchynov
Oleksandr Turchynov
(Acting) Petro Poroshenko

1Presidents of the Ukrainian People's Republic
Ukrainian People's Republic
in exile.   2 Chairman of the Ukrainian National Council.   3First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.

v t e

Government of Ukrainian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
before 1938

Chairman of VUTsVK

Yefim Medvedev Vladimir Zatonskiy Grigory Petrovsky

First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Ukrainian SSR
Ukrainian SSR

Georgy Pyatakov Serafima Hopner Emmanuil Kviring Stanislav Kosior Rafail Farbman Nikolai Nikolayev Vyacheslav Molotov Feliks Kon Dmitry Manuilsky Lazar Kaganovich Nikita Khrushchev

People's Secretariat / Sovnarkom

Evgenia Bosh Nikolai Skripnik Georgy Pyatakov Fyodor Sergeyev Christian Rakovsky Vlas Chubar Panas Lyubchenko Mikhail Bondarenko Demian Korotchenko

International Representatives (until 1923)

Yuriy Kotsiubynsky
Yuriy Kotsiubynsky
(Austria) Waldemar Aussem (Germany) Mikhail Levitskiy (Czechoslovakia) Mikhail Frunze
Mikhail Frunze
(Turkey) Mieczislaw Loganowski/Oleksandr Shumsky (Poland) Yevgeniy Terletskiy (Baltics)

v t e

Communism in Ukraine

Political parties and organizations


Communist Party of Ukraine All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets Ukrainian Communist Party (1920–1925) Ukrainian Communist Party (Borotbists) (1918–1920) Jewish Communist Party (Poalei Zion) Ukrainian Communist Union (Bund) Borbysts Communist Party of Western Ukraine Ukrainian Peasants-Workers Socialist Association (''Sel-Rob'') Group of Ukrainian Communists Abroad


Communist Party of Ukraine Socialist Party of Ukraine Peasant Party of Ukraine Communist Party of Ukraine
(renewed) Communist Party of Workers and Peasants Workers Party of Ukraine
(Marxist–Leninist) Communist Party of Ukraine
(renewed) Progressive Socialist Party of Ukraine

Statesmen and revolutionaries

CPU leaders

Georgy Pyatakov
Georgy Pyatakov
(1918) Serafima Gopner (1918) Emanuil Kviring
Emanuil Kviring
(1918–1919) Georgy Pyatakov
Georgy Pyatakov
(1919) Stanislav Kosior
Stanislav Kosior
(1919) Nikolay Bestchetvertnoi (1920) Vyacheslav Molotov
Vyacheslav Molotov
(1920–1921) Dmitry Manuilsky
Dmitry Manuilsky
(1921–1923) Emanuil Kviring
Emanuil Kviring
(1923–1925) Lazar Kaganovich
Lazar Kaganovich
(1925–1928) Stanislav Kosior
Stanislav Kosior
(1928–1938) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1938–1947) Lazar Kaganovich
Lazar Kaganovich
(1947) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1947–1949) Leonid Melnikov (1949–1953) Aleksey Kirichenko (1953–1957) Nikolay Podgorny
Nikolay Podgorny
(1957–1963) Petr Shelest (1963–1972) Vladimir Shcherbitsky
Vladimir Shcherbitsky
(1972–1989) Vladimir Ivashko
Vladimir Ivashko
(1989–1990) Stanislav Gurenko (1990–1991)

UKP leaders

Antin Drahomyretsky (1920–????)


Volodymyr Vynnychenko Volodymyr Zatonsky Yuri Gaven Nikifor Grigoriev Bela Kun Oleksandr Shumsky Fyodor Sergeyev Yuri Kotsyubynsky Yevgenia Bosch Vasiliy Averin Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko Andriy Richytsky Georgy Lapchynsky Grigory Kotovsky Mykola Skrypnyk Nikolay Shchors Yevhen Neronovych Kliment Voroshilov Vladimir Kachinsky Yan Hamarnik Moisei Rafes Abraham Revutsky Isaak Shvarts Hryhoriy Hrynko Vasyl Ellan-Blakytny Yukhym Medvedev Vlas Chubar Christian Rakovsky Grigory Petrovsky Demyan Korotchenko Leonid Korniyets Oleksandr Liashko Valentyna Shevchenko Vitaly Masol Vitold Fokin

Post Soviet leaders

Communist Party of Ukraine: Petro Symonenko
Petro Symonenko
(1993– ) Socialist Party of Ukraine: Oleksandr Moroz (1992–2012), Petro Ustenko (2012– ) Progressive Socialist Party of Ukraine: Natalia Vitrenko
Natalia Vitrenko
(1996– )

History and main subjects

Uprising Ekaterinoslav Bolshevik
Uprising Kiev
Arsenal January Uprising Odessa Bolshevik
Uprising Rumcherod All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Donetsk-Krivoi Rog Soviet Republic Odessa Soviet Republic Red Cossacks Mishka Yaponchik Ukrainian–Soviet War Polish–Soviet War Armed Forces of South Russia Peace of Riga Galician Soviet Socialist Republic 1954 transfer of Crimea



Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 32053663 LCCN: n84087111 ISNI: 0000 0001 0884 9349 GND: 118990306 SELIBR: 241966 SUDOC: 031274625 BNF: cb122521415 (data) ULAN: 500283331 B