Lawrence Monsanto Ferlinghetti (born March 24, 1919) is an American
poet, painter, socialist activist, and the co-founder of City Lights
Booksellers & Publishers. Author of poetry, translations, fiction,
theatre, art criticism, and film narration, he is best known for A
Coney Island of the Mind (1958), a collection of poems that has been
translated into nine languages, with sales of more than one million
1 Early life
2 World War II
Columbia University and The Sorbonne
San Francisco – City Lights Books
6 Beat writers
8 Political engagement
Jack Kerouac Alley
12 In popular culture
16 Further reading
17 External links
Lawrence Ferlinghetti was born on March 24, 1919, in Yonkers, New
York. He attended the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill,
where he earned a B.A. in journalism in 1941. His entry to the world
of journalism was writing sports for The Daily Tar Heel, and he
published his first short stories in Carolina Magazine, for which
Thomas Wolfe had written.
World War II
In the summer of 1941, he lived with two college mates on Little Whale
Boat Island in Casco Bay, Maine, lobster fishing and raking moss from
rocks to be sold in Portland for pharmaceutical use. This experience
gave him a love of the sea, a theme that runs through much of his
poetry. After the December 7, 1941, Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor,
Ferlinghetti enrolled in midshipmen’s school in Chicago, and in 1942
shipped out as junior officer on J. P. Morgan III's yacht, which had
been refitted to patrol for submarines off the East Coast.
Next, Ferlinghetti was assigned to the Ambrose Lightship outside New
York harbor, to identify all incoming ships. In 1943 and 1944, he
served as an officer on three U.S. Navy subchasers used as convoy
escorts. As commander of the submarine chaser USS SC1308, he was at
Normandy invasion as part of the anti-submarine screen around the
beaches. After VE Day, the Navy transferred him to the Pacific
Theater, where he served as navigator of the troop ship
USS Selinur. Six weeks after the atomic bomb fell on Nagasaki, he
visited the ruins of the city, an experience that turned him into a
Columbia University and The Sorbonne
After the war, he worked briefly in the mailroom at Time magazine in
G.I. Bill then enabled him to enroll in the graduate
school of Columbia University. Among his professors there were Babette
Deutsch, Lionel Trilling, Jacques Barzun, and Mark Van Doren.
In those years he was reading modern literature, and has said that at
that time, he was influenced particularly by Shakespeare, Marlowe, the
Romantic poets, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and James Joyce, as well as
American poets Whitman, T. S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, Carl Sandburg, Vachel
Lindsay, Marianne Moore, E. E. Cummings, and American novelists Thomas
Wolfe, Ernest Hemingway, and John Dos Passos. He earned a master's
degree in English literature in 1947 with a thesis on
John Ruskin and
the British painter J. M. W. Turner. From Columbia, he went to Paris
to continue his studies and lived in the city between 1947 and 1951,
earning a Doctorat de l’Université de Paris, with a "mention très
honorable." His two theses were on the city as a symbol in modern
poetry and on the nature of Gothic.
He met his future wife, Selden Kirby-Smith, granddaughter of Edmund
Kirby-Smith, in 1946 aboard a ship en route to France. They both were
Paris to study at the Sorbonne. Kirby-Smith went by the
San Francisco – City Lights Books
After marrying in 1951 in Duval County, Florida, they settled in San
Francisco in 1953, where he taught French in an adult education
program, painted, and wrote art criticism. His first translations, of
poems by the French surrealist Jacques Prévert, were published by
Peter D. Martin in his popular culture magazine City Lights.
In 1953 Ferlinghetti and Martin founded City Lights Bookstore, the
first all-paperbound bookshop in the country. Two years later, after
the departure of Martin, Ferlinghetti launched the publishing wing of
City Lights with his own first book of poems, Pictures of the Gone
World, the first number in the Pocket Poets Series. This volume was
followed by books by Kenneth Rexroth, Kenneth Patchen, Marie Ponsot,
Allen Ginsberg, Bob Kaufman, Denise Levertov, Robert Duncan, William
Carlos Williams, and Gregory Corso. Although City Lights Publishers is
best known for its publication of
Beat Generation writers,
Ferlinghetti never intended to publish the Beats exclusively, and the
press has always maintained a strong international list.
City Lights Publishers expanded its list from poetry to include prose,
including novels, biography, memoirs, essays, and cultural studies. In
1972, City Lights published a collection of short stories by Charles
Bukowski, Erections, Ejaculations, Exhibitions, and General Tales of
Ordinary Madness (since republished in two volumes, Tales of Ordinary
Madness and The Most Beautiful Woman in Town). Subsequently, it took
over publication of Bukowski's collection of "Notes of a Dirty Old
Man" columns for Open City from the pornography publisher Essex House
in the early 1970s. Since then, it has published a sequel to Notes and
a book of ephemera by Bukowski.
Other prose works include Neal Cassady's memoir The First Third, Edie
Kerouac-Parker's memoir of her life with Jack Kerouac, and William S.
The Yage Letters
The Yage Letters to Allen Ginsberg, and other ephemera. It
has also published political books by prominent authors, including
Noam Chomsky, Tom Hayden, and Howard Zinn. Books published in
translation include such authors as Georges Bataille, Bertolt Brecht,
and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
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Lawrence Ferlinghetti at the
Grolier Poetry Bookshop
Grolier Poetry Bookshop in Harvard Square
in 1965 with Gordon Cairnie, the owner of the store at the time,
photograph by Elsa Dorfman
The fourth number in the Pocket Poets Series was Allen Ginsberg’s
Howl. Ferlinghetti was in attendance at the now-famous Six Gallery
reading where Ginsberg first performed
Howl publicly. The next day
Ferlinghetti wired Ginsberg: "I greet you at the beginning of a great
literary career," subsequently offering to publish his work.
The book was seized in 1956 by the
San Francisco police. Ferlinghetti
and Shig Murao, the bookstore manager who had sold the book to the
police, were arrested on obscenity charges. After charges against
Murao were dropped, Ferlinghetti, defended by
Jake Ehrlich and the
American Civil Liberties Union, stood trial in
San Francisco Municipal
court. The publicity generated by the trial drew national attention to
San Francisco Renaissance and Beat movement writers.
Ferlinghetti had the support of prestigious literary and academic
figures, and, at the end of a long trial, Judge Clayton W. Horn found
Howl not obscene, and acquitted him in October 1957. The landmark
First Amendment case established a key legal precedent for the
publication of other controversial literary work with redeeming social
In 2010, Andrew Rogers portrayed Ferlinghetti in the film Howl.
Although in style and theme Ferlinghetti’s own writing is very
unlike that of the original New York Beat circle, he had important
associations with the Beat writers, who made City Lights Bookstore
their headquarters when they were in San Francisco. He often has
claimed that he was not a Beat, but a bohemian of an earlier
generation. A married war veteran and a bookstore proprietor, he did
not share the high (or low) life of the Beats on the road. Jack
Kerouac wrote Ferlinghetti into the character “Lorenzo Monsanto”
in his autobiographical novel,
Big Sur (1962), the story of
Kerouac’s stay (with the Cassadys, the McClures, Lenore Kandel, Lew
Welch, and Philip Whalen) at Ferlinghetti’s cabin in the wild
coastal region of Big Sur. Kerouac depicts the Ferlinghetti figure as
a generous and good-humored host, in the midst of Dionysian revels and
Over the years Ferlinghetti published work by many of the Beats,
including Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, Gregory Corso, William S.
Burroughs, Diane diPrima, Michael McClure, Philip Lamantia, Bob
Kaufman, and Gary Snyder. He was Ginsberg’s publisher for more than
thirty years. When the Indian poets of the
movement were arrested in 1964 at Kolkata, Ferlinghetti introduced the
Hungryalist poets to Western readers through the initial issues of
City Lights Journal.
A sample of Ferlinghetti's work at San Francisco's
Jack Kerouac Alley,
which is adjacent to the City Lights Bookstore
If you would be a poet, create works capable of answering the
apocalyptic times, even if this meaning sounds apocalyptic.
You are Whitman, you are Poe, you are Mark Twain, you are Emily
Dickinson and Edna St. Vincent Millay, you are Neruda and Mayakovsky
and Pasolini, you are an American or a non-American, you can conquer
the conquerors with words....
— Lawrence Ferlinghetti. From Poetry as Insurgent Art [I am
signaling you through the flames].
Ferlinghetti takes a distinctly populist approach to poetry,
emphasizing throughout his work "that art should be accessible to all
people, not just a handful of highly educated intellectuals." This
perception of art as a broad sociocultural force, as opposed to an
elitist academic enterprise, is explicitly evident in Poem 9 from
Pictures of the Gone World, wherein the speaker states: “‘Truth is
not the secret of a few’ / yet / you would maybe think so / the way
some / librarians / and cultural ambassadors and / especially museum
directors / act” (1–8). In addition to Ferlinghetti’s aesthetic
egalitarianism, this passage highlights two additional formal features
of the poet’s work, namely, his incorporation of a common American
idiom as well as his experimental approach to line arrangement which,
as Crale Hopkins notes, is inherited from the poetry of William Carlos
Reflecting his broad aesthetic concerns, Ferlinghetti’s poetry often
engages with several non-literary artistic forms, most notably jazz
music and painting. Considering the former, as William Lawlor asserts,
much of Ferlinghetti’s free verse attempts to capture the
spontaneity and imaginative creativity of modern jazz; the poet is
also notable for frequently incorporating jazz accompaniments into
public readings of his work. The significance of painting to
Ferlinghetti’s verse is evidenced by the fact that many his poems
engage in ekphrasis, with a notable example of this being found in the
poem, “In Goya’s Greatest Scenes We Seem to See…”. Here,
Ferlinghetti offers a poetic engagement with the paintings of renowned
Spanish artist Francisco Goya, relating the suffering of the
painter’s figures who, “writhe upon the page / in a veritable rage
/ of adversity” (6–8), to the existential plight of modern
Americans trapped in a monstrously materialistic society.
Although imbued with the commonplace, Ferlinghetti’s poetry is
grounded in lyric and narrative traditions. Among his themes are the
beauty of natural world, the tragicomic life of the common human, the
plight of the individual in mass society, and the dream and betrayal
of democracy. He counts among his influences T. S. Eliot, Ezra Pound,
e. e. cummings, H.D., Marcel Proust, Charles Baudelaire, Jacques
Prévert, Guillaume Apollinaire, and Blaise Cendrars. One of his
poems, 'Two Scavengers in a Truck, Two Beautiful People in a
Mercedes', is now a poem studied at GCSE level in England and Wales,
as part of the collection of poems in the AQA Anthology. His famous
poem "Just As I Used to Say', was published in 1976, when Ferlinghetti
was aged 57.
Soon after settling in
San Francisco in 1950, Ferlinghetti met the
poet Kenneth Rexroth, whose concepts of philosophical anarchism
influenced his political development. He self-identifies as a
philosophical anarchist, regularly associated with other anarchists in
North Beach, and he sold Italian anarchist newspapers at the City
Lights Bookstore. A critic of U.S. foreign policy, Ferlinghetti
has taken a stand against totalitarianism and war.
While Ferlinghetti has expressed that he is "an anarchist at heart,"
he concedes that the world would need to be populated by "saints" in
order for pure anarchism to be lived practically. Hence he espouses
what can be achieved by Scandinavian-style democratic socialism.
Ferlinghetti's work challenges the definition of art and the
artist’s role in the world. He urged poets to be engaged in the
political and cultural life of the country. As he writes in Populist
Manifesto: "Poets, come out of your closets, Open your windows, open
your doors, You have been holed up too long in your closed worlds...
Poetry should transport the public/to higher places/than other wheels
can carry it..."
On January 14, 1967, he was a featured presenter at the Gathering of
the tribes "Human Be-In," which drew tens of thousands of people and
launched San Francisco's "Summer of Love." In 1968, he signed the
“Writers and Editors War Tax Protest” pledge, vowing to refuse tax
payments in protest against the Vietnam War.
Ferlinghetti was instrumental in bringing poetry out of the academy
and back into the public sphere with public poetry readings. With
Ginsberg and other progressive writers, he took part in events that
focused on such political issues as the Cuban revolution, the nuclear
arms race, farm-worker organizing, the murder of Salvador Allende, the
Vietnam War, May ’68 in Paris, the
Sandinistas in Nicaragua, and the
Zapatista Army of National Liberation
Zapatista Army of National Liberation in Mexico. He read not only to
audiences in the United States, but widely in Europe and Latin
America. Many of his writings grew from travels in France, Italy, the
Soviet Union, Cuba, Mexico, Chile, Nicaragua, and the Czech
In 1998, in his inaugural address as
Poet Laureate of San Francisco,
Ferlinghetti urged San Franciscans to vote to remove a portion of the
Central Freeway and replace it with a boulevard.
"What destroys the poetry of a city? Automobiles destroy it, and they
destroy more than the poetry. All over America, all over Europe in
fact, cities and towns are under assault by the automobile, are being
literally destroyed by car culture. But cities are gradually learning
that they don't have to let it happen to them. Witness our beautiful
new Embarcadero! And in
San Francisco right now we have another chance
to stop Autogeddon from happening here. Just a few blocks from here,
Central Freeway can be brought down for good if you vote for
Proposition E on the November ballot." n G
In March 2012 he added his support to the movement to save the Gold
Dust Lounge, a historic Gold Rush-era bar in San Francisco, which lost
its lease in Union Square.
Ferlinghetti began painting while in
Paris in 1948. In San Francisco,
he occupied a studio at 9 Mission Street on the Embarcadero in the
1950s that he inherited from Hassel Smith, and subsequently passed on
to the artist Howard Hack. He admired the New York abstract
expressionists, and his first work exhibits their influence. A more
figurative style is apparent in his later work. Ferlinghetti’s
paintings have been shown at various museums around the world, from
solo shows at the Butler Institute of American Art to Il Palazzo
delle Esposizioni in Rome. Other solo exhibitions include Sonoma
Valley Museum of Art in 2012, and Marin Museum of Contemporary Art in
2014. He has been associated with the international
through the Archivio Francesco Conz in Verona. Ferlinghetti's artwork
is represented by Rena Bransten Gallery in San Francisco, and was
previously shown for many years at George Krevsky Gallery.[citation
In 2009 Ferlinghetti became a member of the Honour Committee of the
Italian artistic literary movement IMMAGINE&POESIA, founded under
the patronage of Aeronwy Thomas. A retrospective of Ferlinghetti's
artwork, 60 years of painting, was staged in
Rome and Reggio Calabria
Jack Kerouac Alley
In 1987 he was the initiator of the transformation of Jack Kerouac
Alley, located at the side of his shop. He presented his idea to the
San Francisco Board of Supervisors calling for repavement and
Career Award Plaque conferred on 28 October 2017 at the Premio di Arti
Letterarie Metropoli di Torino, Italy
He has received numerous awards, including the Los Angeles Times’
Robert Kirsch Award, the BABRA Award for Lifetime Achievement, the
National Book Critics Circle
National Book Critics Circle Ivan Sandrof Award for Contribution to
American Arts and Letters, and the ACLU
Earl Warren Civil Liberties
Award. He won the Premio Taormina in 1973, and since then has been
awarded the Premio Camaiore, the Premio Flaiano, the Premio Cavour,
among other honors in Italy. The Career Award was conferred on 28
October 2017 at the XIV edition of the Premio di Arti Letterarie
Metropoli di Torino in Turin.
Ferlinghetti was named San Francisco’s
Poet Laureate in August 1998
and served for two years. In 2003 he was awarded the Robert Frost
Memorial Medal, the Author’s Guild Lifetime Achievement Award, and
he was elected to the
American Academy of Arts and Letters
American Academy of Arts and Letters in 2003.
National Book Foundation honored him with the inaugural Literarian
Award (2005), given for outstanding service to the American literary
community. In 2007 he was named Commandeur, French Order of Arts and
Letters. In 2012, Ferlinghetti received the Douglas MacAgy
Distinguished Achievement Award from the
San Francisco Art
In 2012 Ferlinghetti was awarded the inaugural Janus Pannonius
International Poetry Prize from the Hungarian PEN Club. After learning
that the government of Hungary under Prime Minister
Viktor Orbán is a
partial sponsor of the €50,000 prize, he declined to accept the
award. In declining, Ferlinghetti cited his opposition to the "right
wing regime" of Prime Minister Orban, and his opinion that the ruling
Hungarian government under Mr. Orban is curtailing civil liberties and
freedom of speech for the people of Hungary.
In popular culture
The Italian band
Timoria dedicated the song "Ferlinghetti Blues" (from
the album El Topo Grand Hotel) to the poet, where Ferlinghetti recites
one of his poems. Recordings of Ferlinghetti reading want ads, as
featured on radio station
KPFA in 1957, were recorded by Henry Jacobs
and are featured on the
Meat Beat Manifesto
Meat Beat Manifesto album 'At the Center'.
Ferlinghetti gave Canadian punk band
Propagandhi permission to use his
painting The Unfinished Flag of the United States, which features a
map of the world painted in the stars and stripes, as the cover of
their 2001 release Today's Empires, Tomorrow's Ashes. Before this, the
same painting was used for the cover of Michael Parenti's 1995 book,
Against Empire, which was published by City Lights.
Ferlinghetti recited the poem Loud Prayer at The Band's final
performance. Entitled The Last Waltz, this concert was filmed by
Martin Scorsese and released as a documentary which included
Ferlinghetti's recitation. Julio Cortázar, in his
(1963) references a poem by Ferlinghetti in Chapter 121. He appears as
himself in the 2006 comedy film The Darwin Awards.
Bob Dylan used
Ferlinghetti's "Baseball Canto" on the Baseball show of Theme Time
Radio Hour. Roger McGuinn, the former leader of the Byrds, referred to
Ferlinghetti and "A Coney Island of the Mind" in his song "Russian
Hill", from his 1977 album Thunderbyrd.
Cyndi Lauper was inspired by A
Coney Island of the Mind to write the song "Into the Nightlife" for
her 2008 album Bring Ya to the Brink. Seamus McNally's 2007 filmed
adaptation of Jacques Prévert's "To Paint the Portrait of a Bird"
uses Ferlinghetti's English translation as its narrative text. The
Residents mention Ferlinghetti in the lyrics of their song "Sinister
Exaggerator" (from the EP "Duck Stab").
The Blue Devils Drum and Bugle Corps's 2008 marching show was entitled
"Constantly Risking Absurdity", with movements entitled after various
lines in Ferlinghetti's poem. The corps took second place at the Drum
Corps International Finals. Aztec Two-Step is an American folk-rock
band formed by Rex Fowler and Neal Shulman at a chance meeting on open
stage at a Boston coffee house, the Stone Phoenix, in 1971. The band
was named after a line from the poem "A Coney Island of the Mind" by
Bristol Sound band Unforscene used Ferlinghetti's poem
"Pictures of the Gone World 11" (or "The World is a Beautiful
Place...") in the song "The World Is" on its 2002 album New World
In 2011 Ferlinghetti contributed two of his poems to the celebration
of the 150th Anniversary of Italian unification: Song of the Third
World War and Old Italians Dying inspired the artists of the
Lawrence Ferlinghetti and
Italy 150 held in Turin, Italy
Christopher Felver made the 2013 documentary on Ferlinghetti, Lawrence
Ferlinghetti: A Rebirth of Wonder.
Library resources about
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
By Lawrence Ferlinghetti
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
Pictures of the Gone World (City Lights, 1955) Poetry (enlarged, 1995)
A Coney Island of the Mind
A Coney Island of the Mind ( New Directions, 1958) Poetry
Tentative Description of a Dinner Given to Promote the Impeachment of
President Eisenhower (Golden Mountain Press, 1958) Broadside poem
Her (New Directions, 1960) Prose
One Thousand Fearful Words for Fidel Castro (City Lights, 1961)
San Francisco (New Directions, 1961) Poetry (HC edition
includes LP of author reading selections)
Journal for the Protection of All Beings (City Lights, 1961) Journal
Unfair Arguments with Existence (New Directions, 1963) Short Plays
Where is VietNam? (Golden Mountain Press, 1963) Broadside poem
Routines (New Directions, 1964) 12 Short Plays
Two Scavengers in a Truck, Two Beautiful People in a Mercedes (1968)
On the Barracks: Journal for the Protection of All Beings 2 (City
Lights, 1968) Journal
Tyrannus Nix? (New Directions, 1969) Poetry
The Secret Meaning of Things (New Directions, 1970) Poetry
The Mexican Night (New Directions, 1970) Travel journal
Back Roads to Far Towns After Basho (City Lights, 1970) Poetry
Love Is No Stone on the Moon (ARIF, 1971) Poetry
Open Eye, Open Heart (New Directions, 1973) Poetry
Who Are We Now? (New Directions, 1976) Poetry
Northwest Ecolog (City Lights, 1978) Poetry
Landscapes of Living and Dying (1980) ISBN 0-8112-0743-9
Over All the Obscene Boundaries (1986)
Love in the Days of Rage (E. P. Dutton, 1988; City Lights, 2001) Novel
A Buddha in the Woodpile (Atelier Puccini, 1993)
These Are My Rivers: New & Selected Poems, 1955–1993 (New
Directions, 1993) ISBN 0-8112-1252-1
City Lights Pocket Poets Anthology (City Lights, 1995)
A Far Rockaway Of The Heart (New Directions, 1998)
How to Paint Sunlight: Lyrics Poems & Others, 1997–2000 (New
Directions, 2001) ISBN 0-8112-1463-X
San Francisco Poems (City Lights Foundation, 2001) Poetry
Life Studies, Life Stories (City Lights, 2003)
Americus: Part I (New Directions, 2004)
A Coney Island of the Mind
A Coney Island of the Mind (Arion Press, 2005), with portraiture by
Poetry as Insurgent Art (New Directions, 2007) Poetry
A Coney Island of the Mind:
Special 50th Anniversary Edition with a CD
of the author reading his work (New Directions, 2008)
50 Poems by
Lawrence Ferlinghetti 50 Images by Armando Milani (
Rudiano, 2010) Poetry and Graphics ISBN 978-88-89044-65-0
Time of Useful Consciousness, (Americus, Book II) (New Directions,
2012) ISBN 978-0-8112-2031-6, 88p.
City Lights Pocket Poets Anthology: 60th Anniversary Edition (City
I Greet You At The Beginning Of A Great Career: The Selected
Lawrence Ferlinghetti and Allen Ginsberg
1955–1997. (City Lights, 2015)
Pictures of the Gone World: 60th Anniversary Edition (City Lights,
Kerouac: Kicks Joy Darkness (Track #8 "Dream: On A Sunny Afternoon..."
with Helium) (1997) Rykodisc
Poetry Readings in the Cellar (with the Cellar Jazz Quintet): Kenneth
Lawrence Ferlinghetti (1957) Fantasy Records #7002 LP,
Ferlinghetti: The Impeachment of Eisenhower (1958) Fantasy Records
#7004 LP, (Spoken Word)
Ferlinghetti: Tyrannus Nix? / Assassination Raga /
Big Sur Sun Sutra /
Moscow in the Wilderness (1970) Fantasy Records #7014 LP, (Spoken
A Coney Island of the Mind
A Coney Island of the Mind (1999) Rykodisc
Pictures of the Gone World with
David Amram (2005) Synergy
^ a b "
Lawrence Ferlinghetti Biography". Notablebiographies.com.
^ Mark Howell (2007-09-30). "About The Beats: The Key West Interview:
Lawrence Ferlinghetti, 1994". Abouthebeats.blogspot.com. Retrieved
^ "Academic.Brooklyn". Lawrence Ferlinghetti's italianita. Retrieved
October 30, 2006.
^ Zinser, Lynn (January 20, 2012). "
Lawrence Ferlinghetti Revives His
Love of the 49ers at 92". The New York Times.
^ a b Julian Guthrie (2012-09-24). "Lawrence Ferlinghetti's indelible
image". SFGate. Retrieved 2014-02-18.
Howl 2010 Film on IMDb
^ "Lawrence Ferlinghetti". Poetry Foundation. Poetry Foundation.
Retrieved 4 November 2016.
^ Hopkins, Crale (1974). "The Poetry of Lawrence Ferlinghetti: A
Reconsideration". Italian Americana. 1 (1): 59–76. Retrieved 4
^ Lawlor, William (2005). Beat Culture: Lifestyles, Icons, and Impact.
Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. pp. 34–37. ISBN 9781851094059.
Retrieved 4 November 2016.
^ Kelly, Kevin (Winter 1988). "
Lawrence Ferlinghetti – interview".
Whole Earth Review (61). Archived from the original on
2009-06-28. "I'm in the anarchist tradition. By "anarchist" I
don't mean someone with a homemade bomb in his pocket. I mean
philosophical anarchism in the tradition of Herbert Reed in England."
^ Felver, Christopher. 1996 The Coney Island of Lawrence Ferlinghetti.
San Francisco: Mystic Fire Video [documentary film]
^ “Writers and Editors War Tax Protest” January 30, 1968 New York
^ "Poetry and City Culture". Address at the
San Francisco Public
Library, October 13th 1998. Accessed February 19, 2016. 
^ Lawrence Ferlinghetti: 60 years of painting, edited by Giada Diano
and Elisa Polimeni, Silvana Editoriale, Cinisello Balsamo (MI), 2009
^ Nolte, Carl (March 30, 2007). "Kerouac Alley has face-lift". San
Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved November 18, 2007.
^ "Arte Città Amica". Arte Città Amica. Retrieved November 10,
^ Christopher Young (October 12, 2012). "Beat this: Lawrence
Ferlinghetti refuses Hungarian cash award". New York Daily News.
Retrieved October 15, 2012.
^ Carolyn Kellogg (October 11, 2012). "
Lawrence Ferlinghetti declines
Hungarian award over human rights". LA Times. Retrieved October 15,
^ Ron Friedman and AP (October 13, 2012). "Following Elie Wiesel's
Poet Rejects Hungarian Award". The Times of Israel. Archived
from the original on July 5, 2015. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
^ Harriet Staff (October 11, 2012). "
Lawrence Ferlinghetti Declines
Euro Prize from Hungarian PEN Club". Poetry Foundation.
Retrieved October 15, 2012.
^ "Evento Ferlinghetti: La poesia incontra l'arte" (PDF). LA STAMPA.
Arte Citta' Amica. 2001-06-03. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
^ "A Beat-Generation Star Who Won't Answer to the Name". New York
Times. Feb 7, 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
Ann Charters (ed.), The Portable Beat Reader. Penguin Books. New York.
Neeli Cherkovski, Ferlinghetti: A Biography. New York: Doubleday,
Ronald Collins and David Skover, Mania: The Story of the Outraged
& Outrageous Lives that Launched a Cultural Revolution. Top-Five
Bill Morgan (ed.), I Greet You at the Beginning of a Great Career: The
Selected Correspondence of
Lawrence Ferlinghetti and Allen Ginsberg,
1955–1997. San Francisco: City Lights Publishers, 2015.
Lawrence Ferlinghetti – Italian Tour 2005.
(Nicolodi, 2006 – special edition, not for sale)
Barry Silesky, Ferlinghetti: The Artist in His Time. New York: Warner
Michael Skau, Constantly Risking Absurdity: The Writings of Lawrence
Ferlinghetti. Whitson, 1989.
Larry R. Smith, Lawrence Ferlinghetti: Poet-at-Large. Carbondale, IL:
Southern Illinois University Press, 1983.
Matt Theado, The Beats: A Literary Reference. New York: Carroll &
Find more aboutLawrence Ferlinghettiat's sister projects
Media from Wikimedia Commons
Quotations from Wikiquote
Guide to the
Lawrence Ferlinghetti Papers at The Bancroft Library
Guide to the photographs from the
Lawrence Ferlinghetti papers, ca.
1935-ca. 1990 at The Bancroft Library
Works by or about
Lawrence Ferlinghetti in libraries (WorldCat
Lawrence Ferlinghetti at The Soredove Press Limited Edition Poetry
Chapbooks, Broadsides and Art
Lawrence Ferlinghetti at The Beat Page Biography and Selected Poems.
Lawrence Ferlinghetti at Literary Kicks
Lawrence Ferlinghetti at American Poetry
Kerouac Alley –
Lawrence Ferlinghetti multimedia directory
Amy Goodman Interview (Transcript and streaming media)
Audio and video of reading at University of California Berkeley "Lunch
Poems" series (December 1, 2005)
Video interview with
Lawrence Ferlinghetti about his paintings on
Proposed International Poetry Museum by Ferlinghetti friend Herman
Project with Immagine & Poesia for
Lawrence Ferlinghetti on IMDb
Lawrence Ferlinghetti in the Honour Committee of Immagine & Poesia
Interview Magazine, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, by Christopher Bollen, May
1978 audio interview,
Lawrence Ferlinghetti with Stephen Banker
Translated Penguin Book – at Penguin First Editions reference site
of early first edition Penguin Books.
Poets in The New American Poetry 1945–1960
Poets Laureate of San Francisco
Lawrence Ferlinghetti (1998-2000)
Janice Mirikitani (2000-2002)
Devorah Major (2002-2004)
Jack Hirschman (2006-2008)
Diane di Prima
Diane di Prima (2009-2011)
Alejandro Murguía (2012- )
ISNI: 0000 0001 1978 478X
BNF: cb11966493g (data)