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Latvian Auxiliary Police was a paramilitary force created from Latvian volunteers by the Nazi German authorities who occupied the country in June 1941. Composed of local fascists, rightist members of the former military and police, and nationalist students, the organization participated in the Holocaust, looting and killing the local Jewish population. One of its units, the Arajs Kommando, was notorious for killing 26,000 civilians during the war, mostly Jews, but also Communists and Romas.[1]

Contents

1 Formation of units 2 Organization 3 See also 4 References

4.1 Citations 4.2 Bibliography

Formation of units[edit] The auxiliary police force consisted primarily individuals of police, army, and militia organizations which had been disbanded upon the prior Soviet occupation. Within the first week of the German occupation, the leader of Einsatzgruppe A Franz Walter Stahlecker tasked Lt. Colonel Voldemārs Veiss with organising a police force to operate under the command of the SS.[2] The first Latvian Schutzmannschaft (Police) Battalions were formed, most to serve as combat units, some to carry out raids against partisans and to discharge ghetto guard duties.[3] One of the earliest units formed was in Daugavpils, which German forces reached on June 28, 1941, six days after launching Operation Barbarossa. Roberts Blūzmanis was appointed chief of the Latvian Auxiliary Police in Nazi-occupied Daugavpils.[4] An auxiliary police force was in Riga under Nazi ausipces on July 3, 1941, headed by Latvian captain, Pētersons.

Anti-partisan operation, March 1943.

Organization[edit] Owing to the initiative of the EK (Einsatzkommando), the auxiliary police force consisted of 240 men and had been strictly organized. New men were currently being enlisted. They helped the EK as auxiliary police and were on duty in the 6 police districts established so far. Some members had been assigned to Kriminalpolizei and Sicherheitspolizei work. By July 7 the Latvians arrested 1125 Jews, 32 political prisoners, 85 Russian workers, and 2 women criminals, the greater part during the last days. This is due to the EK backing the Latvians. Actions against the Jews were going on in an ever-increasing number. Conforming to a suggestion of the EK, the Jews were being evacuated by the auxiliary police force from all houses still standing. The apartments were being allocated to non-Jewish inhabitants. The food supply was inadequate as nearly all stocks were destroyed by fire. The arrested Jewish men were shot without ceremony and interred in previously prepared mass graves. 400 Jews were killed during pogroms in Riga, since the arrival of EK 2; 300 by the Latvian auxiliary police. By 1944, the occupation power, with the collaboration of the Self-Administration, had formed a total of 33 auxiliary police battalions.[citation needed] The Arajs Kommando (also: Sonderkommando Arajs), led by SS-Sturmbannführer Viktors Arājs, was a unit of Latvian Auxiliary Police (German: Lettische Hilfspolizei) subordinated to the SD. It is one of the more well-known and notorious killing units during the Holocaust. The central part of Andrew Ezergailis' work details the activities of the Arajs Kommando, the Latvian unit that Brigadeführer Franz Walter Stahlecker organized for the killing of the Jews of Latvia. Numerous Latvian auxiliary police units played a major role in the murdering the Jews.[5] See also[edit]

Estonian Auxiliary Police Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Schutzmannschaft Ukrainian Auxiliary Police

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Michael Mann, The dark side of democracy: explaining ethnic cleansing. Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-521-53854-8. p. 283 ^ Lumens (2006). p266. ^ Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression Volume 1. Chapter XII - The Persecution of the Jews ^ Jacob Gorfinkel, Daugavpils (Dvinsk) Ghetto List – 05-December-1941 ^ Andrew Ezergailis, The Holocaust in Latvia Archived 2009-05-11 at the Wayback Machine.

Bibliography[edit]

Lumans, Valdis O. (2006). Latvia in World War II. Fordham Univ Press. ISBN 978-0-8232-2627-6. 

v t e

Einsatzgruppen and Einsatzkommandos

People

Director

Reinhard Heydrich Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Commanders of Einsatzgruppen

Humbert Achamer-Pifrader Walther Bierkamp Horst Böhme Erich Ehrlinger Wilhelm Fuchs Heinz Jost Erich Naumann Arthur Nebe Otto Ohlendorf Friedrich Panzinger Otto Rasch Heinrich Seetzen Franz Walter Stahlecker Bruno Streckenbach

Commanders of Einsatzkommandos, Sonderkommandos

Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski Rudolf Batz Ernst Biberstein Wolfgang Birkner Helmut Bischoff Paul Blobel Walter Blume Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock Otto Bradfisch Werner Braune Friedrich Buchardt Fritz Dietrich Karl Jäger Friedrich Jeckeln Waldemar Klingelhöfer Wolfgang Kügler Walter Kutschmann Rudolf Lange Gustav Adolf Nosske Hans-Adolf Prützmann Walter Rauff Martin Sandberger Hermann Schaper Karl Eberhard Schöngarth Erwin Schulz Franz Six Eugen Steimle Eduard Strauch Martin Weiss Udo von Woyrsch

Other members

August Becker Lothar Fendler Joachim Hamann Emil Haussmann Felix Landau Albert Widmann

Collaborators

Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs Antanas Impulevičius Konrāds Kalējs Algirdas Klimaitis

Groups

German

SS RSHA SD Orpo 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz Sonderdienst

Non-German

Schutzmannschaft (Belarusian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian) Arajs Kommando Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann TDA Ypatingasis būrys

Crimes

Belarus

Łachwa Ghetto Minsk Ghetto Slutsk Affair

Estonia

Kalevi-Liiva

Latvia

Burning of the Riga synagogues Dünamünde Action Jelgava Pogulianski Rumbula Liepāja (Šķēde)

Lithuania

Ninth Fort Kaunas June 1941 Kaunas 29 October 1941 Ninth Fort November 1941 Ponary

Poland

Operation Tannenberg Intelligenzaktion AB-Aktion Operation Reinhard

Russia

Gully of Petrushino Zmievskaya Balka Lokot Autonomy

Ukraine

Babi Yar Drobytsky Yar Drohobycz Kamianets-Podilskyi Lviv pogroms Mizocz Ghetto Odessa

Records

The Black Book Commissar Order Einsatzgruppen trial Generalplan Ost Jäger Report Korherr Report Special Prosecution Book-Poland (Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen) Einsatzgruppen reports

v t e

The Holocaust in Latvia

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia Ukraine

Crimes

Burning of the Riga synagogues Dünamünde Action Jelgava Pogulianski Rumbula Liepāja (Šķēde)

Victims

Jewish people of Latvia Gypsies Joseph Carlebach Simon Dubnow Else Hirsch

Perpetrators

Alois Brunner Rudolf Batz Fritz Dietrich Otto-Heinrich Drechsler Erich Ehrlinger Karl Jäger Friedrich Jeckeln Heinz Jost Konrāds Kalējs Ernst Kaltenbrunner Wolfgang Kügler Rudolf Lange Hinrich Lohse Friedrich Panzinger Hans-Adolf Prützmann Eduard Roschmann Alfred Rosenberg Martin Sandberger Albert Sauer Rudolf Joachim Seck Franz Walter Stahlecker Eduard Strauch

Nazi occupation and organizations

Einsatzgruppen Reichskommissariat Ostland Rollkommando Hamann

Collaborators

Individuals Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs Kārlis Lobe

Organizations Arajs Kommando Latvian Auxiliary Police Schutzmannschaft

Ghettos and camps

Daugavpils Ghetto Jungfernhof concentration camp Kaiserwald concentration camp Riga Ghetto Salaspils concentration camp

Documentation

Generalplan Ost Jäger Report

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

War crimes investigations and trials

Einsatzgruppen trial Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Righteous Among the Nations

Jānis Lipke Roberts Sedols

Memorials

Bikernieki Memorial

Related articles

The Holocaust Occupation of Latv

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